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The Duchy of Carinthia
Carinthia
(German: Herzogtum Kärnten; Slovene: Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria
Austria
and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State
Imperial State
after the original German stem duchies. Carinthia
Carinthia
remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until its dissolution in 1806, though from 1335 it was ruled within the Austrian dominions of the Habsburg dynasty. A constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire, it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite
Carinthian Plebiscite
in October 1920, the main area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Establishment 1.2 Eppensteins and Sponheims 1.3 Habsburgs 1.4 World War I
World War I
and Carinthian Plebiscite

2 Area and population

2.1 Linguistic composition 2.2 Religious composition

3 Dukes of Carinthia

3.1 Various dynasties 3.2 House of Sponheim 3.3 Various dynasties 3.4 Gorizia-Tyrol 3.5 House of Habsburg

3.5.1 Leopoldian line 3.5.2 Habsburg territories reunified in 1458 3.5.3 Inner Austrian Habsburgs

4 See also 5 Notes and references 6 External links

History[edit] In the seventh century the area was part of the Slavic principality of Carantania, which fell under the suzerainty of Duke Odilo of Bavaria in about 743. The Bavarian stem duchy was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
when Charlemagne
Charlemagne
deposed Odilo's son Duke Tassilo III in 788. In the 843 partition by the Treaty of Verdun, Carinthia became part of East Francia
East Francia
under King Louis the German. From 889 to 976 it was the Carinthian March of the renewed Bavarian duchy, though in 927 the local Count Berthold of the Luitpolding dynasty was vested with ducal rights by the German king Henry the Fowler. After Berthold became Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
in 938, both territories were ruled by him. Upon his death in 948 the Luitpoldings, though heirs of the royal Ottonian dynasty, were not able to retain their possessions, as King Otto I bought the loyalty of his younger brother Henry I with the Bavarian lands. Establishment[edit]

Duchy of Carinthia
Carinthia
with Styrian, Carniolan and Istrian marches (blue)

Duke Henry's son Henry II "the Quarreller" from 974 onwards, revolted against his cousin Emperor Otto II, whereupon he was deposed as Duke of Bavaria in favour of Otto's nephew Duke Otto I of Swabia. At the same time Emperor Otto II created a sixth duchy in addition to the original stem duchies, the new Duchy of Carinthia. He reverted the possession of the territories to the Luitpoldings, when he split Carinthia
Carinthia
from the Bavarian lands and installed the former Duke Berthold's son Henry the Younger as duke in 976. Over the centuries, the name 'Carinthia' (Kärnten) gradually replaced former 'Carantania'. The realm of the Carinthian dukes initially comprised a vast territory including the marches of Styria (marchia Carantana), Carniola and Istria, they also ruled over the Italian March of Verona
March of Verona
in the south. Nevertheless, Henry the Younger was the first and also the last Luitpolding duke; as he chose to join the unsuccessful War of the Three Henries against Emperor Otto II, he lost Carinthia
Carinthia
two years later and was succeeded by the Emperor's nephew Otto I, a scion of the Salian dynasty. Though Henry once again managed to regain the ducal title in 985, Carinthia
Carinthia
upon his death in 989 fell back to the Imperial Ottonian dynasty
Ottonian dynasty
in Bavaria. Eppensteins and Sponheims[edit]

Duchy of Carinthia
Carinthia
at its maximum expansion

Carinthia
Carinthia
however remained a separate entity, and in 1012 Count Adalbero I of Eppenstein, Margrave of Styria since about 1000, was vested with the duchy by the last Ottonian emperor Henry II, while the Istrian march was separated and given to Count Poppo of Weimar. Adalbero was removed from office in 1035 after he had fallen out of favour with the Salian Emperor Conrad II. In 1039 Carinthia
Carinthia
was inherited by Emperor Henry III himself, who split off the Carniolan march the following year and granted it to Margrave Poppo of Istria. In 1077, the duchy was given to Luitpold, again a member of the Eppensteiner family, which, however, became extinct with the death of Luitpold's son Henry III of Carinthia
Carinthia
in 1122. Upon his death the duchy was further reduced in area: a large part of the Eppenstein lands in what is today Upper Styria
Upper Styria
passed to Margrave Ottokar II of Styria. The remainder of Carinthia
Carinthia
passed from Duke Henry III to his godchild Henry from the House of Sponheim, who ruled as Henry IV, from 1122 to his early death the following year.[1] The most outstanding of the Spanheim dukes was Bernhard, the first Carinthian duke who was actually described and honoured in documents as "prince of the land".[1] The last Spanheim duke was Ulrich III; he signed an inheritance treaty with his brother Archbishop Philip of Salzburg, who however could not prevail against the Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl. In spite of being supported by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, who defeated Ottokar II at the Battle on the Marchfeld
Battle on the Marchfeld
in 1278, Philip never gained actual power. The duchy was seized by Rudolph and Philip died a year later in 1279. Habsburgs[edit] Rudolf, after being elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
and defeating King Ottokar II, at first gave Carinthia
Carinthia
to Count Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol. In 1335, after the death of Henry, the last male of this line, Emperor Louis the Bavarian gave Carinthia
Carinthia
and the southern part of the Tyrol as an imperial fief to the Habsburg family on 2 May in Linz. The Habsburgs would continue to rule Carinthia
Carinthia
until 1918. As with the other component parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, Carinthia remained a semi-autonomous state with its own constitutional structure for a long time. The Habsburgs divided up their territories within the family twice, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg
Treaty of Neuberg
and again in 1564. Each time, the Duchy of Carinthia
Carinthia
became part of Inner Austria and was ruled jointly with the adjacent duchies of Styria and Carniola.

Early 18th century map of Carinthia
Carinthia
showing fiefs owned by Salzburg and Bamberg.

Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
Austria
and her son Joseph II attempted to create a more unitary Habsburg state, and in 1804 Carinthia
Carinthia
was integrated into the newly established Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
under Francis II/I. According to the 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn, the Upper Carinthian territories around Villach
Villach
formed part of the short-lived Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces; Carinthia
Carinthia
as a whole remained a part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Illyria until its dissolution in 1849. In 1867, the duchy became a crown land of Cisleithania, the western part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(see History of Austria).

Cisleithanian crown land of Carinthia
Carinthia
within Austria-Hungary

Over the centuries, the German language, which carried more prestige, expanded at the expense of Slovene, but the fact that in the 16th century the Estates of Carinthia
Carinthia
could still point out that Carinthia was "a Windic Archduchy", i.e. a sovereign Slovene principality, shows that the Carinthian people were aware of their ancient and pre-German roots. World War I
World War I
and Carinthian Plebiscite[edit] Main article: Carinthian Plebiscite During World War I, Carinthia
Carinthia
experienced a relatively high number of war deaths: thirty-seven for every 1,000 inhabitants. This was higher than in most other German-speaking areas of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(except German South Moravia).[2] Following the end of the war and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain stipulated the Carinthian Canal Valley stretching from Tarvisio
Tarvisio
as far as Pontafel (172 square miles)[3] go to Italy
Italy
and that the Slovene-speaking areas of the Meža Valley, the Drava Valley area around Unterdrauburg, which was afterwards renamed Dravograd, and the Jezersko area (128 square miles of territory)[3] be ceded to the new SHS State. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, however, was not satisfied with these parts of the former duchy and also occupied land north of the Karawanks mountain range, including the capital city of Klagenfurt. The Entente powers decided on a two-stage referendum, of which the first stage, the Carinthian Plebiscite
Carinthian Plebiscite
was held on 10 October 1920 to determine the fate of Carinthia. The outcome in favour of Austria
Austria
did not change the borders as decided upon in the Treaty of Saint-Germain.

Klagenfurt
Klagenfurt
Landhaus

Prince's Stone
Prince's Stone
(Knežji kamen)

Duke's Chair
Duke's Chair
(Vojvodski prestol)

The Austrian part of the former duchy today forms the federal state of Carinthia
Carinthia
(German: Land Kärnten), while the area that was ceded to Italy
Italy
as a part of the claimed "Julian March" belongs to the autonomous region of Friuli–Venezia Giulia. Most of the area awarded to Yugoslavia (cf. Slovenian Carinthia) now forms part of the larger Carinthia
Carinthia
Statistical Region in Slovenia. Area and population[edit] Area:

Total: 10,327 km²

Population (1910 Census):

Total: 396,228

Linguistic composition[edit] According to the last Austrian Imperial census of 1910, the Duchy of Carinthia
Carinthia
was composed of the following linguistic communities: Total: 396,228

German: 304,315 (76.80%) Slovene: 82,212 (20.75%) Italian: 82 (0.02%) Other languages or foreigners: 9,619 (2.43%)

The Austrian censuses did not count ethnic groups, nor the mother tongue, but the "language of daily interaction" (Umgangssprache). Religious composition[edit] Total: 396,228

Roman Catholics: 371,361 (93.72%) Protestants: 24,299 (6.13%) Jewish: 341 (0.09%) Other religions or unknown: 227 (0.06%)

Dukes of Carinthia[edit] Various dynasties[edit] Luitpoldings

Henry I (976–978)

Salian dynasty

Otto I (978–985)

Luitpoldings

Henry I (985–989), again, Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
983–985

Ottonian dynasty

Henry II (989–995), also Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
985–995 Henry III (995–1002), also Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
995–1005

Salian dynasty

Otto I (1002–1004), again Conrad I (1004–1011)

House of Eppenstein

Adalbero (1011–1035)

Salian dynasty

Conrad II (1036–1039) Henry IV (1039–1047), also Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
1026–1041 and Holy Roman Emperor (as Henry III) 1046–1056

Elder House of Welf

Welf (1047–1055)

Ezzonids

Conrad III (1056–1061)

House of Zähringen

Berthold II (1061–1077)

House of Eppenstein

Luitpold (1077–1090) Henry IV (1090–1122)

House of Sponheim[edit]

Carinthian ducal coat of arms until 1246

Carinthian coat of arms from 1246

Henry IV (1122–1123 ) Engelbert (1123–1134) Ulrich I (1134–1144) Henry V (1144–1161) Herman (1161–1181) Ulrich II (1181–1201) Bernhard (regent from 1199, duke 1202-1256) Ulrich III (1256–1269)

Various dynasties[edit] Přemyslid dynasty

Otakar (1269–1276), also King of Bohemia 1253-1278

House of Habsburg

Rudolph I (1276–1286), also King of Germany 1273-1291

Gorizia-Tyrol[edit]

Meinhard (1286–1295) Henry VI (1295–1335), also King of Bohemia 1306/1307-1310, jointly with his brothers

Louis (1295–1305) Otto III (1295–1310)

House of Habsburg[edit]

Otto IV (1335–1339), jointly with his brother

Albert II (1335–1358)

Frederick (1358–1362), jointly with his brother

Rudolph II (1358–1365)

Albert III (1365–1379)

Leopoldian line[edit]

Leopold (1379–1386) William (1386–1406)

Ernest (1406–1424) Frederick (1424–1493)

Habsburg territories reunified in 1458[edit]

Maximilian I (1493–1519), also Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
1508-1519 Charles I (1519–1521), also Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
1519-1556 Ferdinand I (1521–1564), also Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
1558-1564

Inner Austrian Habsburgs[edit]

Charles II (1564–1590) Ferdinand II (1590–1637), also Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
1619-1637

Carinthia
Carinthia
was unified with the rest of the Habsburg territories again in 1619. See List of rulers of Austria See also[edit]

Carantania Carantanians Carinthian Slovenes History of Austria History of Slovenia Black panther (symbol)

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b Mediaeval Genealogy Archived December 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 1976. p 218. ^ a b ”Kärnten.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago 2010.

Kärnten (Religious population data is inacurate)

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Carinthia.

Map of the Balkans (1815–59)

v t e

Austrian Circle
Austrian Circle
of the Holy Roman Empire

Habsburg lands

Austria Carinthia Carniola Further Austria
Austria
(Altdorf Bregenz Breisgau Burgau Hohenberg Konstanz Ortenau Stockach Sundgau
Sundgau
(until 1648) Tettnang Winnweiler) Gorizia Istria Styria Tarasp Trieste Tyrol

 Prince-Bishoprics

Brixen Chur Trent

Teutonic bailiwicks

An der Etsch Austria

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire

Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom of Slavonia Archduchy
Archduchy
of Austria Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Styria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Grand Principality of Transylvania Margravate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Tyrol County of Gorizia
County of Gorizia
and Gradisca Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat Imperial Free City of Trieste Military Frontier

v t e

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania

Archduchy
Archduchy
of Austria Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Austrian Littoral

Gorizia and Gradisca Istria Trieste

Margraviate of Moravia Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Duchy of Styria County of Tyrol

Transleithania

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Fiume and its surroundings Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(1867–1882)

Condominiums

Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) Carpathian passes (1918) Concession zone in Tia

.