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Duce
Duce
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈduːtʃe], leader) is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke. National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
leader Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
was identified by Fascists as Il Duce
Duce
("The Leader") of the movement. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce
Duce
del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency
Excellency
Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism
Fascism
and Founder of the Empire").[1] Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers: this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy
Italy
on behalf of the King of Italy. Founder of the Empire was added for the exclusive use by Mussolini in recognition of his founding of an official legal entity of the Italian Empire
Italian Empire
on behalf of the King in 1936 following Italy's victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The position was held by Mussolini until 1943, when he was removed from office by the King and the position of "Duce" was dismantled, while Marshal Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
was appointed Presidente del Consiglio. This position was the model which other fascist leaders adopted, such as the position of Führer
Führer
by Adolf Hitler. In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the " Duce
Duce
of the Italian Social Republic" (Italian: Duce
Duce
della Repubblica Sociale Italiana), and held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
and his death in April 1945.[2]

Contents

1 History of the term 2 Succession 3 List

3.1 Duce
Duce
of Italian Fascism 3.2 Duce
Duce
of the Italian Social Republic

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History of the term[edit] The title was used outside its traditional noble sense in some of the publications praising Garibaldi
Garibaldi
during the Unification of Italy
Unification of Italy
in 1860, though not taken up officially by Garibaldi
Garibaldi
himself.[3] ' Duce
Duce
Supremo' ("Supreme Leader") was more formally used by Victor Emmanuel III in 1915, during World War I, referring to his role as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The term was also used by Gabriele d'Annunzio
Gabriele d'Annunzio
as dictator of the self-proclaimed Italian Regency of Carnaro in 1920, and most significantly by the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. The painting 'Il Duce' by Gerardo Dottori
Gerardo Dottori
represents Mussolini, and the title 'Il Duce' has become associated with Fascism and is no longer in common use other than in reference to him. Because of modern anti-fascist sentiment, Italian speakers in general now use other words for leader, mainly including the English loanword. However, the term duce survives as an antonomasia for Benito Mussolini. Succession[edit] Mussolini intended that the Grand Council of Fascism
Grand Council of Fascism
would choose a successor from a list of three men chosen by him, and submit the name for approval by the king. As of 1940 he may have been preparing son in law Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
for the role.[4] List[edit] Duce
Duce
of Italian Fascism[edit]

Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of office Party

Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) 24 December 1925 25 July 1943 National Fascist Party

Duce
Duce
of the Italian Social Republic[edit]

Portrait Name (Born–Died) Term of office Party

Benito Mussolini (1883–1945) 23 September 1943 25 April 1945 Republican Fascist Party

See also[edit]

Caudillo Conducător Doge Führer Poglavnik Roman dictator Supreme Leader (other)

References[edit]

^ Image Description: Propaganda
Propaganda
poster of Benito Mussolini, with caption "His Excellency
Excellency
Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire ...". ^ Quartermaine, L. (2000). Mussolini's Last Republic: Propaganda
Propaganda
and Politics in the Italian Social Republic. p. 21 ^ Lucy Riall, "Garibaldi, Invention of a Hero", London, 2007, Ch. 9 ^ Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 255,257–258. 

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of duce at Wiktionary

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