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DUCE (Italian pronunciation: , leader) is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux , and cognate with duke . National Fascist Party leader Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
was identified by Fascists as Il Duce ("The Leader ") of the movement. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce
Duce
del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism
Fascism
and Founder of the Empire"). Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers : this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy
Italy
on behalf of the King of Italy
Italy
. Founder of the Empire was added for the exclusive use by Mussolini in recognition of his founding of an official legal entity of the Italian Empire
Italian Empire
on behalf of the King in 1936 following Italy's victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
. The position was held by Mussolini until 1943, when he was removed from office by the King and the position of "Duce" was dismantled, while Marshal Pietro Badoglio was appointed Presidente del Consiglio.

This position was the model which other fascist leaders adopted, such as the position of Führer
Führer
by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the " Duce
Duce
of the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
" (Italian : Duce
Duce
della Repubblica Sociale Italiana), and held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
and his death in April 1945.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of the term "Duce" * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links

HISTORY OF THE TERM "DUCE"

The title was used outside its traditional noble sense in some of the publications praising Garibaldi
Garibaldi
during the Unification of Italy
Unification of Italy
in 1860, though not taken up officially by Garibaldi
Garibaldi
himself.

' Duce
Duce
Supremo' ("Supreme Leader") was more formally used by Victor Emmanuel III in 1915, during World War I, referring to his role as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The term was also used by Gabriele d\'Annunzio as dictator of the self-proclaimed Italian Regency of Carnaro in 1920, and most significantly by the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
. The painting 'Il Duce' by Gerardo Dottori represents Mussolini, and the title 'Il Duce' has become associated with Fascism
Fascism
and is no longer in common use other than in reference to him. Because of modern anti-fascist sentiment, Italian speakers in general now use other words for leader, mainly including the English loanword. However, the term duce survives as an antonomasia for Benito Mussolini.

SEE ALSO

* Caudillo * Conducător * Doge
Doge
* Führer
Führer
* Poglavnik * Roman dictator
Roman dictator
* Supreme Leader (other)

REFERENCES

* ^ Image Description: Propaganda
Propaganda
poster of Benito Mussolini, with caption "His Excellency
Excellency
Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire ...". * ^ Quartermaine, L. (2000). Mussolini\'s Last Republic: Propaganda and Politics in the Italian Social Republic. p. 21 * ^ Lucy Riall, "Garibaldi, Invention of a Hero", London, 2007,

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