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Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch. The Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
was the first duchy created in England and was established by royal charter in 1337. The present duke is the Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. His wife, Camilla, is the current Duchess.

Contents

1 History 2 Succession 3 The current Duke of Cornwall 4 Rights of the duke 5 Arms 6 Dukes of Cornwall, 1337 creation 7 Dukes of Cornwall, 1376 creation 8 Dukes of Cornwall, 1460 creation 9 Jacobite Duke 10 See also 11 Notes 12 External links

History[edit] Some folkloric histories of the British Isles, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136), claim that the first leader of Cornwall
Cornwall
was Corineus, a Trojan warrior and ally of Brutus of Troy, the original settler of the British Isles. From this earliest period through the Arthurian period, the legendary Dukes of Cornwall
Cornwall
were semi-autonomous if not independent from the High-King or ruler of Britain, while also serving as his closest ally and, at times, as his protector.[citation needed] According to legend, Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
under King Uther Pendragon, rebelled against the latter's rule when the king became obsessed with Gorlois' wife Igraine. Uther killed Gorlois and took Igraine: the result of their union was the future King Arthur. The historical record suggests that, following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Cornwall
Cornwall
formed part of the separate Kingdom of Dumnonia, which included Devon, although there is evidence that it may have had its own rulers at times. The southwest of Britain was gradually incorporated into the emerging Kingdom of England, and after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
in 1066 the new rulers of England appointed their own men as Earl of Cornwall, the first of whom was in fact a Breton of 'Cornwall' in Brittany. Edward, the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III, was made the first Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
in 1337, after Edward III had lost the title of Duke of Normandy.[1] After Edward predeceased the King, the duchy was recreated for his son, the future Richard II. Under a charter of 1421, the duchy passes to the sovereign's eldest son. Cornwall
Cornwall
was the first dukedom conferred within the Kingdom of England.[2] Succession[edit] The dukedom of Cornwall
Cornwall
can only be held by the oldest living son of the monarch who is also heir apparent. In the event of a Duke of Cornwall's death, the title merges in the Crown even if he left surviving descendants (see George III of the United Kingdom). The monarch's grandson, even if he is the heir apparent, does not succeed to the dukedom. Similarly, no female may ever be Duke of Cornwall, even if she is heir presumptive or heir apparent (that being a distinct and even likely possibility in the future after the passage of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013) to the throne. However, if a Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
should die without descendants and has no elder sister, his next brother obtains the duchy, this brother being both oldest living son and heir apparent. It is possible for an individual to be Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and heir apparent without being Duke of Cornwall. The title "Prince of Wales" is the traditional title of the heir apparent to the throne, granted at the discretion of the Sovereign,[3] and is not restricted to the eldest son. For example, King George II's heir apparent, the future George III, was Prince of Wales, but not Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
(because he was the King's grandson, not the King's son). When the Sovereign has no legitimate son, the estates of the Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
revert to the Crown until a legitimate son is born to the Sovereign or until the accession of a new Sovereign who has a son (e.g. between 1547 and 1603) (see more below). James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, was born Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
in 1688. Although his father lost the throne, James Francis Edward was not deprived of his own honours. On a Jacobite perspective, on his father's death in 1701 the duchy of Cornwall
Cornwall
was merged in the Crown. On a Hanoverian perspective, it was as a result of his claiming his father's lost thrones that James was attainted for treason on 2 March 1702, and his titles were thus forfeited under English law.[2] The current Duke of Cornwall[edit] The current Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
is Charles, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch. Charles was officially proclaimed Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
at Launceston Castle
Launceston Castle
in 1973. As part of his feudal dues there was a pair of white gloves, gilt spurs and greyhounds, a pound of pepper and cumin, a bow, one hundred silver shillings, wood for his fires, and a salmon spear. The Duke's second wife, Camilla, whom he married on 9 April 2005 at the Guildhall in Windsor, is the current Duchess of Cornwall. She is also Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
but does not use that title.[4] Rights of the duke[edit] Main article: Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy includes over 570 square kilometres of land, more than half of which lies in Devon. The Duke has some rights[clarification needed] over the territory of Cornwall, the county, and for this and other reasons there is debate as to the constitutional status of Cornwall. The High Sheriff
High Sheriff
of Cornwall
Cornwall
is appointed by the Duke, not the monarch, in contrast to the other counties of England and Wales. The Duke has the right to the estates of all those who die without named heirs (bona vacantia) in the whole of Cornwall. In 2013, the Duchy had a revenue surplus of £19 million, a sum that was exempt from income tax, though the Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
chose to pay the tax voluntarily.[5] Until 2011, if there was no Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
at any time, then the income of the Duchy went to the Crown. Since the passing into law of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011, revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
pass to the heir to the throne, regardless of whether that heir is the Duke of Cornwall. In the event that the heir is a minor, 10% of the revenues pass to the heir, with the balance passing to the Crown (and the Sovereign Grant is reduced by the same amount).[6] Arms[edit]

Banner of the Duke of Cornwall

The Arms of the Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
are sable, fifteen bezants, that is, a black field bearing fifteen golden discs. The arms are now used as a badge by the Prince of Wales, and they appear below the shield in his coat of arms, along with his other badges. The arms were adopted late in the 15th century, based on the arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. The bezants in Richard's arms were intended to represent peas, known in French as pois, as a punning reference to the French region of Poitou, of which he was count.[7] The arms are sometimes shown surmounted by the Prince of Wales' coronet, which consists of four crosses patée and four fleurs-de-lis with an arch. The crest is a Cornish chough, and Cornish choughs holding ostrich feathers are found as supporters. The motto used with the arm is Houmout, meaning "high-spirited", the personal motto of the Black Prince. Dukes of Cornwall, 1337 creation[edit] All Dukes of Cornwall
Cornwall
who have been the eldest living son of the sovereign are generally considered to have held the same creation of the dukedom. The following is a table of these Dukes of Cornwall, with the processes by which they became duke and by which they ceased to hold the title:

Duke of Cornwall Parent From To Other title held while Duke

Edward of Woodstock, "The Black Prince" Edward III 1337 (Parliament) 1376 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(1343), Prince of Aquitaine (1362–1372), Earl of Chester (1333)

Henry of Monmouth Henry IV 1399 (Parliament) 1413 (acceded as Henry V) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1399), Duke of Aquitaine (1390), Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
(1399)

Henry Henry V 1421 (birth) 1422 (acceded as Henry VI) Duke of Aquitaine (1390)

Edward of Westminster Henry VI 1454 (charter) 1471 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1454)

Edward Edward IV 1471 (charter) 1483 (acceded as Edward V) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1471), Earl of March
Earl of March
(1479), Earl of Pembroke (1479)

Edward of Middleham, 1st Earl of Salisbury Richard III 1483 (father's accession) 1484 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1483), Earl of Salisbury
Earl of Salisbury
(1478)

Arthur Henry VII 1486 (birth) 1502 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1489)

Henry, 1st Duke of York Henry VII 1502 (death of brother Arthur) 1509 (acceded as Henry VIII) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1504), Duke of York
Duke of York
(1494–1504)

Henry Henry VIII 1511 (birth) 1511 (death)

Henry Henry VIII 1514 (birth) 1514 (death)

Edward Tudor Henry VIII 1537 (birth) 1547 (acceded as Edward VI) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1537)

Henry Frederick James I 1603 (father's accession) 1612 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1610), Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles
Lord of the Isles
(1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469) (The italicised henceforth "Duke of Rothesay, etc (1469 & 1540)")

Prince Charles, 1st Duke of York, 1st Duke of Albany James I 1612 (death of brother Henry) 1625 (acceded as Charles I) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1616), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540), Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(1600), Duke of York
Duke of York
(1605), Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch (1600)

Prince Charles James Charles I 1629 (birth) 1629 (death) Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Prince Charles Charles I 1630 (birth) 1649 (acceded as Charles II) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1638), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Prince James Francis Edward James II 1688 (birth) 1702 (attainted) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1688–1702), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469–1702 & 1540–1702)

Prince George, 1st Duke of Cambridge George I 1714 (father's accession) 1727 (acceded as George II) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1714), Hereditary Prince of Hanover, Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540), Duke of Cambridge, Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury (1706)

Prince Frederick, 1st Duke of Edinburgh George II 1727 (father's accession) 1751 (death) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1729), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540), Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1726)

Prince George George III 1762 (birth) 1820 (acceded as George IV) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1762), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Prince Albert Edward Victoria 1841 (birth) 1901 (acceded as Edward VII) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1841), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Dublin (1850)

Prince George, 1st Duke of York Edward VII 1901 (father's accession) 1910 (acceded as George V) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1901), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540), Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, Baron Killarney (1892)

Prince Edward George V 1910 (father's accession) 1936 (acceded as Edward VIII) Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1910), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Prince Charles Elizabeth II 1952 (mother's accession) Current Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1958), Duke of Rothesay, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Additional details appear in Cokayne, George Edward, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, A. Sutton, Gloucester, 1982. [orig. 13 volumes, published by The St. Catherine Press Ltd, London, England from 1910–1959; reprinted in microprint: 13 vol. in 6, Gloucester: A. Sutton, 1982] Dukes of Cornwall, 1376 creation[edit] When his heir apparent Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
predeceased him, Edward III granted Woodstock's son Richard a new creation of the title Duke of Cornwall. When Richard acceded the throne as Richard II in 1377, this creation merged to the crown.

also Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1376)

Richard of Bordeaux, Prince of Wales, 1st Duke of Cornwall (1367–1400)

Dukes of Cornwall, 1460 creation[edit] When Richard Duke of York
Duke of York
pressed his claim to the throne, he was made heir apparent to Henry VI by the Act of Accord. On 31 October 1460, he was made Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
and Lord Protector of England
Lord Protector of England
by act of parliament. Since he was not the eldest living son of the monarch, this creation was outside the terms of the 1337 warrant; York
York
died in battle on 30 December 1460.

also Lord Protector of England, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester (1460, see Act of Accord); Duke of York
Duke of York
(1385), Earl of Ulster
Earl of Ulster
(1264), Earl of March
Earl of March
(1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)

Richard of York, Lord Protector of England, Prince of Wales, 1st Duke of Cornwall, 3rd Duke of York, 1st Earl of Chester
Earl of Chester
(1411–1460)

Jacobite Duke[edit] "Charles Edward Lewis Philip Casimir (Stuart), Prince of England and Scotland, Duke of Cornwall
Cornwall
[E] and Rothesay [S], eldest son and heir-apparent of King James III and VIII, was born in Rome 31 December 1720, and was created or declared shortly after his birth Prince of Wales, and (by consequence?) Earl of Chester. K.G. and K.T. before 1745. On 1 January 1766 he succeeded his father as de jure King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland. He died s.p.l. 31 January 1788."[8] See also[edit]

Cornish Foreshore Case, a 19th-century arbitration about the ownership of minerals and mines under the foreshore of Cornwall Duchy Originals, the Duchy's organic produce brand Duke of Rothesay List of topics related to Cornwall

Notes[edit]

^ Blackstone, William (1765-1769) Commentaries on the Laws of England, book 1 chapter 12 ^ a b Complete Peerage: 'Duke of Cornwall' ^ The heir apparent is not automatically Prince of Wales ^ "House of Commons". parliament.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ U.K. Lawmakers Go After Tax Affairs of the Royal Family — Wall Street Journal ^ UK Government website ^ Planché, James (1859). The Pursuivant of Arms; or, Heraldry Founded on Facts. p. 136.  ^ Ruvigny and Raineval, Marquis of, Melville Amadeus Henry Douglas Heddle de La Caillemotte de Massue de Ruvigny (1904). The Jacobite peerage, baronetage, knightage and grants of honour. Edinburgh: T.C. and E.C. Jack. p. 31. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 

External links[edit]

The Duchy of Cornwall
Duchy of Cornwall
at The Prince of Wales's website Guardian Unlimited article Celtic Frontier or County Boundary? Competing discourses of a late nineteenth century British border link dead The charter of 1337

v t e

Dukes of Cornwall

Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Henry (1513) Henry (1515) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present)

Cornwall
Cornwall
Portal

v t e

British royal titles

Monarch

King/Queen of United Kingdom (consort), Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
& Duke of Normandy

Heir

Wales

Prince and Princess

Cornwall

Duke and Duchess

Rothesay

Duke and Duchess

Current titles

Edinburgh

Duke and Duchess

Cambridge

Duke and Duchess

York

Duke and Duchess

Gloucester

Duke

Kent

Duke

Wessex

Earl

Princess Royal

Princess Royal

Vacant titles

Clarence

Duke

Connaught
Connaught
and Strathearn

Duke ( Connaught
Connaught
is not part of the United Kingdom, Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kendal

Duke

Ross

Duke

Sussex

Duke

Windsor

Duke

Former titles

Albany

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Albemarle

Duke (Currently an Earldom held by the Keppel family)

Clarence and Avondale

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Clarence and St Andrews

Duke (Clarence is Vacant)

Cumberland

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Strathearn

Duke ( Cumberland
Cumberland
is Suspended)

Cumberland
Cumberland
and Teviotdale

Duke (Suspended by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917)

Exeter

Duke (Currently a Marquessate held by the Cecil family)

Gloucester
Gloucester
and Edinburgh

Duke (Currently both are separate Dukedoms)

Hereford

Duke (Currently a Viscountcy held by the Devereux family)

Kent
Kent
and Strathearn

Duke ( Kent
Kent
is currently a separate Dukedom) ( Strathearn
Strathearn
is currently an Earldom held by the Duke of Cambridge)

Kintyre
Kintyre
and Lorne

Duke (Currently both are Marquessate titles to the Duke of Argyll
Duke of Argyll
held by the Campbell family)

York
York
and Albany

Duke ( York
York
is currently a separate Dukedom, but Albany is Suspended)

Former titles Non-Royal Dukedoms

Bedford

Duke (Russell family)

Lennox

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Norfolk

Duke (Fitzalan-Howard family)

Richmond

Duke (Lennox family, held by the Duke of Gordon)

Somerset

Duke (Seymour family)

v t e

Extant dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland*

Cornwall Norfolk Somerset Richmond Grafton Beaufort St Albans Bedford Devonshire Marlborough Rutland Rothesay Hamilton Buccleuch Lennox Queensberry Argyll Atholl Montrose Roxburghe Brandon Manchester Northumberland Leinster Wellington Sutherland Abercorn Westminster Gordon Fife Gloucester Kent Edinburgh York Cambridge

* Listed by precedence, from highest to lowest Dukedoms in italics are held by members of the Royal Family.

v t e

Charles, Prince of Wales

Titles

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Earl of Chester Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay Earl of Carrick Baron of Renfrew Lord of the Isles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland more

Ancestry

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Mountbatten-Windsor

Family

Diana, Princess of Wales
Princess of Wales
(former wife) Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(elder son) Prince Harry
Prince Harry
(younger son) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
(current wife) Prince George of Cambridge
Cambridge
(grandson) Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Cambridge
(granddaughter) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
(father) Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
(mother) Princess Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Royal
(sister) Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Duke of York
(brother) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Wessex
(brother)

Extended family

Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
(paternal grandfather) Princess Alice of Battenberg
Princess Alice of Battenberg
(paternal grandmother) King George VI
George VI
(maternal grandfather) Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (maternal grandmother) Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (paternal aunt) Theodora, Margravine of Baden (paternal aunt) Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse (paternal aunt) Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover (paternal aunt) Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (maternal aunt)

Life events

Investiture of the Prince of Wales First wedding (guest list) Second wedding

Charities and campaigns

The Prince's Trust Mutton Renaissance Campaign The Prince's Charities/ The Prince's Charities
The Prince's Charities
Canada/The Prince's Charities Australia

Residences

Clarence House
Clarence House
(official) Highgrove House
Highgrove House
(family) Birkhall Llwynywermod

Awards given and created

Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership List of environmental/social interest awards received The Sun Military Awards

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Black spider memos Coronet Duchy Home Farm Duchy Originals from Waitrose Dumfries House Poundbury The Prince's May Day Network Prince Charles Island Prince Charles stream tree frog The Prince of Wales's Charitable Foundation King Charles III (play, film)

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