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From 1416 to 1860, the DUCHY OF SAVOY (French : _Duché de Savoie_, Italian : _Ducato di Savoia_) was a state in Western Europe
Western Europe
. It was created when Sigismund, King of the Romans , raised the County of Savoy
Savoy
into a duchy for Amadeus VIII . The duchy was a subject of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
with a vote in the Imperial Diet . From the 16th century, Savoy
Savoy
belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle . Throughout its history, it was ruled by the House of Savoy
Savoy
and formed a part of the larger Savoyard state .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 15th century * 1.2 16th century * 1.3 17th century * 1.4 From duchy to kingdom

* 2 List of Dukes of Savoy
Savoy
* 3 Flag * 4 References

HISTORY

15TH CENTURY

The Duchy
Duchy
was created in 1416 following Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor , awarding the title Duke
Duke
to Count Amadeus VIII .

Being landlocked at its conception in 1388, the then-County of Savoy acquired a few kilometres of coastline around Nice
Nice
. Other than this expansion, the 14th century was generally a time of stagnation. Pressure from neighboring powers, particularly France, prevented development, which characterizes the rest of the Renaissance era for Savoy.

The reign of Amadeus VIII was a turning point for the economy and the policy of the state, which deeply marked the history of the nation. His long reign was highlighted by wars (the country expanded its territory by defeating the Duchy
Duchy
of Monferrato and Lordship of Saluzzo ), as well as reforms and edicts, and also some controversial actions. The first was in 1434, when he chose to withdraw to the Château de Ripaille , where, living the life of a hermit , he founded the Order of St. Maurice . In 1439, he received an appointment as antipope , which he accepted (under the name of Felix V), although he subsequently resigned a decade later out of a fear of undermining the religious unity of Christians. Italian Peninsula in 1494.

The second important action of the Government of Amadeo VIII was the creation of the Principality of Piedmont
Piedmont
in August 1424, the management of which was entrusted to the firstborn of the family as a title of honor. The duke left the territory largely formed from the old Savoy
Savoy
domain.

As a cultured and refined man, Duke
Duke
Amadeus gave great importance to art. Among others, he worked with the famous Giacomo Jaquerio ) in literature and architecture, encouraging the entry of art to the Italian Piedmont.

However, his first son Amedeo died prematurely in 1431 and was succeeded by his second son Louis . Louis was in turn succeeded by the weak Amadeus IX , who was extremely religious (he was eventually declared blessed), but of little practical power to the point that he allowed his wife, Yolande (Violante) of Valois , sister of Louis XI , to make very important decisions. During this period, France was more or less free to control the affairs of Savoy, which bound Savoy
Savoy
to the crown in Paris.

The Duchy's economy suffered during these years, not only because of war, but also because of the poor administration by Violante and the continued donations by Amadeus IX to the poor of Vercelli
Vercelli
. The future of the nation was entrusted to the hands of a boy, Philibert I , who died at the early age of seventeen, after reigning for ten years. He was succeeded by Charles I , whose ascent to the throne seemed to promise a rebirth of the country.

16TH CENTURY

When Philibert II died in 1504, he was succeeded by Charles III the Good , a rather weak ruler. Since 1515, Savoy
Savoy
was occupied by foreign armies, and Francis I of France
Francis I of France
was just waiting for the opportunity to permanently annex the duchy of Savoy
Savoy
and its possessions. In 1536, Francis I ordered the occupation of the Duchy, which was invaded by a strong military contingent. Charles III realized too late the weakness of the state, and tried to defend the city of Turin
Turin
. However, the city was lost on April 3 of the same year. Charles III retired in Vercelli
Vercelli
, trying to continue the fight, but never saw the state free from occupation.

Emmanuel Philibert was the Duke
Duke
who more than any other influenced the future policy of Savoy, managing to put an end to the more than twenty-year long occupation. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis , signed in 1559, restored full autonomy to the duchy.

Realizing that it could no longer trust France, the main center of life and the capital was moved to Turin, which was afforded better defenses by constructing a complex system of fortifications known as the Cittadella (which still can be observed, although it was largely destroyed by the subsequent expansion of the city). From his military experience in Flanders
Flanders
, Emmanuel Philibert learned how to run an army, having won the famous Battle of St. Quentin . He was the first Duke
Duke
of Savoy
Savoy
to establish a stable military apparatus that was not composed of mercenaries but rather by specially trained Savoyan soldiers.

His son, Charles Emmanuel I , extended the duchy to the detriment of the lordships of Monferrato and the territory of Saluzzo, previously ceded to France, in 1601 under the Treaty of Lyon . Unfortunately, the wars of Charles Emmanuel ended mostly in defeats. Nevertheless, he is remembered as "Charles the Great" since he was a versatile and cultured man, a poet and a skillful reformer. He was able to manage the Duchy
Duchy
at a time of severe crisis vis-a-vis the European powers and found support from the court of the Habsburgs . The policy of Charles Emmanuel was in fact based more on actions of international warfare, such as the possessions of the Marquis of Saluzzo, and the wars of succession of the duchies of Mantua and Monferrato. Generally, Savoy sided, on these occasions, alongside Spain, but on occasion, he fell back to follow the French (as, for example, the Treaty of Susa required).

17TH CENTURY

During the seventeenth century, the influence of the court of Versailles put pressure on Savoy. Due to the proximity of the Duchy
Duchy
of Milan , troops were stationed in France, and the disposal of Pinerolo (one of the most important strongholds of Savoy), were situated close to Turin. The court, which had been under Spanish influence with Charles Emmanuel I , became oriented towards France under his three successors. Vittorio Amedeo I (in office 1630-1637) had married Madame Royale , Maria Christina of Bourbon-France in 1619. Cristina held the real power in Savoy
Savoy
during the short period of the child-duke Francis Hyacinth (reigned 1637-1638) and during the minority (1638-1648) of Charles Emmanuel II .

The strong French influence, plus various misfortunes, repeatedly hit Savoy
Savoy
following the death of Charles Emmanuel I (26 July 1630). First of all, the plague ran rampant in 1630 and contributed significantly to the already widespread poverty.

The Wars of Succession of Monferrato (1628-1631) were very bloody in the countryside and subjected Casale Monferrato to a long siege (1629). Developments of arms and politics affected the economy and future history, exacerbating the already difficult situation after the death of Victor Amadeus I in 1637. He was succeeded for a short period of time by his eldest surviving son, the 5-year-old Francis Hyacinth . The post of regent for the next-oldest son, Carlo Emanuele II , also went to his mother Christine Marie of France , whose followers became known as _madamisti_ (supporters of _Madama Reale_). Because of this, Savoy
Savoy
became a satellite state of the regent's brother, King Louis XIII of France . The supporters of Cardinal Prince Maurice of Savoy and Prince Thomas Francis of Savoy
Savoy
(both sons of Charles Emmanuel I), together with their followers, took the name of _principisti_ (supporters of the Princes).

Each warring faction soon besieged the city of Turin
Turin
. The _principisti_ made early gains, making Turin
Turin
subject to great looting on July 27, 1639. Only in 1642 did the two factions reach an agreement; by now, the widow of Victor Amadeus I had placed Victor's son Charles Emmanuel II on the throne and ruled as regent in his place, even past the child's age of majority.

A resurgence of religious wars took place during the regency. Subsequently, in 1655, Savoyard troops massacred large numbers of the Protestant population of the Waldensian valleys, an event known as the Piedmont
Piedmont
Easter (Pasque Piedmont
Piedmont
). Eventually international pressure stopped the massacres. A final agreement with the Waldensians was carried out in 1664.

The government of Charles Emmanuel II was the first step towards major reforms carried out by his successor Victor Amadeus II in the next century. Of particular importance were the founding of militias in Savoy
Savoy
and the establishment of the first public school-system in 1661. A cultured man, but also a great statesman, Charles Emmanuel imitated Louis XIV . He wanted to limit this to the court in the sumptuous palace of Venaria Reale , a masterpiece of Baroque architecture , and a copy recreated in Italy
Italy
of the magnificence of the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
. It was a time of great urban expansion, and Charles Emmanuel II promoted the growth of Turin
Turin
and its reconstruction in the baroque style. After his death in 1675, there followed the period of the regency (1675-1684) of his widow, the new _Madama Reale_, Maria Giovanna Battista of Savoy-Nemours .

FROM DUCHY TO KINGDOM

The son of Charles Emmanuel II, Victor Amadeus II , was kept under the regency of his mother, the French born Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Savoy
. In the early years of the reign, his energetic mother attempted to unite the crown of Savoy
Savoy
with the Portuguese, and thus risked compromising the very survival of the duchy ( Savoy
Savoy
would be reduced like other Italian states to a foreign power). Under the determined hand of the regent Victor Amadeus II, Savoy
Savoy
entered into bad relations with the crown in Paris, which led to the invasion of the duchy by French forces. Savoy
Savoy
defeated the army of Louis XIV in the Siege of Cuneo , but was dramatically defeated in the battles of Staffarda and Marsaglia . Victor Amadeus II married Anne Marie d\'Orléans , niece of Louis XIV. Italian Peninsula in 1796.

After the War of the Great Alliance , Savoy
Savoy
sided during the first phase of the War of Spanish Succession alongside Louis XIV. By changing alliances, a new French invasion of Savoy
Savoy
came about, with the troops of the Marquis of Fouillade defeating the troops of Savoy and chased them into Turin. The event, which succeeded only thanks to the arrival on the battlefield of the duke's cousin, Eugene of Savoy
Savoy
, resolved a conflict that spread destruction in Savoy.

At the end of the war in 1713, Savoy
Savoy
received Sicily, and Victor was awarded the title of King besides the title of Duke
Duke
of Savoy. According to the treaty of London of 1718, Victor Amadeus II exchanged Sicily for Sardinia
Sardinia
in 1720. Sardinia
Sardinia
was then changed into the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
. This newly formed country was called States of Savoy
Savoy
or Kingdom of Sardinia, and was composed of several states including Savoy, Piedmont
Piedmont
, Aosta Valley, Nice
Nice
, Oneglia and Sardinia .

After the French revolution, Savoy
Savoy
was occupied by French revolutionary forces between 1792 and 1815. The country was first added to the département of Mont-Blanc; then, in 1798, it was divided between the départements of Mont-Blanc and Léman (French name of Lake Geneva). Savoy, Piedmont
Piedmont
and Nice
Nice
were restored to the States of Savoy
Savoy
at the Congress of Vienna in 1814–1815.

In 1860, under the terms of the Treaty of Turin
Turin
, the Duchy
Duchy
of Savoy was annexed by France. The last Duke
Duke
of Savoy, Victor Emmanuel II , became King of Italy
Italy
.

LIST OF DUKES OF SAVOY

* Amadeus VIII : 1391–1440, duke from 1416 * Louis : 1440–65 * Amadeus IX : 1465–72 * Philibert I : 1472–82 * Charles I : 1482–90, first titular King of Cyprus , Jerusalem and Armenia of the House of Savoy
Savoy
* Charles (II) John Amadeus : 1490–96 * Philip II : 1496–97 * Philibert II : 1497–1504 * Charles III : 1504–53 * Emmanuel Philibert : 1553–80 * Charles Emmanuel I : 1580–1630 * Victor Amadeus I : 1630–37 * Francis Hyacinth : 1637–38 * Charles Emmanuel II : 1638–75 * Victor Amadeus II : 1675–1730, King of Sicily 1713–1720, then King of Sardinia
Sardinia
* Charles Emmanuel III : 1730–1773 * Victor Amadeus III : 1773–1796 * Charles Emmanuel IV : 1796–1802 * Victor Emmanuel I : 1802–1821 * Charles Felix of Sardinia
Sardinia
: 1821–1831 * Charles Albert of Sardinia : 1831–1849 * Victor Emmanuel II : 1849–1861

FLAG

The flag of Savoy
Savoy
is white cross on a red field. It is based on a crusader flag, and as such is identical in origin to the flag of the Knights of Malta (whence the modern Flag of Malta and of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta ), and others (flags of Denmark and Switzerland , with inverted colors those of England and Genoa , among others). It was possibly first used by Amadeus III, Count of Savoy
Savoy
, who went on the Second Crusade in 1147. In the 18th century, the letters " FERT " were sometimes added in the cantons to distinguish the flag from the Maltese one.

REFERENCES

* ^ When the Duchy
Duchy
of Savoy
Savoy
acquired Sicily in 1713 and later Sardinia
Sardinia
in 1720, the title of " Duke
Duke
of Savoy", while remaining a primary title, became a lesser title to the title of King. The Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
remained as a state of the new country until the provincial reform of King Charles Albert, at which point the kingdom became an unitary state.

* v * t * e

Upper Rhenish Circle (1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

ECCLESIASTICAL

* Basel * Fulda * Hersfeld * Metz
Metz
1 * Odenheim – Bruchsal
Bruchsal
* Prüm * Speyer
Speyer
* Straßburg * Toul 1 * Verdun
Verdun
1 * Weißenburg * Worms

SECULAR

* Bar * Heitersheim * Hersfeld

* Hesse

* Darmstadt * Homburg * Kassel * Marburg * Rheinfels

* Isenburg-Birstein * Kaiserslautern
Kaiserslautern
* Lorraine 2

* Nassau

* Idstein
Idstein
* Ottweiler * Saarbrücken * Usingen * Weilburg

* Salm

* Kyrburg * Salm

* Savoy * Simmern * Solms-Braunfels * Sponheim 3 * Veldenz / Lautereck * Waldeck 3 * Zweibrücken

Counts and Lords

With Imp. Diet seats

* Hanau
Hanau

* Lichtenberg * Münzenberg 4

* Isenburg

* Birstein * Büdingen * Büdingen-Birstein

* Königstein

* Mainz * Stolberg

* Kriechingen

* Leiningen

* Dagsburg * Hardenburg * Westerburg

* Salm

* Grehweiler * Grumbach

* Solms

* Hohensolms * Laubach * Lich * Rödelheim

* Wetterau

* Wittgenstein

* Berleburg * Wittgenstein

WITHOUT

* Bretzenheim * Dagstuhl * Falkenstein

* Isenburg

* Meerholz * Wächtersbach

* Mensfelden * Olbrück * Reipoltskirchen * Salm-Dhaun * Wartenberg

CITIES

DéCAPOLE

* Colmar
Colmar
* Hagenau * Kaisersberg * Landau
Landau
* Mühlhausen 5 * Münster im Elsaß * Oberehnheim * Rosheim * Schlettstadt * Türkheim * Weißenburg

OTHERS

* Frankfurt * Friedberg * Metz
Metz
* Speyer
Speyer
* Straßburg * Toul * Verdun
Verdun
* Wetzlar
Wetzlar
* Worms

1 Part of the Three Bishoprics . 2 Nomeny after 1737. 3 without Reichstag seat. 4 until 1736. 5 Joined Swiss Confederacy in 1515.

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian , Swabian , UPPER RHENISH, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian , Franconian , (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian , Burgundian , Upper Saxon , Electoral Rhenish · Unencircled territories

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Ancient History and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia
Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy
Duchy
of Benevento * Duchy
Duchy
of Friuli * Duchy
Duchy
of Ivrea * Duchy
Duchy
of Spoleto * Duchy
Duchy
of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy
Duchy
of Aosta * Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy
Duchy
of Castro * Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy
Duchy
of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale
Marquisate of Finale
* City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence * Duchy
Duchy
of Florence * March of Friuli * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy
Duchy
of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy
Duchy
of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy
Duchy
of Mantua * Duchy
Duchy
of Massa and Carrara * Duchy
Duchy
of Merania * Duchy
Duchy
of Milan * Duchy
Duchy
of Mirandola * Duchy
Duchy
of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat * Duchy
Duchy
of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy
Duchy
of Parma * Principality of Piedmont
Piedmont
* Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy
Duchy
of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy
Savoy
* Duchy
Duchy
of Savoy * Republic of Siena
Republic of Siena
* Duchy
Duchy
of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany * Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Tuscany * County of Tirolo * Duchy
Duchy
of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751)

* Duchy
Duchy
of Rome (533–751) * Duchy
Duchy
of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy
Duchy
of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr * Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy
Duchy
of Amalfi * Duchy
Duchy
of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy
Duchy
of Naples * Sicily (theme) and Byzantine Sicily * Duchy
Duchy
of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari * Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria * County of Aversa * County of Sicily * Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi
State of the Presidi
* Duke
Duke
of San Donato * Duchy
Duchy
of Sora * Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont
Piedmont
* Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy
Duchy
of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy
Duchy
of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy
Duchy
of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy
Duchy
of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) * Duchy
Duchy
of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Tuscany (1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Dukes of Savoy