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The Duchy of Mantua
Mantua
was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History[edit]

Vincenzo II Gonzaga, by Peter Paul Rubens

Ludovico III receiving the news of his son Francesco being elected cardinal, fresco by Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
in the Stanza degli Sposi of the Palazzo Ducale.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Mantua
Mantua
was invaded by Byzantines, Lombards
Lombards
and Franks. In the 11th century it became a possession of Boniface of Canossa, marquis of Toscana. The last ruler of the family was the countess Matilde of Canossa (died 1115), who, according to legend, ordered the construction of the precious Rotonda di San Lorenzo (1082). After the death of Matilde of Canossa, Mantua became a free commune and strenuously defended itself from the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 12th and 13th centuries. During the Investiture Controversy, Pinamonte Bonacolsi took advantage of the chaotic situation to seize power—as Captain General of the People—in 1273. His family ruled Mantua
Mantua
for the next century, making it more prosperous and artistically beautiful. On 16 August 1328, the last Bonacolsi, Rinaldo, was overthrown in a revolt backed by the House of Gonzaga, a family of officials, namely the 60-year-old Luis and his sons Guy, Filippino and Feltrino. Ludovico, who had been podestà of the city in 1318, was elected capitano del popolo ("people's captain"). The Gonzaga built new walls with five gates and renovated the architecture of the city in the 14th century, but the political situation in the city did not settle until Ludovico II eliminated his relatives, seizing power for himself in 1370. Through a payment of 120,000 golden florins in 1433, Gianfrancesco was appointed marquis of Mantua
Mantua
by Emperor Sigismund, whose niece Barbara of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
he married. In 1459 Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II
held a diet in Mantua to proclaim a crusade against the Turks. The first duke of Mantua
Mantua
was Federico II, who acquired the title from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
in 1530. The following year, the family acquired the Marquisate
Marquisate
of Montferrat through marriage. Federico commissioned Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
to build the famous Palazzo Te, in the periphery of the city, and profoundly improved the urbanistic assets of the city. In 1624, Ferdinando Gonzaga moved the ducal seat to a new residence, the Villa della Favorita, designed by the architect Nicolò Sebregondi. In 1627, the direct line of the Gonzaga family came to an end with the vicious and weak Vincenzo II, and the town slowly declined under the new rulers, the Gonzaga Nevers, a cadet French branch of the family. The War of the Mantuan Succession
War of the Mantuan Succession
broke out, and in 1630 an Imperial army of 36,000 Landsknecht
Landsknecht
mercenaries besieged Mantua, bringing the plague with them. Mantua
Mantua
never recovered from this disaster. Duke
Duke
Ferdinand Charles, an inept ruler whose only aim was to hold parties and theatrical representations, allied with France in the War of the Spanish Succession. After the latter's defeat, he was declared deposed by Emperor Joseph I and took refuge in Venice, carrying with him a thousand pictures. At his death, in 1708 his family lost Mantua forever in favour of the Habsburgs of Austria. Montferrat's territories were ceded to the Duke
Duke
of Savoy, and the emperor compensated the Duke
Duke
of Lorraine, heir in female line of the Gonzaga, for the loss of Montferrat by ceding him the Duchy of Teschen. Mantua
Mantua
was briefly united with the Duchy of Milan by an edict of Emperor Joseph II
Emperor Joseph II
on 26 September 1786, but later restored in its separated administration by Emperor Leopold II
Emperor Leopold II
on 24 January 1791. Mantua
Mantua
was besieged by Napoleon's French army in 1796, before falling in 1797. With the Treaty of Campo Formio, Mantua
Mantua
was annexed to the Cisalpine Republic
Cisalpine Republic
becoming the Department of Mincio. See also[edit]

Duke
Duke
of Mantua

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

(in English) "The House of Gonzaga, heirs to the sovereign marquessate of Mantua" (in Italian) I Gonzaga di Mantova

v t e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

Lega dei popoli

Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

Roman Kingdom
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(509 BC–27 BC)

Roman Italy Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) Corsica and Sardinia
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(238 BC–455 AD)

Roman Empire
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(27 BC–395 AD)

Praetorian prefecture of Italy
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(285 AD–476 AD)

Medieval and Early Modern states

Early Italian Kingdom (476-774)

Odoacer's rule (476–493) Ostrogothic rule (493–553) Vandal rule (435–534) Lombard rule (568–774)

Duchy of Benevento Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Ivrea Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman Kingdom of Italy (774/962–1806), Papal States and other independent states

March of Ancona Duchy of Aosta Patria del Friuli
Patria del Friuli
(Patriarchate of Aquileia) Bishopric of Bressanone Duchy of Castro Commune of Rome Marquisate
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of Ceva Republic of Cospaia Duchy of Ferrara Marquisate
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County of Gorizia
and Gradisca County of Guastalla Duchy of Guastalla March of Istria Duchy of Ivrea Republic of Lucca Margravate of Mantua Duchy of Mantua Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy of Merania Duchy of Milan Duchy of Mirandola Duchy of Modena and Reggio March of Montferrat Duchy of Montferrat County of Nizza Duchy of Parma Principality of Piedmont Principality of Piombino Republic of Pisa Duchy of Reggio Marquisate
Marquisate
of Saluzzo County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Republic of Siena Duchy of Spoleto Terra Sancti Benedicti Bishopric of Trento March of Turin March of Tuscany Grand Duchy of Tuscany County of Tirolo Duchy of Urbino March of Verona Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (584-751)

Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(584–751)

Duchy of Rome (533–751) Duchy of Perugia (554–752) Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

Republic of Venice (697–1797)

Dogado Stato da Màr Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

Byzantine

Duchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of Sorrento

Arab

Emirate of Bari Emirate of Sicily

Lombard

Principality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of Capua

Norman

County of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

Giudicati

Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro

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and Corsica Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

State of the Presidi Duke
Duke
of San Donato Duchy of Sora Principality of Taranto Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) Malta under the Order Gozo Malta Protectorate Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1792–1815)

Republics

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Monarchies

Benevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany Elba Corsica

Post-Napoleonic states

Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) Provisional Government of Milan (1848) Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) United Provinces of Central Italy
United Provinces of Central Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(1861–1946)

Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
(1920–1924) Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(1943–1945) Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(1947-1954)

Authority control

GND: 4669636-2

Coordinates: 45°09′37.3″N 10°47′49.2″E / 45.160361°N 10.797000°E / 45

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