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Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
(Scottish Gaelic: Diùc Baile Bhòid, Scots: Duik o Rothesay)[1] is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(which also belongs to the eldest living son of the monarch, when and only when he is also heir apparent, by right) and Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(traditionally granted to the heir apparent), which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles
Lord of the Isles
and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

Contents

1 History 2 Lord of the Isles 3 Legal basis 4 Dukes of Rothesay 5 Current holder 6 References

History[edit] David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, the son of Robert III of Scotland, King of Scots, first held the dukedom from its creation in 1398. After his death, his brother James, later King James I, received the dukedom. Thereafter, the heir-apparent to the Scottish Crown held the dukedom; an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 1469 confirmed this pattern of succession. The Earldom of Carrick existed as early as the twelfth century. In 1306, Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, became King Robert I of Scotland, with the earldom merging in the Crown. In the following years, successive Kings of Scots created several heirs-apparent Earl of Carrick. The Act of 1469 finally settled the earldom on the eldest son of the Scottish monarch. The office of the Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(also called High Steward or Lord High Steward) dates back to its first holder, Walter fitz Alan, in the twelfth century. The seventh Great Steward, Robert, ascended the Scots throne as Robert II in 1371. Thereafter, only the heirs-apparent to the Crown held the office. The 1469 Act also deals with this. Between the 1603 Union and Edward VII's time as heir apparent, the style "Duke of Rothesay" appears to have dropped out of usage in favour of "Prince of Wales". It was Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
who mandated the title for use to refer to the eldest son and heir apparent when in Scotland, and this usage has continued since. This may have been as a result, direct or indirect, of the 1822 visit of King George IV to Scotland. Lord of the Isles[edit]

Prince of Rothesay tartan, from the Vestiarium Scoticum.

Another of the non-peerage titles belonging to the heir-apparent, that of Lord of the Isles, merits special mention. The Lords of the Isles, of the MacDonald family, originally functioned as vassals of the Scottish, or Norwegian, kings who ruled the Western Isles. The ambitious John MacDonald II, fourth Lord of the Isles, made a secret treaty in 1462 with King Edward IV of England, by which he sought to make himself an independent ruler. In 1475, James III discovered the Lord of the Isles' actions, and the Lordship became subject to forfeiture. MacDonald later regained his position, but James IV again deprived him of his titles in 1493 after his nephew provoked a rebellion. In 1540 James V of Scotland
Scotland
granted the Lordship to the heirs apparent to the Crown. Legal basis[edit] An Act of the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
passed in 1469 governs the succession to most of these titles. It provides that "the first-born Prince of the King of Scots
King of Scots
for ever" should hold the dukedom. If the first-born Prince dies before the King, the title is not inherited by his heir – it is only for the first-born son, like the Duchy of Cornwall
Cornwall
— nor is either inherited by the deceased duke's next brother, unless that brother also becomes heir-apparent. Though the Act specified "King," eldest sons of queens regnant subsequently also held the dukedom. The interpretation of the word "Prince", however, does not include women. The eldest son of the British Sovereign, as Duke of Rothesay, had the right to vote in elections for representative peers from 1707. (The 1707 Acts of Union between the Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
and Parliament of England
Parliament of England
formally unified both kingdoms to create the Kingdom of Great Britain). This right continued until 1963, when the UK Parliament
UK Parliament
abolished the election of representative peers. Dukes of Rothesay[edit] Holders of the Dukedom of Rothesay, with the processes by which they became Dukes of Rothesay and by which they ceased to hold the title:

Duke of Rothesay Parent From To Other title held while Duke

David Stewart Robert III 1398 (created) 1402 (death) Earl of Atholl
Earl of Atholl
(1398), Baron Renfrew (?), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(trad.)

James Stewart Robert III 1404 (created) 1406 (acceded as James I) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
(1404)

Alexander Stewart James I 1430 (birth?) 1430 (death)

James Stewart James I 1431 (created) 1437 (acceded as James II)

James Stewart James II 1452 (birth?) 1460 (acceded as James III)

James Stewart James III 1473 (birth) 1488 (acceded as James IV) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

James Stewart James IV 1507 (birth) 1508 (death) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

Arthur Stewart James IV 1509 (birth) 1510 (death) Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(1509), Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

James Stewart James IV 1512 (birth) 1513 (acceded as James V) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

James Stewart James V 1540 (birth) 1541 (death) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

James Stuart Mary I 1566 (birth) 1567 (acceded as James VI) Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron/Lord Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469)

Henry Frederick James VI 1594 (birth) 1612 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1610), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick
and Baron Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles
Lord of the Isles
(1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
Scotland
(1469) (The italicised henceforth "Earl of Carrick, etc. 1469 & 1540)"

Charles, 1st Duke of York, 1st Duke of Albany James VI 1612 (death of brother Henry) 1625 (acceded as Charles I) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1616), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(1600), Duke of York
Duke of York
(1605), Marquess of Ormond
Marquess of Ormond
(1600), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch (1600)

Prince Charles
Prince Charles
James Charles I 1629 (birth) 1629 (death) Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Charles Charles I 1630 (birth) 1649 (acceded as Charles II) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1638), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

James Francis Edward James VII 1688 (birth) 1702 (attainted) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1688–1702), Duke of Cornwall (1337–1702), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

George, 1st Duke of Cambridge George I 1714 (father's accession) 1727 (acceded as George II) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1714), Hereditary Prince of Hanover, Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Duke of Cambridge, Marquess of Cambridge
Cambridge
(1706), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury (1706)

Frederick, 1st Duke of Edinburgh George II 1727 (father's accession) 1751 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1729), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of Ely (1726), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1726)

George George III 1762 (birth) 1820 (acceded as George IV) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1762), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Albert Edward Victoria 1841 (birth) 1901 (acceded as Edward VII) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1841), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Dublin (1850)

George, 1st Duke of York Edward VII 1901 (father's accession) 1910 (acceded as George V) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1901), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Duke of York
Duke of York
(1892), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Inverness, Baron Killarney (1892)

Edward George V 1910 (father's accession) 1936 (acceded as Edward VIII) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1910), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Charles Elizabeth II 1952 (mother's accession) Current Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1958), Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall
(1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Current holder[edit] Since 1952 Charles, Prince of Wales, has held the title of Duke of Rothesay, and uses it when in Scotland. He has the formal Scottish style of HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay. The personal arms of the current Duke were bestowed upon him in 1974 by HM The Queen. The escutcheon features on the 1st and 4th quarters the arms of the Great Steward of Scotland, with the 2nd and 3rd quarters featuring the arms of the Lord of the Isles.[citation needed] The arms of current Duke are distinguished from those of Clan Stewart of Appin through the addition of an inescutcheon displaying the arms of the heir apparent to the King of Scots, namely the Royal arms of Scotland
Scotland
with a three-point label. The full achievement of the current Duke's arms are a variation of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland
Scotland
used prior to the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603.

The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay

Standard of the Duke of Rothesay

Personal shield of Prince Charles
Prince Charles
as Duke of Rothesay

Personal banner of Prince Charles
Prince Charles
as used in Scotland

References[edit]

^ Robert Lindsay. J.G. Dalyell, ed. "The Cronicles of Scotland". Books.google.ie. p. 638. Retrieved 2016-07-29. 

v t e

Dukes of Rothesay

David (1398–1402) James (1402–1406) Alexander (1430) James (1430–1437) James (1452–1460) James (1473–1488) James (1507–1508) Arthur (1509–1510) James (1512–1513) James (1540–1541) James (1566–1567) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles James (1629) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1689) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present)

v t e

British royal titles

Monarch

King/Queen of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(consort), Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
& Duke of Normandy

Heir

Wales

Prince and Princess

Cornwall

Duke and Duchess

Rothesay

Duke and Duchess

Current titles

Edinburgh

Duke and Duchess

Cambridge

Duke and Duchess

York

Duke and Duchess

Gloucester

Duke

Kent

Duke

Wessex

Earl

Princess Royal

Princess Royal

Vacant titles

Clarence

Duke

Connaught
Connaught
and Strathearn

Duke ( Connaught
Connaught
is not part of the United Kingdom, Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kendal

Duke

Ross

Duke

Sussex

Duke

Windsor

Duke

Former titles

Albany

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Albemarle

Duke (Currently an Earldom held by the Keppel family)

Clarence and Avondale

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Clarence and St Andrews

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Cumberland

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Strathearn

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Teviotdale

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Exeter

Duke (Currently a Marquessate held by the Cecil family)

Gloucester
Gloucester
and Edinburgh

Duke (Currently both are separate Dukedoms)

Hereford

Duke (Currently a Viscountcy held by the Devereux family)

Kent
Kent
and Strathearn

Duke ( Kent
Kent
is currently a separate Dukedom) ( Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an Earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kintyre
Kintyre
and Lorne

Duke (Currently both are Marquessate titles to the Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll
held by the Campbell family)

York
York
and Albany

Duke ( York
York
is currently a separate Dukedom, but Albany is Suspended)

Former titles Non-Royal Dukedoms

Bedford

Duke (Russell family)

Lennox

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Norfolk

Duke (Fitzalan-Howard family)

Richmond

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Somerset

Duke (Seymour family)

v t e

Extant dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*

Cornwall Norfolk Somerset Richmond Grafton Beaufort St Albans Bedford Devonshire Marlborough Rutland Rothesay Hamilton Buccleuch Lennox Queensberry Argyll Atholl Montrose Roxburghe Brandon Manchester Northumberland Leinster Wellington Sutherland Abercorn Westminster Gordon Fife Gloucester Kent Edinburgh York Cambridge

* Listed by precedence, from highest to lowest Dukedoms in italics are held by members of the Royal Family.

v t e

Charles, Prince of Wales

Titles

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay Earl of Carrick Baron of Renfrew Lord of the Isles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland more

Ancestry

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Mountbatten-Windsor

Family

Diana, Princess of Wales
Wales
(former wife) Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Duke of Cambridge
(elder son) Prince Harry
Prince Harry
(younger son) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Cornwall
(current wife) Prince George of Cambridge
Cambridge
(grandson) Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Cambridge
(granddaughter) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
(father) Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(mother) Princess Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Royal
(sister) Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Duke of York
(brother) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Wessex
(brother)

Extended family

Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
(paternal grandfather) Princess Alice of Battenberg
Princess Alice of Battenberg
(paternal grandmother) King George VI
George VI
(maternal grandfather) Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (maternal grandmother) Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (paternal aunt) Theodora, Margravine of Baden (paternal aunt) Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse (paternal aunt) Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover (paternal aunt) Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (maternal aunt)

Life events

Investiture of the Prince of Wales First wedding (guest list) Second wedding

Charities and campaigns

The Prince's Trust Mutton Renaissance Campaign The Prince's Charities/ The Prince's Charities
The Prince's Charities
Canada/The Prince's Charities Australia

Residences

Clarence House
Clarence House
(official) Highgrove House
Highgrove House
(family) Birkhall Llwynywermod

Awards given and created

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership List of environmental/social interest awards received The Sun Military Awards

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Black spider memos Coronet Duchy Home Farm Duchy Originals from Waitrose Dumfries House Poundbury The Prince's May Day Network Prince Charles
Prince Charles
Island Prince Charles
Prince Charles
stream tree frog The Prince of Wales's Charitable Foundation King Charles III (play, film)

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