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From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
(French: Duché de Savoie, Italian: Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe. It was created when Sigismund, King of the Romans, raised the County of Savoy into a duchy for Amadeus VIII. The duchy was a subject of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with a vote in the Imperial Diet. From the 16th century, Savoy
Savoy
belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle. Throughout its history, it was ruled by the House of Savoy
Savoy
and formed a part of the larger Savoyard state.

Contents

1 History

1.1 15th century 1.2 16th century 1.3 17th century 1.4 From duchy to kingdom

2 List of Dukes of Savoy 3 Flag 4 References

History[edit] 15th century[edit] The Duchy was created in 1416 following Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, awarding the title Duke
Duke
to Count Amadeus VIII. Being landlocked at its conception in 1388, the then-County of Savoy acquired a few kilometres of coastline around Nice. Other than this expansion, the 14th century was generally a time of stagnation. Pressure from neighboring powers, particularly France, prevented development, which characterizes the rest of the Renaissance era for Savoy. The reign of Amadeus VIII
Amadeus VIII
was a turning point for the economy and the policy of the state, which deeply marked the history of the nation. His long reign was highlighted by wars (the country expanded its territory by defeating the Duchy of Monferrato and Lordship of Saluzzo), as well as reforms and edicts, and also some controversial actions. The first was in 1434, when he chose to withdraw to the Château de Ripaille, where, living the life of a hermit, he founded the Order of St. Maurice. In 1439, he received an appointment as antipope, which he accepted (under the name of Felix V), although he subsequently resigned a decade later out of a fear of undermining the religious unity of Christians.

Italian Peninsula in 1494.

The second important action of the Government of Amadeo VIII was the creation of the Principality of Piedmont
Piedmont
in August 1424, the management of which was entrusted to the firstborn of the family as a title of honor. The duke left the territory largely formed from the old Savoy
Savoy
domain. As a cultured and refined man, Duke
Duke
Amadeus gave great importance to art. Among others, he worked with the famous Giacomo Jaquerio) in literature and architecture, encouraging the entry of art to the Italian Piedmont. However, his first son Amedeo died prematurely in 1431 and was succeeded by his second son Louis. Louis was in turn succeeded by the weak Amadeus IX, who was extremely religious (he was eventually declared blessed), but of little practical power to the point that he allowed his wife, Yolande (Violante) of Valois, sister of Louis XI, to make very important decisions. During this period, France was more or less free to control the affairs of Savoy, which bound Savoy
Savoy
to the crown in Paris. The Duchy's economy suffered during these years, not only because of war, but also because of the poor administration by Violante and the continued donations by Amadeus IX to the poor[citation needed] of Vercelli. The future of the nation was entrusted to the hands of a boy, Philibert I, who died at the early age of seventeen, after reigning for ten years. He was succeeded by Charles I, whose ascent to the throne seemed to promise a rebirth of the country. 16th century[edit] When Philibert II died in 1504, he was succeeded by Charles III the Good, a rather weak ruler. Since 1515, Savoy
Savoy
was occupied by foreign armies, and Francis I of France
Francis I of France
was just waiting for the opportunity to permanently annex the duchy of Savoy
Savoy
and its possessions. In 1536, Francis I ordered the occupation of the Duchy, which was invaded by a strong military contingent. Charles III realized too late the weakness of the state, and tried to defend the city of Turin. However, the city was lost on April 3 of the same year. Charles III retired in Vercelli, trying to continue the fight, but never saw the state free from occupation. Emmanuel Philibert
Emmanuel Philibert
was the Duke
Duke
who more than any other influenced the future policy of Savoy, managing to put an end to the more than twenty-year long occupation. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, signed in 1559, restored full autonomy to the duchy. Realizing that it could no longer trust France, the main center of life and the capital was moved to Turin, which was afforded better defenses by constructing a complex system of fortifications known as the Cittadella (which still can be observed, although it was largely destroyed by the subsequent expansion of the city). From his military experience in Flanders, Emmanuel Philibert
Emmanuel Philibert
learned how to run an army, having won the famous Battle of St. Quentin. He was the first Duke
Duke
of Savoy
Savoy
to establish a stable military apparatus that was not composed of mercenaries but rather by specially trained Savoyan soldiers. His son, Charles Emmanuel I, extended the duchy to the detriment of the lordships of Monferrato and the territory of Saluzzo, previously ceded to France, in 1601 under the Treaty of Lyon. Unfortunately, the wars of Charles Emmanuel ended mostly in defeats. Nevertheless, he is remembered as "Charles the Great" since he was a versatile and cultured man, a poet and a skillful reformer. He was able to manage the Duchy at a time of severe crisis vis-a-vis the European powers and found support from the court of the Habsburgs. The policy of Charles Emmanuel was in fact based more on actions of international warfare, such as the possessions of the Marquis of Saluzzo, and the wars of succession of the duchies of Mantua and Monferrato. Generally, Savoy sided, on these occasions, alongside Spain, but on occasion, he fell back to follow the French (as, for example, the Treaty of Susa required). 17th century[edit] During the seventeenth century, the influence of the court of Versailles put pressure on Savoy. Due to the proximity of the Duchy of Milan, troops were stationed in France, and the disposal of Pinerolo (one of the most important strongholds of Savoy), were situated[by whom?] close to Turin.[clarification needed] The court, which had been under Spanish influence with Charles Emmanuel I, became oriented towards France under his three successors. Vittorio Amedeo I (in office 1630-1637) had married Madame Royale, Maria Christina of Bourbon-France in 1619. Cristina held the real power in Savoy
Savoy
during the short period of the child-duke Francis Hyacinth (reigned 1637-1638) and during the minority (1638-1648) of Charles Emmanuel II. The strong French influence, plus various misfortunes, repeatedly hit Savoy
Savoy
following the death of Charles Emmanuel I (26 July 1630). First of all, the plague ran rampant in 1630 and contributed significantly to the already widespread poverty. The Wars of Succession of Monferrato (1628-1631) were very bloody in the countryside and subjected Casale Monferrato
Casale Monferrato
to a long siege (1629). Developments of arms and politics affected the economy and future history, exacerbating the already difficult situation after the death of Victor Amadeus I in 1637. He was succeeded for a short period of time by his eldest surviving son, the 5-year-old Francis Hyacinth. The post of regent for the next-oldest son, Carlo Emanuele II, also went to his mother Christine Marie of France, whose followers became known as madamisti (supporters of Madama Reale). Because of this, Savoy
Savoy
became a satellite state of the regent's brother, King Louis XIII of France. The supporters of Cardinal Prince Maurice of Savoy
Savoy
and Prince Thomas Francis of Savoy
Savoy
(both sons of Charles Emmanuel I), together with their followers, took the name of principisti (supporters of the Princes). Each warring faction soon besieged the city of Turin. The principisti made early gains, making Turin
Turin
subject to great looting on July 27, 1639. Only in 1642 did the two factions reach an agreement; by now, the widow of Victor Amadeus I had placed Victor's son Charles Emmanuel II on the throne and ruled as regent in his place, even past the child's age of majority. A resurgence of religious wars took place during the regency. Subsequently, in 1655, Savoyard troops massacred large numbers of the Protestant population of the Waldensian
Waldensian
valleys, an event known as the Piedmont
Piedmont
Easter (Pasque Piedmont). Eventually international pressure stopped the massacres.[citation needed] A final agreement with the Waldensians was carried out in 1664.[citation needed] The government of Charles Emmanuel II was the first step towards major reforms carried out by his successor Victor Amadeus II in the next century. Of particular importance were the founding of militias in Savoy
Savoy
and the establishment of the first public school-system in 1661. A cultured man, but also a great statesman, Charles Emmanuel imitated Louis XIV. He wanted to limit this[which?] to the court in the sumptuous palace of Venaria Reale, a masterpiece of Baroque architecture, and a copy recreated in Italy
Italy
of the magnificence of the Palace of Versailles. It was a time of great urban expansion, and Charles Emmanuel II promoted the growth of Turin
Turin
and its reconstruction in the baroque style. After his death in 1675, there followed the period of the regency (1675-1684) of his widow, the new Madama Reale, Maria Giovanna Battista of Savoy-Nemours. From duchy to kingdom[edit] The son of Charles Emmanuel II, Victor Amadeus II, was kept under the regency of his mother, the French born Marie Jeanne of Savoy. In the early years of the reign, his energetic mother attempted to unite the crown of Savoy
Savoy
with the Portuguese, and thus risked compromising the very survival of the duchy ( Savoy
Savoy
would be reduced like other Italian states to a foreign power). Under the determined hand of the regent Victor Amadeus II, Savoy
Savoy
entered into bad relations with the crown in Paris, which led to the invasion of the duchy by French forces. Savoy defeated the army of Louis XIV in the Siege of Cuneo, but was dramatically defeated in the battles of Staffarda and Marsaglia. Victor Amadeus II married Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV.

Italian Peninsula in 1796.

After the War of the Great Alliance, Savoy
Savoy
sided during the first phase of the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
alongside Louis XIV. By changing alliances, a new French invasion of Savoy
Savoy
came about, with the troops of the Marquis of Fouillade defeating the troops of Savoy and chasing them into Turin. The event, which succeeded only thanks to the arrival on the battlefield of the duke's cousin, Eugene of Savoy, resolved a conflict that spread destruction in Savoy. At the end of the war in 1713, Savoy
Savoy
received Sicily, and Victor was awarded the title of King besides the title of Duke
Duke
of Savoy. According to the treaty of London of 1718, Victor Amadeus II exchanged Sicily for Sardinia
Sardinia
in 1720. Sardinia
Sardinia
was then changed into the Kingdom of Sardinia. This newly formed country was called States of Savoy
Savoy
or Kingdom of Sardinia, and was composed of several states including Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta Valley, Nice, Oneglia
Oneglia
and Sardinia. After the French Revolution, Savoy
Savoy
was occupied by French Revolutionary forces between 1792 and 1815. The country was first added to the département of Mont-Blanc; then, in 1798, it was divided between the départements of Mont-Blanc and Léman (French name of Lake Geneva). Savoy, Piedmont
Piedmont
and Nice
Nice
were restored to the States of Savoy
Savoy
at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1814–1815. In 1860, under the terms of the Treaty of Turin, the Duchy of Savoy was annexed by France. The last Duke
Duke
of Savoy, Victor Emmanuel II, became King of Italy. List of Dukes of Savoy[edit]

Amadeus VIII: 1391–1440, duke from 1416 Louis: 1440–65 Amadeus IX: 1465–72 Philibert I: 1472–82 Charles I: 1482–90, first titular King of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia of the House of Savoy Charles (II) John Amadeus: 1490–96 Philip II: 1496–97 Philibert II: 1497–1504 Charles III: 1504–53 Emmanuel Philibert: 1553–80 Charles Emmanuel I: 1580–1630 Victor Amadeus I: 1630–37 Francis Hyacinth: 1637–38 Charles Emmanuel II: 1638–75 Victor Amadeus II: 1675–1730, King of Sicily
King of Sicily
1713–1720, then King of Sardinia[note 1] Charles Emmanuel III: 1730–1773 Victor Amadeus III: 1773–1796 Charles Emmanuel IV: 1796–1802 Victor Emmanuel I: 1802–1821 Charles Felix of Sardinia: 1821–1831 Charles Albert of Sardinia: 1831–1849 Victor Emmanuel II: 1849–1861

Flag[edit] The flag of Savoy
Savoy
is white cross on a red field. It is based on a crusader flag, and as such is identical in origin to the flag of the Knights of Malta
Knights of Malta
(whence the modern Flag of Malta
Flag of Malta
and of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta), and others (flags of Denmark and Switzerland, with inverted colors those of England and Genoa, among others). It was possibly first used by Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, who went on the Second Crusade
Second Crusade
in 1147.[citation needed] In the 18th century, the letters "FERT" were sometimes added in the cantons to distinguish the flag from the Maltese one. References[edit]

^ When the Duchy of Savoy
Savoy
acquired Sicily in 1713 and later Sardinia in 1720, the title of " Duke
Duke
of Savoy", while remaining a primary title, became a lesser title to the title of King. The Duchy of Savoy remained as a state of the new country until the provincial reform of King Charles Albert, at which point the kingdom became an unitary state.

v t e

Upper Rhenish Circle
Upper Rhenish Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Basel Fulda Hersfeld Metz1 Odenheim–Bruchsal Prüm Speyer Straßburg Toul1 Verdun1 Weißenburg Worms

Secular

Bar Heitersheim Hersfeld Hesse

Darmstadt Homburg Kassel Marburg Rheinfels

Isenburg-Birstein Kaiserslautern Lorraine2 Nassau

Idstein Ottweiler Saarbrücken Usingen Weilburg

Salm

Kyrburg Salm

Savoy Simmern Solms-Braunfels Sponheim3 Veldenz / Lautereck Waldeck3 Zweibrücken

Counts and Lords

With Imp. Diet seats

Hanau

Lichtenberg Münzenberg4

Isenburg

Birstein Büdingen Büdingen-Birstein

Königstein

Mainz Stolberg

Kriechingen Leiningen

Dagsburg Hardenburg Westerburg

Salm

Grehweiler Grumbach

Solms

Hohensolms Laubach Lich Rödelheim

Wetterau Wittgenstein

Berleburg Wittgenstein

Without

Bretzenheim Dagstuhl Falkenstein Isenburg

Meerholz Wächtersbach

Mensfelden Olbrück Reipoltskirchen Salm-Dhaun Wartenberg

Cities

Décapole

Colmar Hagenau Kaisersberg Landau Mühlhausen5 Münster im Elsaß Oberehnheim Rosheim Schlettstadt Türkheim Weißenburg

Others

Frankfurt Friedberg Metz Speyer Straßburg Toul Verdun Wetzlar Worms

1 Part of the Three Bishoprics.   2 Nomeny
Nomeny
after 1737.   3 without Reichstag seat.   4 until 1736.   5 Joined Swiss Confederacy in 1515.

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

Lega dei popoli

Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

Roman Italy Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) Corsica and Sardinia
Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

Odoacer's rule (476–493) Ostrogothic rule (493–553) Vandal rule (435–534) Lombard rule (568–774)

Duchy of Benevento Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Ivrea Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States and other independent states

March of Ancona Duchy of Aosta Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) Bishopric of Bressanone Duchy of Castro Commune of Rome Marquisate of Ceva Republic of Cospaia Duchy of Ferrara Marquisate of Finale City of Fiume and its District Republic of Florence Duchy of Florence March of Friuli Republic of Genoa Republic of Noli County of Gorizia Princely County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla March of Istria Duchy of Ivrea Republic of Lucca Margravate of Mantua Duchy of Mantua Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy of Merania Duchy of Milan Duchy of Mirandola Duchy of Modena and Reggio March of Montferrat Duchy of Montferrat County of Nizza Duchy of Parma Principality of Piedmont Principality of Piombino Republic of Pisa Duchy of Reggio Marquisate of Saluzzo County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Republic of Siena Duchy of Spoleto Terra Sancti Benedicti Bishopric of Trento March of Turin March of Tuscany Grand Duchy of Tuscany County of Tirolo Duchy of Urbino March of Verona Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

Duchy of Rome (533–751) Duchy of Perugia (554–752) Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

Republic of Venice (697–1797)

Dogado Stato da Màr Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

Byzantine

Duchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of Sorrento

Arab

Emirate of Bari Emirate of Sicily

Lombard

Principality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of Capua

Norman

County of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

Giudicati

Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro

Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and Corsica Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

State of the Presidi Duke
Duke
of San Donato Duchy of Sora Principality of Taranto Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) Malta under the Order Gozo Malta Protectorate Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1792–1815)

Republics

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Monarchies

Benevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany Elba Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) Provisional Government of Milan (1848) Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
(1920–1924) Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(1943–1945) Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947-1954)

v t e

Dukes of Savoy

Amadeus VIII
Amadeus VIII
(1416–1440) Louis (1440–1465) Amadeus IX (1465–1472) Philibert I (1472–1482) Charles I (1482–1490) Charles II (1490–1496) Philip II (1496–1497) Philibert II (1497–1504) Charles III (1504–1553) Emmanuel Philibert
Emmanuel Philibert
(1553–1580) Charles Emmanuel I (1580–1630) Victor Amadeus I (1630–1637) Francis Hyacinth (1637–1638) Charles Emmanuel II (1638–1675) Victor Amadeus II (1675–1730)

v t e

States of the House of Savoy
Savoy

Kingdom of Sardinia Principality of Piedmont Duchy of Savoy Duchy of Aosta Duchy of Montferrat Duchy of Genoa County of Nice

Authority control

BNF:

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