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The Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
is an ancient title which is informally used within Lancaster to describe Elizabeth II, the monarch of the United Kingdom and owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Duchy of Lancaster exists as a separate entity from the Crown Estate and currently provides income for the British monarch.[1] There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th centuries. There were three creations of the Dukedom of Lancaster. The first creation was on 6 March 1351, for Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl of Lancaster, a great-grandson of Henry III; he was also 4th Earl of Leicester, 1st Earl of Derby, 1st Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln
and Lord of Bowland. He died in 1361 and the peerage expired. The second creation was on 13 November 1362, for John of Gaunt, 1st Earl of Richmond,[2] who was both the 1st Duke's son-in-law and also fourth son of King Edward III. John had married Blanche of Lancaster, 6th Countess of Lancaster, daughter of Henry Grosmont and heiress to his estates. When John of Gaunt, the 1st Duke of this creation died on 4 February 1399, the Dukedom passed to his son, Henry of Bolingbroke, 1st Duke of Hereford. Later that same year, the new 2nd Duke usurped the throne of England from Richard II, ascending the throne as Henry IV, at which point the Dukedom merged in the crown (i.e. becomes vested with the crown). The third creation was on 10 November 1399, for Henry of Monmouth, Prince of Wales, eldest son of the new king. In 1413, the 1st Duke ascended the throne as King Henry V, and the Dukedom merged in the crown again, where it has remained ever since. It is customary at formal dinners in the historic county boundaries of Lancashire and in Lancastrian regiments of the armed forces for the Loyal Toast to the crown to be announced as "The Queen, Duke of Lancaster." In addition, in Lancaster it was quite common as late as the second half of the twentieth century to hear the national anthem sung as "God save our gracious Queen, long live our noble Duke," but this is a tradition that has no constitutional warrant, and the British monarch is not styled legally so within either the County Palatine of Lancashire nor the Duchy of Lancaster
Duchy of Lancaster
in any official capacity (for example, Letters Patent
Letters Patent
or Acts of Parliament), merely as a sign of local, 'Lancastrian' loyalty.

Contents

1 Dukes of Lancaster, first Creation (1351) 2 Dukes of Lancaster, second Creation (1362) 3 Dukes of Lancaster, third Creation (1399) 4 Family tree 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Dukes of Lancaster, first Creation (1351)[edit]

also Earl of Derby
Earl of Derby
(1337), Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester
(1345), Earl of Lancaster (1345), Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln
(1349), Earl of Moray
Earl of Moray
(1359), Lord of Beaufort and Nogent (1345)

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
(1306–1361) died without male issue

Dukes of Lancaster, second Creation (1362)[edit]

also Duke of Aquitaine (1390), Earl of Richmond
Earl of Richmond
(1342–1372), Earl of Leicester, Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Baron of Halton (1361)

John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
(1340–1399), son-in-law of Grosmont, father of the 2nd duke Henry (of) Bolingbroke, 1st Duke of Hereford, 2nd Duke of Lancaster (1367–1413) seized the throne as Henry IV in 1399, at which point all his peerages merged into the crown

2nd Duke: also Duke of Hereford (1397), Earl of Northampton (1337)

Dukes of Lancaster, third Creation (1399)[edit]

also Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1399), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Aquitaine (1390)

Henry of Monmouth, Prince of Wales, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1386–1422), eldest son of Bolingbroke, acceded the throne as Henry V in 1413, at which point all his peerages merged into the crown

Family tree[edit]

Family tree: Earls and Dukes of Lancaster

King Henry III (1207–r.1216–1272)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EARL OF LANCASTER, 1267

King Edward I (1239–r.1272–1307)

 

 

 

 

Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward II (1284–r.1307–1327)

 

 

Thomas of Lancaster, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (1278–1322)

 

Henry of Lancaster, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281–1345)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1351

King Edward III (1312–r.1327–1377)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl, 1st Duke of Lancaster (c.1310–1361)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1362

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John of Gaunt, 5th Earl, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1340–1399)

 

Blanche of Lancaster (1345–1368)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Bolingbroke, 6th Earl, 2nd Duke of Lancaster King Henry IV (1367–r.1399–1413)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1399

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Lancaster King Henry V (1386–r.1413–1422)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Henry VI (1421–1471, r.1422–61, 1470–71)

See also[edit]

Earl of Lancaster

References[edit]

^ "Duchy of Lancaster". Duchy of Lancaster. Retrieved 15 December 2016.  ^ "Duchy of Lancaster". Lancaster Castle. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 

External links[edit]

"Of the Countries Subject to the Laws of England," from Commentaries on the Laws of England, Introduction, chapter 4, by Sir William Blackstone, 1765 (see text following footnote 72)

v t e

Dukes of Lancaster

HM The Queen

Henry of Grosmont (1351–1361) John of Gaunt (1362–1399) Henry IV (1399) Henry V (1399–1413 – merged in crown)

v t e

British royal titles

Monarch

King/Queen of United Kingdom (consort), Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
& Duke of Normandy

Heir

Wales

Prince and Princess

Cornwall

Duke and Duchess

Rothesay

Duke and Duchess

Current titles

Edinburgh

Duke and Duchess

Cambridge

Duke and Duchess

York

Duke and Duchess

Gloucester

Duke

Kent

Duke

Wessex

Earl

Princess Royal

Princess Royal

Vacant titles

Clarence

Duke

Connaught
Connaught
and Strathearn

Duke ( Connaught
Connaught
is not part of the United Kingdom, Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kendal

Duke

Ross

Duke

Sussex

Duke

Windsor

Duke

Former titles

Albany

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Albemarle

Duke (Currently an Earldom held by the Keppel family)

Clarence and Avondale

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Clarence and St Andrews

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Cumberland

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Strathearn

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Teviotdale

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Exeter

Duke (Currently a Marquessate held by the Cecil family)

Gloucester
Gloucester
and Edinburgh

Duke (Currently both are separate Dukedoms)

Hereford

Duke (Currently a Viscountcy held by the Devereux family)

Kent
Kent
and Strathearn

Duke ( Kent
Kent
is currently a separate Dukedom) ( Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an Earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kintyre
Kintyre
and Lorne

Duke (Currently both are Marquessate titles to the Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll
held by the Campbell family)

York
York
and Albany

Duke ( York
York
is currently a separate Dukedom, but Albany is Suspended)

Former titles Non-Royal Dukedoms

Bedford

Duke (Russell family)

Lennox

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Norfolk

Duke (Fitzalan-Howard family)

Richmond

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Somerset

Duke (Seymour family)

v t e

Duchy of Lancaster

Offices

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

List

Lord Lieutenant

Lancashire Greater Manchester Merseyside

High Sheriff

Lancashire Greater Manchester Merseyside

Major holdings

Lancashire Survey

Lancaster Castle Myerscough Salwick Whitewell Winmarleigh

Yorkshire Survey

Cloughton Goathland Pickering Pontefract

Crewe
Crewe
and South Survey

Bolingbroke Castle Castleton

Peveril Castle

Crewe Higham Ferrers Ogmore

Needwood Survey

Tutbury Castle

Urban Survey

Savoy

.