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The Duchy of Modena
Modena
and Reggio (Italian: Ducato di Modena
Modena
e Reggio, Latin: Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I
Napoleon I
reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.[1] It was ruled from 1814 by the noble House of Este, of Austria-Este.

Contents

1 House of Este 2 House of Austria-Este 3 Provinces of the Duchy before the dissolution 4 Traditional titles 5 Knighthood orders 6 See also 7 References

House of Este[edit] In 1452 Emperor Frederick III offered the duchy to Borso d'Este, whose family had ruled the city of Modena
Modena
and nearby Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia
for centuries. Borso in 1450 had also succeeded his brother as margrave in the adjacent Papal Duchy of Ferrara, where he received the ducal title in 1471. The Este lands on the southern border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Papal States
Papal States
formed a stabilizing buffer state in the interest of both.

Ducal Palace of Modena

The first Este dukes ruled invulnerably and achieved an economic and cultural peak: Borso's successor Duke Ercole I had the city of Modena rebuilt according to plans designed by Biagio Rossetti, his successors were patrons of artists like Titian
Titian
and Ludovico Ariosto. In the War of the League of Cambrai from 1508, troops from Modena
Modena
fought in Papal service against the Republic of Venice. Upon the death of Duke Alfonso II in 1597, the ducal line became extinct. The Este lands were bequested to Alfonso's cousin Cesare d'Este; however, the succession was not acknowledged by Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
and Ferrara
Ferrara
was finally seized by the Papacy. Cesare could retain Modena
Modena
and Reggio as Imperial fiefs. In the 1628 War of the Mantuan Succession, the dukes of Modena
Modena
sided with Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
and in turn received the town of Correggio from the hands of Emperor Ferdinand II. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Duke Rinaldo was ousted by French troops under Louis Joseph de Bourbon, he could not return until 1707. In 1711 the small Duchy of Mirandola
Mirandola
was absorbed by the Este. His successor Francesco III backed France in the 1740 War of the Austrian Succession, and was expelled by Habsburg forces, but his duchy was restored by the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1796 Modena
Modena
was again occupied by a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte, who deposed Duke Ercole III and created the Cispadane Republic out of his territory. By the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, the last Este Duke was compensated with the Breisgau
Breisgau
region of the former Further Austrian territories in southwestern Germany, and died in 1803. Following his death, the ducal title was inherited by his son-in-law, the Habsburg-Lorraine archduke Ferdinand of Austria, an uncle of Emperor Francis II. House of Austria-Este[edit] With the dissolution of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1814, following the final fall of Emperor Napoleon I
Napoleon I
after the Battle of Waterloo, Ferdinand's son, Francis IV, again assumed the rule as Duke of Modena
Modena
under the domination of the Austrian Empire (1815). Soon after, he inherited the territories of Massa
Massa
and Carrara
Carrara
from his mother. In the course of the Italian unification
Italian unification
period in the 1830s-60s, the "Austria-Este" dukes were briefly ousted in the revolutions of 1831 and 1848, but soon returned. During the Second Italian War of Independence
Second Italian War of Independence
(April to July, 1859) following the Battle of Magenta, the last Duke Francis V was again forced to flee, this time permanently. In December, Modena
Modena
joined with the Tuscany and the Parma to form the "United Provinces of Central Italy", which were annexed to the growing Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in March 1860, which led the Italian unification
Italian unification
movement, which further led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1861. Provinces of the Duchy before the dissolution[edit]

Modena
Modena
( Duchy of Modena) Reggio ( Duchy of Reggio) Guastalla Frignano Garfagnana Lunigiana Massa
Massa
and Carrara
Carrara
( Duchy of Massa
Massa
and Carrara)

Traditional titles[edit] The Duke of Modena
Modena
was:[2]

Duke of Modena
Modena
(Lord 1288, Duke 1452) and Reggio (nell'Emilia) (Lord 1289, Duke 1452) Duke of Ferrara
Ferrara
(Lord 1264, Duke 1471-1597) Duke of La Mirandola
Mirandola
(1710), Massa
Massa
(1829) and Guastalla
Guastalla
(1847) Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Carpi (1525), Correggio (1659), San Martino in Rio
San Martino in Rio
(1752) and of Carrara
Carrara
and Lunigiana
Lunigiana
(1829), Marquis of Montecchio (1597, marquessate in 1569), of Scandiano
Scandiano
(1645) and La Concordia (1710) Count palatine
Count palatine
of Novellara
Novellara
(1737) and Bagnolo (1737), Count of Jeno ed Avad (Hungary, 1726) Lord of Sassuolo
Sassuolo
(1373), San Martino in Spino (1710), Campogalliano (1752), Castellarano
Castellarano
(1752), Rodeglia (1752), Ieno and San Cassiano

Knighthood orders[edit] The Duke of Modena, since Francis V, was Grand Master of the :

Order of the Eagle of Este[3] [4] Order of Seniority of Service (it)

See also[edit]

List of Dukes of Ferrara
Ferrara
and of Modena Historical states of Italy

References[edit]

^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1 January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Taylor & Francis. pp. 446–. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ Modena
Modena
Ducale – Associazione "Legittimismo Estense" ^ Star Archived May 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.; ^ Sash & Star

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Duchy of Modena
Modena
and Reggio.

v t e

Princes of Modena

Generations start from Ercole I d'Este, first Duke of Modena

1st generation

Alfonso I, Duke of Modena Ippolito, Cardinal d'Este Prince Ferrante Prince Sigismondo Prince Alberto Ercole, Signore of San Martino

2nd generation

Prince Alessandro Ercole II, Duke of Modena Prince Alessandro Francesco, Marquis of Massalombarda Prince Alfonso Alfonsino, Marquis of Castelnuovo Sigismondo, Signore of San Martino Ippolito, Cardinal d'Este

3rd generation

Prince Alfonso Alfonso II, Duke of Modena Cesare, Duke of Modena Luigi, Cardinal of Ferrera Prince Alessandro Filipo, Marchese of San Martino

4th generation

Alfonso III, Duke of Modena Prince Cesare Prince Obizzo Prince Cesare Prince Rinaldo Prince Borso Prince Ippolito Prince Foresto Prince Bonofazio Prince Rinaldo Prince Filiberto Luigi, Lord of Montecchio and Scandiano Sigismondo, Marchese of Lanzo and Borgomanero

5th generation

Francesco I, Duke of Modena Filippo Francesco, Marquess of Lanzo Carlo Emanuele, Marquess of Lanzo

6th generation

Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena Rinaldo, Duke of Modena Prince Tedald Prince Almerigo Prince Tedald Sigismondo, Marquess of San Martino Carlo Filiberto, Marques of Borgomanero Sigismondo III, Marchese of San Martino

7th generation

Francesco II, Duke of Modena Francesco III, Duke of Modena Prince Gian Federico Prince Clemente Carlo Emanuele, Marques of Borgomanero Carlo Filiberto, Marchese of San Martino

8th generation

Prince Alfonso Prince Francesco Constantino Ercole III, Duke of Modena Benedetto Filippo, Abbot of Anchin

9th generation

Prince Reinaldo

10th generation

Prince Josef Franz* Francis IV, Duke of Modena* Prince Ferdinand Karl Joseph* Prince Maximilian* Prince Karl*

11th generation

Francis V, Duke of Modena* Prince Ferdinand Karl Viktor*

*also Archduke of Austria

v t e

Princesses of Modena

Generations start from Ercole I d'Este, first Duke of Modena

1st generation

Isabella, Marchioness of Mantua Beatrice, Duchess of Milan Princess Caterina Princess Angela Caterina

2nd generation

Princess Leonora Princess Isabella Maria

3rd generation

Anna, Duchess of Guise, Duchess of Nemours Lucrezia, Duchess of Urbino Princess Eleonora Princess Angela Caterina

4th generation

Princess Julia Maria Laura, Duchess of Mirandola Princess Caterina Princess Angela Caterina

5th generation

Princess Caterina Maria Margarete, Duchess of Guastalla Princess Beatrice Princess Beatrice Anna Beatrice, Duchess of Mirandola Ippolita, Lady of Montecchio and Scandiano

6th generation

Isabella, Duchess of Parma Princess Leonore Princess Eleonore Maria, Duchess of Parma Princess Vittoria Matilde, Countess of Novellara Maria Angela Caterina, Princess of Carignan Princess Julia Princess Julia

7th generation

Maria Beatrice, Queen of England Princess Benedetta Amalia, Marchioness of Villeneuf Enrichetta, Duchess of Parma

8th generation

Maria Teresa Felicitas, Duchess of Penthièvre Princess Mathilde Maria Fortunata, Princess of Conti Maria Anna, Princess of Paliano

9th generation

Maria Beatrice, Duchess of Massa

10th generation

Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia* Princess Josepha* Maria Leopoldine, Electress of Bavaria* Princess Maria Antonia* Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria*

11th generation

Maria Theresa, Duchess of Orléans* Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón*

12th generation

Princess Anna Beatrice* Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria*

* also Archduchess of Austria

v t e

Princesses of Modena
Modena
by marriage

1st generation

Princess Eleanor of Naples

2nd generation

Anna Sforza Lucrezia Borgia Laura Eustachia Dianti

3rd generation

Princess Renée of France Maria de Cardona Giulia della Rovere

4th generation

Lucrezia de' Medici Archduchess Barbara of Austria Margherita Gonzaga Virginia de' Medici

5th generation

Princess Isabella of Savoy Ippolita d'Este^ Françoise d'Hôtel

6th generation

Maria Caterina Farnese Vittoria Farnese d'Este Lucrezia Barberini Princess Margherita of Savoy Teresa Maria Grimaldi

7th generation

Laura Martinozzi Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg Therese de Mesmes de Marolles

8th generation

Margherita Maria Farnese Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans Maria Teresa Sfondrati

9th generation

Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina, Duchess of Massa

10th generation

None

11th generation

Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy

12th generation

Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria

^also a princess of Modena
Modena
in her own right

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.