The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949, Bavaria has been a democratic state in the Federal Republic of Germany.


1 Rulers of Bavaria

1.1 Ducal Bavaria (Old Stem duchy)

1.1.1 Agilolfing Dynasty

1.2 Carolingian Dynasty and Dominion from the Holy Roman Empire 1.3 Ducal Bavaria (Appointed dukes)

1.3.1 Luitpolding dynasty, 911–947 1.3.2 German kings, 947–1070 1.3.3 Houses of Welf and Babenberg, 1070–1180

1.4 Ducal Bavaria (Hereditary dukes)

1.4.1 First partition, 1253–1340 1.4.2 Second partition 1349–1503

1.5 House of Wittelsbach

1.5.1 Partitions of Bavaria under Wittelsbach rule 1.5.2 Table of rulers

1.6 Electorate of Bavaria 1.7 Kingdom of Bavaria 1.8 Post-monarchy

2 References 3 External links

Rulers of Bavaria[edit] Ducal Bavaria (Old Stem duchy)[edit] Agilolfing Dynasty[edit] Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke — possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families — who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke we know of, and likely the first, was Gariwald, or Garibald I, a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes that was to last until 788.

Name Image Title Start term End term Part Note

Garibald I

Duke of Bavaria 555 (c.) 591

Some sources call him "King of the Bavarians".[1]

Tassilo I

Duke of Bavaria 591 (c.) 610

Named rex (king) at his ascension.

Garibald II

Duke of Bavaria 610 (c.) 630


Duke of Bavaria 680 (c.) 716 (?)

By the time of Theodo, who died in 716 or 717, the Bavarian duchy had achieved complete independence from the Frankish kings. Theodo's sons divided the duchy, but by 719 the rule had returned to Grimoald.


Duke 702 (c.) 719 Salzburg Son of Theodo.


Duke 711 (c.) 719 Parts of Bavaria Son of Theodo.

Tassilo II

Duke 716 (c.) 719 Passau Son of Theodo.


Duke 716 (c.) 725 Freising Son of Theodo, later ruling all of Bavaria.


Duke 725 737

Son of Theudbert. In 725(?), Charles Martel, ruler in fact though not in name of the Frankish realm, reasserted royal supremacy over Bavaria, defeating and killing Grimoald and annexing portions of Bavaria during the rule of Hugbert.


737 748

Son of Gotfrid.


748 748

Carolingian Usurper.

Tassilo III

Duke of Bavaria 748 788

In 757 Tassilo III recognized the suzerainty of the Frankish kings Pippin III and did homage to Charlemagne in 781, and again in 787, while pursued an independent policy. In 788, Charlemagne had Tassilo sentenced to death on a charge of treason. Tassilo, granted pardon, entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt am Main in 794.

Carolingian Dynasty and Dominion from the Holy Roman Empire[edit] The Kings (later Emperors) of the Franks now assumed complete control, placing Bavaria under the rule of non-hereditary governors and civil servants. They were not Dukes but rather Kings of Bavaria. The Emperor Louis the Pious divided control of the Empire among his sons, and the divisions became permanent in the decades following his death in 840. The Frankish rulers controlled Bavaria as part of their possessions.

Name Image Title Start term End term Part Note


Emperor 788 794

Gerold of Vinzgouw

Prefect of Bavaria 794 799 Udalriching Udalriching interregnum. Appointed Baioariæ præfectus by Charlemagne. Died in battle.


Emperor 794 814

Lothair I

Emperor 814 817

Louis I the Pious

Emperor 817 829

In 817, Louis bestowed Bavaria upon his then-youngest son, Louis the German.

Louis II the German

King of Bavaria 817 865

Louis was to rule as King of Bavaria, subordinate to his father, until the latter's death in 840. From 843, Bavaria was merged in Louis the German's Kingdom of East Francia. In 864, Louis the German gave control of Bavaria to his son Carloman, and died in 876. Louis' two younger sons, Louis and Charles — the latter of whom briefly recovered control of all the Frankish possessions — ruled Bavaria in succession after Carloman.


King of Bavaria 864 880

Eldest son of Louis the German.

Louis III the Younger

King of Bavaria 880 882

Son of Louis the German.

Charles the Fat

King of Bavaria 882 887

Youngest son of Louis the German. Carloman's bastard son, Arnulf of Carinthia, rebelled against Charles and took power in eastern Francia shortly before Charles' death.

Arnulf of Carinthia

King of Bavaria 887 899

Son of Carloman.

Louis IV the Child

King of Bavaria 899 911

Son of Arnulf of Carinthia.


Margrave of Bavaria 890 895

Non-dynastic. Deprived of his title marchio Baioariorum and replaced by Luitpold.

Ducal Bavaria (Appointed dukes)[edit] Luitpolding dynasty, 911–947[edit]

  Luitpolding dynasty

Luitpold, founder of the Luitpolding dynasty, was not a Duke of Bavaria but a Margrave of Carinthia under the rule of Louis the Child. Frankish power had waned in the region due to Hungarian attacks, allowing the local rulers greater independence. Luitpold's son, Arnulf, claimed the title of Duke (implying full autonomy) in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler in 920. German kings, 947–1070[edit]

  Ottonian dynasty   Salian dynasty

From 947 until the 11th century, the kings of Germany repeatedly transferred Bavaria into different hands (including their own), never allowing any one family to establish itself. Bavaria was ruled by a series of short-lasting, mostly unrelated dynasties. Houses of Welf and Babenberg, 1070–1180[edit]

  Houses of Welf and Babenberg

In 1070, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed duke Otto, granting the duchy instead to Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the Italo-Bavarian family of Este. Welf I subsequently quarreled with King Henry and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096, and was succeeded by his sons Welf II and Henry IX — the latter was succeeded by his son Henry X, who also became Duke of Saxony.

Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note


Margrave of Bavaria 895 907 Luitpolding

Arnulf the Bad

Duke of Bavaria 907 920 Luitpolding

Son of Luitpold. Arnulf the Bad claimed the title of Duke — implying full autonomy — in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler, in 920.


Duke of Bavaria 937 938 Luitpolding


Duke of Bavaria 938 947 Luitpolding

Younger son of Luitpold. The German King Otto I reasserted central authority, banishing Arnulf's son Eberhard and re-granting the title to Berthold, a younger son of Luitpold.

Henry I

Duke of Bavaria 947 955 Ottonian

Son of Henry the Fowler. On Berthold's death, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, gave the duchy to his own brother Henry (I), who was also Arnulf the Bad's son-in-law.

Henry II the Quarrelsome

Duke of Bavaria 955 976 Ottonian

Henry II made war upon his cousin, Emperor Otto II, and was deprived of his duchy in 976 in favor of his cousin Otto, Duke of Swabia (who now acquired two dukedoms).

Otto I

Duke of Bavaria 976 982 Ottonian

Henry III the Younger

Duke of Bavaria 983 985 Luitpolding

Bavaria was given to Berthold's son Henry III, briefly restoring the Luitpolding dynasty. Henry III exchanged Bavaria for Carinthia, and Henry II received Bavaria again.

Henry II the Quarrelsome

Duke of Bavaria 985 995 Ottonian


Henry IV

Duke of Bavaria 995 1004 Ottonian

Son of Henry II the Quarrelsome. Henry IV was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, who gave Bavaria to his brother-in-law Henry V, Count of Luxemburg in 1004.

Henry V

Duke of Bavaria 1004 1009 Luxemburg

Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.

Henry IV

Duke of Bavaria 1009 1017 Ottonian

Henry IV reasserted direct control.

Henry V

Duke of Bavaria 1017 1026 Luxemburg

Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg. Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, gave Bavaria to his son Henry VI after the death of Henry V in 1026.

Henry VI the Black

Duke of Bavaria 1026 1042 Salian

Son of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor. Later Henry was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, and became King of Germany in 1039.

Henry VII

Duke of Bavaria 1042 1047 Luxemburg

Son of Frederick of Luxembourg. In 1042, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the duchy to Henry VII, Count of Luxemburg, nephew of Henry V.

Conrad I (Kuno)

Duke of Bavaria 1049 1053 Ezzonen

Son of Liudolf of Lotharingia. After Henry VII's death, the dukedom was vacant for a couple of years. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, then gave the duchy to Kuno, Count of Zütphen, in 1049. Kuno was deposed in 1053.

Henry VIII

Duke of Bavaria 1053 1054 Salian

Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. During his reign in Bavaria Henry VIII was a minor (born 1050). In 1056 he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor as Henry IV in 1084.

Conrad II

Duke of Bavaria 1054 1055 Salian

(minor, born 1052, died 1055) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VIII

Duke of Bavaria 1055 1061 Salian

(minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.

Otto II

Duke of Bavaria 1061 1070 Nordheim

In 1061 Empress Agnes — the 11-year-old King Henry IV's mother and regent — entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim.

Welf I

Duke of Bavaria 1070 1077 Welf

Welf I subsequently quarreled with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown.

Henry VIII

Duke of Bavaria 1077 1096 Salian

(minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084.

Welf I

Duke of Bavaria 1096 1101 Welf

Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096.

Welf II

Duke of Bavaria 1101 1120 Welf

Son of Welf I

Henry IX the Black

Duke of Bavaria 1120 1126 Welf

Son of Welf I. Abdicated.

Henry X the Proud

Duke of Bavaria 1126 1138 Welf

Son of Henry IX the Black. In a power struggle with King Conrad III of Germany, Henry X lost his duchy to the King, who granted it to his follower Leopold Margrave of Austria.

Leopold I

Duke of Bavaria 1139 1141 Babenberg

When Leopold died, Conrad III of Germany resumed the duchy and granted it to Leopold's brother Henry XI.

Henry XI Jasomirgott

Duke of Bavaria 1143 1156 Babenberg

Brother of Leopold.

Henry XII the Lion

Duke of Bavaria 1156 1180 Welf

When Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Germany, he restored Bavaria to the Welf line in the person of Henry X's son, Henry XII the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

Ducal Bavaria (Hereditary dukes)[edit] Further information: Duchy of Bavaria

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria

In 1180, Henry XII the Lion and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, fell out, and Frederick dispossessed the duke and gave his territory to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach. Bavaria remained in the possession of various branches of the family until the First World War. First partition, 1253–1340[edit] In 1253, on Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers, making the Dukes difficult to list. In Lower Bavaria, Henry XIII was succeeded by his three sons, Otto III, Louis III, and Stephen I ruling jointly. Otto III's successor in the joint dukedom was his son Henry XV. Stephen's successors were his sons Otto IV and Henry XIV. Henry XIV's son was John I. In Upper Bavaria, Louis II was succeeded by his sons Rudolf I and Louis IV. The latter was elected King of Germany in 1314. After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy. The dukes of Upper Bavaria served also as Counts Palatinate of the Rhine. In 1329 Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. The Upper Palatinate would be reunited with Bavaria in 1623, the Lower Palatinate in 1777. Second partition 1349–1503[edit] From 1349 until 1503 the second partition of Bavaria took place. In 1349, the six sons of Louis IV partitioned Bavaria into Upper and Lower Bavaria again. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut in 1363. After the death of Stephan II in 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, John II gained Bavaria-Munich, Frederick, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut received a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and in Bavaria-Ingolstadt ruled Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria. Following the Landshut War (1503–1505), the Duke of Bavaria-Munich Albert IV the Wise became ruler of Bavaria. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture. In 1623 Maximilian I was granted the title Prince-elector (German: Kurfürst) of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1623. House of Wittelsbach[edit] Partitions of Bavaria under Wittelsbach rule[edit]

Duchy of Bavaria (1180-1253)

Lower Bavaria (1st creation) (1253-1340) Upper Bavaria (1st creation) (1253-1340)

Duchy of Bavaria (Upper line) (1340-1349)

Lower Bavaria (2nd creation) (1349-1353) Upper Bavaria (2nd creation) (1349-1363) (divided among the other duchies)

Landshut (1353-1503)       

Straubing (1353-1432) (divided among the other duchies)

Munich (1392-1503) Ingolstadt (1392-1445)       



Dachau (1467-1501)              


Duchy of Bavaria (Munich line) (1503-1623)

Table of rulers[edit] (Note: Here the numbering of the dukes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Bavaria, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The dukes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes

Otto III the Redhead

1117 1180-1183 11 July 1183 Bavaria Agnes of Loon 1169 eleven children In 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Bavaria to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach.

Agnes of Loon (regent)

1150 1183-1189 1191 Bavaria Otto III the Redhead 1169 eleven children Regent on behalf of her son, Louis I. She managed to secure the inheritance of her son.

Louis I the Kelheimer

23 December 1173 1189-1231 15 September 1231 Bavaria Ludmilla of Bohemia 1204 one child Son of Otto III. Louis obtained the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214. So Louis I served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was assassinated 1231.

Otto IV the Illustrious

7 April 1206 1231-1253 29 November 1253 Bavaria Agnes of the Palatinate 1222 Worms eleven children Otto IV served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. On Otto IV's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers.

Henry XIII

19 November 1235 1253-1290 3 February 1290 Lower Bavaria Elizabeth of Hungary 1250 ten children Son of Otto IV. After the partition of 1253, received Lower Bavaria.

Louis II the Strict

13 April 1229 1253-1294 2 February 1294 Upper Bavaria Maria of Brabant 2 August 1254 (executed) no children

Anna of Głogów 1260 two children

Matilda of Austria 24 October 1273 four children Son of Otto IV. After the partition of 1253, received Upper Bavaria.

Otto V

11 February 1261 1290-1312 9 November 1312 Lower Bavaria Catherine of Austria January 1279 two children

Anna of Głogów 18 May 1309 two children Sons of Henry XIII, ruled jointly. In 1305 Otto became also King of Hungary and Croatia, as grandson of Béla IV of Hungary.

Louis III

9 October 1269 1290-1296 9 October 1296 Lower Bavaria Isabella of Lorraine 1287 no children

Stephen I

14 March 1271 1290-1310 10 December 1310 Lower Bavaria Judith of Świdnica-Jawor 1299 eight children

Matilda of Austria (regent)

1253 1294-1296 23 December 1304 Upper Bavaria Louis II the Strict 24 October 1273 four children Widow of Louis II. Regent on behalf of her sons.

Rudolph I the Stammerer

4 October 1274 1296-1317 12 August 1319 Upper Bavaria Matilda of Nassau 1 September 1294 Nuremberg six children Ruled jointly with his brother Louis IV. In 1317 Rudolph abdicated of his rights to his brother, who in 1328 was elected Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1340 reunited Bavaria.

Henry XIV the Elder

29 September 1305 1312-1339 1 September 1339 Lower Bavaria Margaret of Bohemia 12 August 1328 two children Sons of Stephen I (Henry XIV and Otto VI) and Otto V (Henry XV), ruled jointly.

Otto VI

3 January 1307 1312-1334 14 December 1334 Lower Bavaria Richardis of Jülich 1330 one child

Henry XV the Natternberger

28 August 1312 1312-1333 18 June 1333 Lower Bavaria Anna of Austria between 1326 and 1328 no children

John I the Child

29 November 1329 1339-1340 20 December 1340 Lower Bavaria Anna of Upper Bavaria 18 April 1339 Munich no children Left no male heirs, which allowed his cousin (and brother-in-law) Louis to reunite the Bavarian lands.

Louis IV the Bavarian

5 April 1282 1296-1340 11 October 1347 Upper Bavaria Beatrice of Świdnica-Jawor 14 October 1308 six children

Margaret II, Countess of Holland-Hainaut 26 February 1324 Cologne ten children Co-ruled with his brother Rudolf I until 1317 — then alone. Louis IV was elected King of Germany in 1314. In the Treaty of Pavia (1329) Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. After John I the Child's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.

1340-1347 Bavaria

Louis V the Brandenburger

May 1315 1347-1349 18 September 1361 Bavaria Margaret of Denmark 1324 no children

Margaret, Countess of Tyrol 10 February 1342 Meran four children Sons of Louis IV, ruled jointly until 1349, when they divided the land: Louis V, Louis VI and Otto VII kept Upper Bavaria; William, Albert and Stephen Lower Bavaria. In 1351 Louis VI and Otto gave up their inheritance in Bavaria, in excnhange of the Electoral dignity in Brandenburg. Having lost the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1373, Otto returned to Bavaria to claim new inheritance, and shared the part of Stephen II's sons (his nephews) in Landshut. In Lower Bavaria, the three brothers divided the land again in 1353: Stephen kept Landshut, William and Albert shared Straubing, and from 1389 the two shared Straubing also with Albert I's son, Albert II.

1349-1361 Upper Bavaria

Louis VI the Roman

7 May 1328 1347-1349 17 May 1365 Bavaria Cunigunde of Poland before 1349 no children

Ingeborg of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1360 no children

1349-1351 Upper Bavaria

Otto VII the Lazy

1340/42 1347-1349 15 November 1379 Bavaria Catherine of Bohemia 19 March 1366 no children

1349-1351 Upper Bavaria

1375-1379 Bavaria-Landshut

Stephen II the Representative

1319 1347-1349 13 May 1375 Bavaria Elisabeth of Sicily 27 June 1328 four children

Margaret of Nuremberg 14 February 1359 three children

1349-1353 Lower Bavaria

1353-1375 Bavaria-Landshut

William I the Mad

12 May 1330 1347-1349 15 April 1389 Bavaria Matilda of England 1352 London no children

1349-1353 Lower Bavaria

1353-1389 Bavaria-Straubing

Albert I

25 July 1336 1347-1349 13 December 1404 Bavaria Margaret of Brzeg after 19 July 1353 Passau no children

Margaret of Clèves 1394 Heusden no children

1349-1353 Lower Bavaria

1353-1404 Bavaria-Straubing

Albert II

1368 1389-1397 21 January 1397 Bavaria-Straubing Unmarried

Meinhard I

9 February 1344 1361-1363 13 January 1363 Upper Bavaria Margaret of Austria 4 September 1359 Passau no children Left no male descendants. After his death Upper Bavaria was divided between Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing.

Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Landshut (1/2) and Bavaria-Straubing (1/2)

Frederick I the Wise

1339 1375-1393 4 December 1393 Bavaria-Landshut Anna of Neuffen 1360 one child

Maddalena Visconti 2 September 1381 five children Ruled jointly. Shared rule, until 1379, with their uncle Otto VII. In 1392 the brothers divided the land once more. Frederick retained Landshut, Stephen kept Ingolstadt and John received Munich.

Stephen III the Magnificent

1337 1375-1392 26 September 1413 Bavaria-Landshut Taddea Visconti 13 October 1364 two children

Anna of Neuffen 16 January 1401 Cologne no children

1392-1413 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt

John II

1341 1375-1392 14 June/1 July 1397 Bavaria-Landshut Catherine of Gorizia 1372 three children

1392-1397 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich

Henry XVI the Rich

1386 1393-1450 30 July 1450 Bavaria-Landshut Margaret of Austria 25 November 1412 Landshut six children Annexed Ingolstadt in 1445.


1373 1397-1438 14 June/1 July 1397 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Elisabetta Visconti 26 January 1395 Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm four children Ruled jointly.

William II

1375 1397-1435 12 September 1435 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Unmarried

William III

5 April 1365 1404-1417 31 May 1417 Bavaria-Straubing Margaret of Burgundy 12 April 1385 Cambrai one child Eldest son of Albert I.

Louis VII the Bearded

1368 1413-1443 1 May 1447 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt Anne de Bourbon-La Marche 1 October 1402 two children

Catherine of Alençon 1413 two children Imprisoned by his son, who was allied with Henry XVI. Died in prison.


15 July 1401 1417-1432 8 October 1436 Bavaria-Straubing John, Dauphin of France 6 August 1415 The Hague no children

John IV, Duke of Brabant 10 March 1418 The Hague (dubious annullment in 1422) no children

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester 7 March 1423 Hadleigh (secretly; dubious annullment in 1428) no children

Frank van Borssele 1434 no children Contested by her uncle, John III In 1432 abdicated of all her titles ans lands. Straubing therefore was divided between its neighbours.

John III the Pitiless (opponent)

1374 1417-1425 6 January 1425 Bavaria-Straubing Elizabeth I, Duchess of Luxembourg 11418 no children Son of Albert I. Contested Jacqueline until his death 1425.

Definitively annexed by the remaining Bavarian duchies

Albert III

27 March 1401 1438-1460 29 February 1460 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Agnes Bernauer c.1432? (morganatic) no children

Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen 22 January 1437 Munich ten children Son of Ernest.

Louis VIII the Hunchback

1 September 1403 1443-1445 7 April 1445 Bavaria-Landshut-Ingolstadt Unmarried After his death Ingolstadt was annexed by Landshut.

Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Landshut

Louis IX the Rich

23 February 1417 1450-1479 18 January 1479 Bavaria-Landshut Amalia of Saxony 21 March 1452 Landshut four children

John IV

4 October 1437 1460-1463 18 November 1463 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Unmarried Son of Albert III, ruled jointly with his brothers Sigismund and Albert IV.


26 July 1439 1460-1467 1 February 1501 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Unmarried In 1467, Sigismund created a smaller duchy withits center in Dachau, but left no descendants, and this duchy was merged again in Bavaria-Munich after his death.

1467-1501 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich-Dachau

Definitively annexed by Bavaria-Munich

George I the Rich

15 August 1455 1479-1503 1 December 1503 Bavaria-Landshut Hedwig of Poland 14 November 1475 Landshut five children Left no male descendants at his death. His duchy was annexed to Bavaria-Munich, which reunited the Bavarian duchy.

Albert IV the Wise

15 December 1447 1460-1503 18 March 1508 Bavaria-Landshut-Munich Kunigunde of Austria 3 January 1487 Munich seven children Co-ruled with his brothers John IV and Sigismund. Reunited the duchy in 1503. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.

1503-1508 Bavaria

William IV the Steadfast

13 November 1493 1508-1550 7 March 1550 Bavaria Jakobaea of Baden 5 October 1522 Munich four children Sons of Albert IV, the last Bavarian pair of brothers ruling together.

Louis X

18 September 1495 1516-1545 22 April 1545 Bavaria Unmarried

Albert V the Magnanimous

29 February 1528 1503-1508 24 October 1579 Bavaria Anna of Austria 4 July 1546 Regensburg seven children Reunited the duchy in 1503. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.

William V the Pious

29 September 1548 1579-1597 7 February 1626 Bavaria Renata of Lorraine 22 February 1568 Munich ten children

Maximilian I the Great

17 April 1573 1597-1623 27 September 1651 Bavaria Elisabeth of Lorraine 9 February 1595 Nancy no children

Maria Anna of Austria 15 July 1635 Vienna two children Son of William V. Maximilian I, was an ally of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. When the Elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, head of a senior branch of the Wittelsbachs, became involved in the war against the Emperor, he was stripped of his Imperial offices and the Prince-elector title. Maximilian I was granted the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1623.

Electorate of Bavaria[edit] Further information: Electorate of Bavaria

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note

Maximilian I

Prince-elector of Bavaria 25 February 1623 27 September 1651 Wittelsbach In 1648, Frederick of the Palatinate's heir was restored to his Rhenish territory — but not to the Oberpfalz ceded to Bavaria — together with a new Electorate; Maximilian retained the Electorate granted him in 1623.

Ferdinand Maria

Prince-elector of Bavaria 27 September 1651 26 May 1679 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian I. 1651-1654 under regency of his uncle Albert VI of Bavaria.

Maximilian II Emanuel

Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 May 1679 26 February 1726 Wittelsbach Son of Ferdinand Maria and Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy. Maximilian II took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. He was accordingly forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim and deprived of his Electorate on 29 April 1706. He regained his Electorate in 1714 by the Peace of Baden and ruled until 1726.

Charles Albert Karl Albrecht

Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 February 1726 20 January 1745 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II Emanuel. Charles Albert once again took on the House of Habsburg in the War of the Austrian Succession, again in combination with France, succeeding so far as to be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1742 (as Charles VII). However, the Austrians occupied Bavaria (1742–1744), and the Emperor died shortly after returning to Munich.

Maximilian III Joseph

Prince-elector of Bavaria 20 January 1745 30 December 1777 Wittelsbach Son of Charles Albert. Maximilian III, who had no children, was the last of the direct Bavarian Wittelsbach line descended from Louis IV. He was succeeded by the Elector of the Palatinate, Charles Theodore, who thereby regained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line — descended from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I.

Charles Theodore Karl Theodor

Elector of the Palatinate 30 December 1777 16 February 1799 Wittelsbach Son of John Christian, Count of Palatinate-Sulzbach and Marie Anne Henriëtte Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne. Distant cousin of Maximilian III; Elector Palatine from 1743. Charles Theodore was also childless, and was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Maximilian IV Joseph — later King Maximilian I.

Maximilian IV Joseph

Elector of the Palatinate 16 February 1799 6 August 1806 Wittelsbach Son of Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken. Distant cousin of Charles Theodore; Count Palatine of Zweibrücken from 1795. In the chaos of the wars of the French Revolution, the old order of the Holy Roman Empire collapsed. In the course of these events, Bavaria became once again the ally of France, and Maximilian IV Joseph became King Maximilian I of Bavaria — whilst remaining Prince-Elector and Arch-steward of the Holy Roman Empire until 6 August 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was abolished.

v t e

Electors of the Holy Roman Empire from 1356 to 1806


Spiritual Mainz Trier Cologne

Secular Bohemia Palatine Saxony Brandenburg

Added in the 17th century Bavaria (1623) Brunswick-Lüneburg (1692)

Added in the 19th century Regensburg Salzburg (1803–1805) Würzburg (1805–1806) Württemberg Baden Hesse

Kingdom of Bavaria[edit] Further information: Kingdom of Bavaria In 1805 under the Peace of Pressburg between the Napoleonic France and the Holy Roman Empire several duchies were elevated to kingdoms. The Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria held the title King of Bavaria from 1806 until 1918. The prince-elector of Bavaria, Maximilian IV Joseph formally assumed the title King Maximilian I of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. The well-known so called Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king) Ludwig II constructed Neuschwanstein Castle, Herrenchiemsee, and Linderhof Palace during his reign (1864–1886), bankrupting the country in the process. In 1918 Ludwig III lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.

Name Image Title Start term End term House Note

Maximilian I

King of Bavaria 1 January 1806 13 October 1825 Wittelsbach see above

Ludwig I

King of Bavaria 13 October 1825 20 March 1848 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian I Joseph. Abdicated in the Revolutions of 1848

Maximilian II

King of Bavaria 20 March 1848 10 March 1864 Wittelsbach Son of Ludwig I

Ludwig II

King of Bavaria 10 March 1864 13 June 1886 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II Ludwig II was called the Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king). He acceded to Bavaria becoming a component of the German Empire in 1871, he was declared insane in 1886.[2]


King of Bavaria 13 June 1886 5 November 1913 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II. Otto was mentally ill throughout his reign, and his functions were carried out by the following princes regent:

Prince Luitpold of Bavaria 10 June 1886 – 12 December 1912 Prince Ludwig of Bavaria 12 December 1912 – 5 November 1913

Ludwig III

King of Bavaria 5 November 1913 13 November 1918 Wittelsbach Son of Prince Luitpold and grandson of Ludwig I. Prince regent from 1912 until 1913, Then King of Bavaria, he lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 at the end of World War I.

Post-monarchy[edit] Main article: List of Ministers-President of Bavaria In 1918 — at the end of the First World War in the German Revolution of 1918–1919  Bavaria became a democratic republic in the Weimar Republic; the name for the period of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Since then the rulers of Bavaria are minister presidents. References[edit]

^ Paul the Deacon (1907), History of the Langobards (Historia Langobardorum), William Dudley Foulke, trans. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania), III, x, calls him "king of the Bavarians". The mid-thirteenth-century Series Ducum Bavariæ calls him Garibaldus rex, see FMG. Archived 24 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ King, Greg (1996), The Mad King: The Life and Times of Ludwig II of Bavaria., ISBN 978-1-55972-362-6 

External links[edit]

Media related to Dukes of Bavaria at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Kings of Bavaria at Wikim