HOME
The Info List - Dubai



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

DUBAI (/duːˈbaɪ/ _doo-BY_ ; Arabic : دبي‎‎ _Dubayy_, Gulf pronunciation: ) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is located on the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and is the capital of the Emirate
Emirate
of Dubai
Dubai
, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Dubai
Dubai
are the only two emirates to have veto power over critical matters of national importance in the country\'s legislature . The city of Dubai
Dubai
is located on the emirate's northern coastline and heads the Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area . Dubai
Dubai
will host World Expo 2020 .

Dubai
Dubai
emerged as a global city and business hub of the Middle East
Middle East
. It is also a major transport hub for passengers and cargo. By the 1960s, Dubai\'s economy was based on revenues from trade and, to a smaller extent, oil exploration concessions, but oil was not discovered until 1966. Oil
Oil
revenue first started to flow in 1969. Dubai's oil revenue helped accelerate the early development of the city, but its reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil.

The Emirate's Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism , aviation, real estate, and financial services. Dubai
Dubai
was recently named the best destination for Muslim
Muslim
travellers by Salam Standard. Dubai
Dubai
has recently attracted world attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings , in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
. Dubai
Dubai
has been criticised for human rights violations concerning the city's largely South Asian and Filipino workforce. Dubai's property market experienced a major deterioration in 2008–09 following the financial crisis of 2007–08 , but the emirate's economy has made a return to growth, with a projected 2015 budget surplus.

As of 2012 , Dubai
Dubai
was the 22nd most expensive city in the world and the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world, after Geneva
Geneva
. Dubai
Dubai
was rated as one of the best places to live in the Middle East
Middle East
by U.S. global consulting firm Mercer .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-oil Dubai
Dubai
* 2.2 Oil
Oil
era * 2.3 Reaching the UAE\'s Act of Union * 2.4 Modern Dubai
Dubai

* 3 Geography * 4 Climate

* 5 Governance and politics

* 5.1 Law enforcement * 5.2 Sharia laws

* 6 Human rights

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Ethnicity and languages

* 7.2 Religion

* 7.2.1 Minorities

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Tourism and retail

* 8.1.1 Ski Dubai
Dubai

* 8.2 Expo 2020

* 9 Cityscape

* 9.1 Architecture

* 9.1.1 Burj Al Arab * 9.1.2 Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa

* 9.2 Artificial Islands

* 9.2.1 Palm Jumeirah

* 9.3 Dubai
Dubai
Miracle Garden

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Road * 10.2 Air * 10.3 Metro rail * 10.4 Palm Jumeirah Monorail
Monorail
* 10.5 Tram * 10.6 High speed rail * 10.7 Waterways

* 11 Culture

* 11.1 Food

* 11.1.1 Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival

* 11.2 Entertainment * 11.3 Dubai
Dubai
Shopping Festival * 11.4 Media

* 11.5 Sports

* 11.5.1 Cricket
Cricket

* 11.6 Dress code

* 12 Education * 13 Healthcare * 14 Notable people

* 15 International relations

* 15.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References * 19 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the _souq _, which was similar to the _souq_ in Ba. Another theory states that the name came from a word meaning "money", as people from Dubai
Dubai
were commonly believed to be rich due to the thriving trading centre of the location. An Arabic proverb says "_Daba Dubai_" (Arabic : دبا دبي‎‎), meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai
Dubai
may have come from the word _daba_ (Arabic : دبا‎‎) (a past tense derivative of _yadub_ (Arabic : يدب‎‎), which means "to creep"), referring to the slow flow of Dubai
Dubai
Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust " (Arabic : جراد‎‎) due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement. An inhabitant or native of the city is a _Dubaian_.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Dubai
Dubai
and Timeline of Dubai
Dubai
Typical scene in old Dubai, Old District of Al Bastakiya

Although stone tools have been found at many archaeological sites, little is known about the UAE's early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found. Many ancient towns in the area were trading centres between the Eastern and Western worlds. The remnants of an ancient mangrove swamp , dated at 7000 BC, were discovered during the construction of sewer lines near Dubai
Dubai
Internet City
City
. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam
Islam
to the area, the people in this region worshiped _ Bajir _ (or _Bajar_). After the spread of Islam
Islam
in the region, the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia
Arabia
and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai
Dubai
Museum in the region of _Al-Jumayra_ ( Jumeirah ) found several artefacts from the Umayyad
Umayyad
period.

The earliest recorded mention of Dubai
Dubai
is in 1095 in the _Book of Geography_ by the Andalusian -Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri . The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai
Dubai
(_Dibei_) for its pearling industry.

Dubai
Dubai
is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Baniyas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnoon of Abu Dhabi.

In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasa tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
was led by Ubaid bin Saeed and Maktum bin Butti who became joint leaders of Dubai
Dubai
until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty.

Dubai
Dubai
signed the first treaty of Perpetual Maritime Truce in 1820 along with other Trucial States
Trucial States
, which was followed by a further treaty in 1853. It also – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892 .

Two catastrophes struck the town during the 1800s. First, in 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai
Dubai
locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira . Then, in 1894, fire swept through Deira, burning down most homes. However, the town's geographical location continued to attract traders and merchants from around the region. The emir of Dubai
Dubai
was keen to attract foreign traders and lowered trade tax brackets, which lured traders away from Sharjah and Bandar Lengeh , the region's main trade hubs at the time. Persian merchants naturally looked across to the Arab shore of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
finally making their homes in Dubai. They continued to trade with Lingah, however, as do many of the dhows in Dubai
Dubai
Creek today, and they named their district Bastakiya, after the Bastak region in southern Persia.

PRE-OIL DUBAI

Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran
Iran
made it an important trade location. The town of Dubai
Dubai
was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town. By the beginning of the 20th century, it was an important port.

Dubai
Dubai
was known for its pearl exports until the 1930s; the pearl trade was damaged irreparably by the Great Depression
Great Depression
in the 1930s and the innovation of cultured pearls . With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai
Dubai
fell into a deep depression and many residents starved or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf. The Al Ras district in Deira , Dubai
Dubai
in the 1960s

In the early days since its inception, Dubai
Dubai
was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
. In 1947, a border dispute between Dubai
Dubai
and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border escalated into war. Arbitration by the British and the creation of a buffer frontier running south eastwards from the coast at Ras Hasian resulted in a temporary cessation of hostilities.

Despite a lack of oil, Dubai's ruler from 1958, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
, used revenue from trading activities to build infrastructure. Private companies were established to build and operate infrastructure, including electricity, telephone services and both the ports and airport operators. An airport of sorts (a runway built on salt flats) was established in Dubai
Dubai
in the 1950s and, in 1959, the emirate's first hotel, the Airlines Hotel, was constructed. This was followed by the Ambassador and Carlton Hotels in 1968.

On 7 April 1961, the Dubai-based MV Dara , a five thousand ton British flagged vessel that plied the route between Basra
Basra
(Iraq), Kuwait
Kuwait
and Bombay
Bombay
(India), was caught in unusually high winds off Dubai. Early the next morning in heavy seas off Umm al-Quwain, an explosion tore out the second class cabins and started fires. The captain gave the order to abandon ship but two lifeboats capsized and a second explosion occurred. A flotilla of small boats from Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman
Ajman
and Umm al-Quwain picked up survivors but in all 238 lives were lost in the disaster.

In 1962 the British Political Agent noted that "Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built... the Ruler is determined, against advice to press on with the construction of a jet airport... More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright."

In 1962, with expenditure on infrastructure projects already approaching levels some thought imprudent, Sheikh Rashid approached his brother in law, the Ruler of Qatar, for a loan to build the first bridge crossing Dubai's creek. This crossing was finished in May 1963 and was paid for by a toll levied on the crossing from the Dubai
Dubai
side of the creek to the Deira side.

BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats. However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai
Dubai
Airport was constructed in 1965, opening Dubai
Dubai
to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing for landing rights. In 1970 a new airport terminal building was constructed which included Dubai's first duty-free shops .

OIL ERA

After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off Dubai in 1966, albeit in far smaller quantities. The first field was named 'Fateh' or 'good fortune'. This led the emirate to grant concessions to international oil companies, thus leading to a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and Middle easterners. Between 1968 and 1975 the city's population grew by over 300%.

As part of the infrastructure for pumping and transporting oil from the Fateh field, located offshore of the Jebel Ali area of Dubai, a number of 50,000 gallon storage tanks were built, known locally as 'Kazzans', by welding them together on the beach and then digging them out and floating them to drop onto the seabed at the Fateh field. These were constructed by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company , which gave the beach its local name (Chicago Beach) until the Chicago Beach Hotel
Hotel
was demolished and replaced by the Jumeirah Beach Hotel
Hotel
in the late 1990s.

Dubai
Dubai
had already embarked on a period of infrastructural development and expansion. Oil
Oil
revenue, flowing from 1969 onwards supported a period of growth with Sheikh Rashid embarking on a policy of building infrastructure and a diversified trading economy before the emirate's limited reserves were depleted. Oil
Oil
accounted for 24% of GDP in 1990, but had reduced to 7% of GDP by 2004.

Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed by British company Halcrow . Originally intended to be a four-berth port, it was extended to sixteen berths as construction was ongoing. The project was an outstanding success, with shipping queuing to access the new facilities. The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built. Port Rashid was to be further expanded in 1975 to add a further 35 berths before the larger port of Jebel Ali was constructed.

Port Rashid
Port Rashid
was the first of a swathe of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals.

REACHING THE UAE\'S ACT OF UNION

Dubai
Dubai
and the other 'trucial states ' had long been a British protectorate where the British took care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf. This was to change with PM Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
's announcement, on 16 January 1968, that all British troops were to be withdrawn from 'East of Aden'. The decision was to pitch the coastal emirates, together with Qatar
Qatar
and Bahrain
Bahrain
, into fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave behind.

The principle of union was first agreed between the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
, and Sheikh Rashid of Dubai on 18 February 1968 meeting in an encampment at Argoub Al Sedirah, near Al Semeih, a desert stop between the two emirates. The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar and Bahrain, into the union. Over the next two years, negotiations and meetings of the rulers followed -often stormy- as a form of union was thrashed out. The nine-state union was never to recover from the October 1969 meeting where heavy-handed British intervention resulted in a walk-out by Qatar
Qatar
and Ras Al Khaimah . Bahrain
Bahrain
and Qatar
Qatar
were to drop out of talks, leaving six emirates to agree on union on 18 July 1971.

On 2 December 1971, Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi, Sharjah , Ajman
Ajman
, Umm al-Quwain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
. The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah , joined the UAE on 10 February 1972, following Iran
Iran
's annexation of the RAK-owned Tunbs islands.

In 1973, Dubai
Dubai
joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham . In that same year, the prior monetary union with Qatar
Qatar
was dissolved and the UAE Dirham was introduced throughout the Emirates.

MODERN DUBAI

The hotel's rooftop pool in Dubai
Dubai

During the 1970s, Dubai
Dubai
continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war . Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended disagreements. The Jebel Ali port was established in 1979. JAFZA ( Jebel Ali Free Zone ) was built around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital. Dubai
Dubai
airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow.

The Gulf War
Gulf War
of 1990 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived. Later in the 1990s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait
Kuwait
, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain
Bahrain
, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai. Dubai
Dubai
provided refuelling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali Free Zone during the Gulf War, and again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq
2003 Invasion of Iraq
. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War
Gulf War
encouraged Dubai
Dubai
to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Dubai
Dubai
See also: List of communities in Dubai
Dubai
Dubai
Dubai
skyline

ARCHITECTURE

See also: List of tallest buildings in Dubai
Dubai
and Developments in Dubai
Dubai
Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
, the world's tallest man-made structure Skyscraper Dubai
Dubai

Dubai
Dubai
has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles . Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here, due to a boom in construction and architectural innovation in the Arab World in general, and in Dubai
Dubai
in particular, supported not only by top Arab or international architectural and engineering design firms such as Al Hashemi and Aedas , but also by top firms of New York and Chicago. As a result of this boom, modern Islamic – and world – architecture has literally been taken to new levels in skyscraper building design and technology. Dubai
Dubai
now has more completed or topped-out skyscrapers higher than 2⁄3 km (2,200 ft), 1⁄3 km (1,100 ft), or 1⁄4 km (820 ft) than any other city . A culmination point was reached in 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
(Khalifa Tower), now by far the world's tallest building at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). The Burj Khalifa's design is derived from the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region. The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction unparalleled in modern human history during the decade of the 2000s, leaves Dubai
Dubai
with the world's tallest skyline as of 4 January 2010. At the Top, Burj Khalifa, the world's highest observatory deck with an outdoor terrace is one of Dubai's most popular tourist attractions, with over 1.87 million visitors in 2013.

Burj Al Arab

See also: Hotels in Dubai
Dubai

The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, _Tower of the Arabs_), a luxury hotel , is frequently described as "the world's only 7-star ", though its management has said it has never made that claim. A Jumeirah Group spokesperson is quoted as saying: "There's not a lot we can do to stop it. We're not encouraging the use of the term. We've never used it in our advertising."

Burj Khalifa

Main article: Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
is an 828 metres (2,717 ft) high skyscraper in Dubai, and the tallest building in the world. The tower was inspired by the structure of the desert flower named as Hymenocallis. It was constructed by more than 30 contracting companies around the world with 100 nationalities of workers. It is a building icon.

ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS

The Palm Jumeirah

Dubai
Dubai
is home to several man-made islands, most of which were created in the 2000s and 2010s.

Palm Jumeirah

Main article: Palm Jumeirah

The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago , created using land reclamation by Nakheel , a company owned by the Dubai
Dubai
government, and designed and developed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands which extend into the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands, and it is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of Dubai. It was built between 2001 and 2006.

DUBAI MIRACLE GARDEN

Main article: Dubai
Dubai
Miracle Garden Flowers in Dubai
Dubai
Miracle Garden

On 14 February 2013, the Dubai
Dubai
Miracle Garden, a 72,000-metre (236,000-foot) flower garden, opened in Dubailand . It is the world's largest flower garden. The garden has a total of 45 million flowers with re-use of waste water through drip irrigation . During the summer seasons from late May to September when the climate can get extremely hot with an average high of about 40 °C (104 °F), the garden stays closed.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Dubai
Dubai
_ Dubai
Dubai
Bus in Dubai Marina Dubai
Dubai
Metro\'s Red Line , Arabian Peninsula\'s first urban train network Dubai
Dubai
International Airport View from top of the roof Abras _, traditional mode of transport between Deira and Bur Dubai
Dubai
Dubai
Dubai
Metro is the first kind of rail transportation in UAE. Palm Jumeirah Monorail
Monorail
Dubai
Dubai
Tram is the first completely APS based tram network in the world. Sheikh Zayed Road

Transport in Dubai
Dubai
is controlled by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), an agency of the government of Dubai, formed by royal decree in 2005. The public transport network has in the past faced congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme has addressed, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million. In 2009, according to Dubai
Dubai
Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai. In January 2010, the number of Dubai
Dubai
residents who use public transport stood at 6%.

ROAD

See also: List of roads in Dubai
Dubai
, Dubai
Dubai
route numbering system , and List of bridges and tunnels in Dubai
Dubai

Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road) – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 ( Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road now named as 2 December street), D 94 ( Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge , Al Garhoud Bridge , Al Shindagha Tunnel , Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge .

The Public Bus Transport system in Dubai
Dubai
is run by the RTA. The bus system services 140 routes and transported over 109 million people in 2008. By the end of 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service across the city. In 2006, the Transport authority announced the construction of 500 air-conditioned (A/C ) Passenger Bus Shelters, and planned for 1,000 more across the emirates in a move to encourage the use of public buses.

All taxi services are licensed by the RTA. Dubai
Dubai
licensed taxis are easily identifiable by their cream bodywork colour and varied roof colours identifying the operator. Dubai
Dubai
Taxi Corporation, a division of the RTA, is the largest operator and has taxis with red roofs. There are five private operators: Metro Taxis (orange roofs); Network Taxis (yellow roofs); Cars Taxis (blue roofs); Arabia
Arabia
Taxis (green roofs); and City
City
Taxis (purple roof). In addition, Dubai
Dubai
Taxi Corporation has a Ladies Taxi service, with pink roofs, which caters exclusively for female passengers, using female drivers. The Dubai International Airport taxi concession is operated by Dubai
Dubai
Taxi Corporation. There are more than 3000 taxis operating within the emirate making an average of 192,000 trips every day, carrying about 385,000 persons. In 2009 taxi trips exceeded 70 million trips serving around 140.45 million passengers.

AIR

Dubai
Dubai
International Airport (IATA : DXB ), the hub for Emirates and flydubai , serves the city of Dubai
Dubai
and other emirates in the country. The airport was the 7th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic handling 70.4 million passengers in 2014. The airport is also the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic . In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the 7th busiest cargo airport in world , handling 2.37 million tons of cargo in 2014 Emirates is the national airline of Dubai. As of 2014 , it operated internationally serving 142 destinations in over 70 countries across six continents.

The development of Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
International Airport (IATA : DWC) was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened. When completed, Dubai
Dubai
World Central- Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.

METRO RAIL

The $3.89 billion Dubai
Dubai
Metro project is operational. It consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the financial and residential areas of the city. The Metro system was partially opened on September 2009. UK-based international service company Serco
Serco
is responsible for operating the metro. The metro comprises the Green Line , which has 20 stations (8 underground, 12 elevated) and runs from the Etisalat Station to the Creek Station and the Red Line , the major back bone line, which has 29 stations (4 underground, 24 elevated and 1 at ground level) and runs from Rashidiya Station to UAE Xchange Station Jebel Ali . In July 2016 a contract was awarded to add a branch to the Red Line running to the EXPO 2020 site; this extension is due to open in April 2020. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. The Dubai
Dubai
Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have 70 km (43.5 mi) of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and ten underground. The Dubai
Dubai
Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula . All the trains run without a driver and are based on automatic navigation.

PALM JUMEIRAH MONORAIL

Main article: Palm Jumeirah Monorail
Monorail

The Palm Jumeirah Monorail
Monorail
is a monorail line on the Palm Jumeirah . It connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai
Dubai
Metro . The line opened on 30 April 2009. It is the first monorail in the Middle East. Two tram systems are expected to be built in Dubai
Dubai
by 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
Tram System is a 4.6 km (2.9 mi) tram service that is planned to service the area around the Burj Khalifa, and the second tram will run 14.5 km (9.0 mi) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina
Dubai Marina
to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates .

TRAM

Main article: Dubai
Dubai
Tram

A tramway located in Al Sufouh, Dubai, will run for 14.5 kilometres (9.0 miles) along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina
Dubai Marina
to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates with two interchanges with Dubai
Dubai
Metro's Red Line. The first section, a 10.6-kilometer (6.6 mi) long tram line which serves 11 stations, was opened on 11 November 2014, by H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, The Vice-President and Prime Minister of UAE and Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 12 November 2014.

HIGH SPEED RAIL

Dubai
Dubai
has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high-speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf ) and then possibly Europe. The High Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.

WATERWAYS

See also: Dubai
Dubai
Water Canal

There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid
Port Rashid
and Port Jebel Ali . Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East, and the 7th-busiest port in the world. One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai
Dubai
to Deira is by _abras _, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai
Dubai
Creek , between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road . The Marine Transport Agency has also implemented the Dubai
Dubai
Water Bus System. Water bus is a fully air conditioned boat service across selected destinations across the creek. One can also avail oneself of the tourist water bus facility in Dubai. Latest addition to the water transport system is the Water Taxi.

CULTURE

See also: Culture of Dubai
Dubai
Further information: Culture of the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
_ A traditional souk _ in Deira

The UAE culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam
Islam
and traditional Arab culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday.

The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogenous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s. In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai
Dubai
was foreign-born, about half of them from India.

Due to the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance. Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai
Dubai
Shopping Festival (DSF) and Dubai
Dubai
Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.

Major holidays in Dubai
Dubai
include Eid al Fitr , which marks the end of Ramadan
Ramadan
, and National Day
National Day
(2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.

The International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA) , the world's leading events trade association, has crowned Dubai
Dubai
as _IFEA World Festival and Event City, 2012_ in the cities category with a population of more than one million. Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City
City
Centre , Mirdiff City
City
Centre , BurJuman , Mall of the Emirates , Dubai
Dubai
Mall (the world's largest) and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional Dubai
Dubai
Gold Souk
Souk
and other _souks_ attract shoppers from the region.

FOOD

See also: Emirati cuisine

Arabic food is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small _shawarma _ diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork, though legal, is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports. Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels. _Shisha _ and _qahwa _ boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Dubai
Dubai
is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels due to the liquor laws. The _ New York Times
New York Times
_ described Dubai
Dubai
as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".

Biryani
Biryani
is also a popular cuisine across Dubai
Dubai
with being the most popular among Indians and Pakistanis present in Dubai.

Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival

The inaugural Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival was held between 21 February to 15 March 2014. According to _Vision _ magazine, the event was aimed at enhancing and celebrating Dubai's position as the gastronomic capital of the region. The festival was designed to showcase the variety of flavours and cuisines on offer in Dubai
Dubai
featuring the cuisines of over 200 nationalities at the festival. The next food festival was held between 23 February 2017 to 11 March 2017.

ENTERTAINMENT

See also: Music of the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Dubai
Dubai
International Film Festival 2010

Hollywood and Indian movies are popular in Dubai
Dubai
(UAE). Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai
Dubai
International Film Festival which serves as a showcase for Arab film making talent. Musicians Amr Diab , Diana Haddad , Aerosmith , Santana , Mark Knopfler
Mark Knopfler
, Rick Ross , Elton John , Pink , Shakira , Celine Dion , Coldplay
Coldplay
, Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
, Jennifer Lopez
Jennifer Lopez
, Rihanna
Rihanna
, Justin Bieber , Selena Gomez and Roxette have performed in the city. Kylie Minogue
Kylie Minogue
was reportedly paid $3.5 million to perform at the opening of the Atlantis resort on 20 November 2008. The Dubai
Dubai
Desert Rock Festival was also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists but is no longer held in Dubai.

Popular films set in Dubai
Dubai
include: Balram vs. Tharadas , Black Friday (2004 film) , Body of Lies (film) , Boom (film) , City
City
of Life , Deewane Huye Paagal , Dubai
Dubai
(2001 film) , Dubai
Dubai
(2005 film) , Glitter Dust: Finding Art in Dubai
Dubai
, Happy New Year (2014 film) , Hungama in Dubai
Dubai
, Italians (film) , Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol , Naqaab , Silver Bears (film) , Switch (2013 film) , Welcome (2007 film) and Kung Fu Yoga .

One of the lesser known sides of Dubai
Dubai
is the importance of its young contemporary art gallery scene. Since 2008, the leading contemporary art galleries such as Carbon 12 Dubai, Green Art, gallery Isabelle van den Eynde, and The Third Line are bringing the city on the international art map. Art Dubai, the growing and reputable art fair of the region is as well a major contributor of the contemporary art scene's development.

The largest Cinema Hall in UAE is Reel Cinemas located at Dubai
Dubai
Mall. It has 22 screens available with a total of 2800 seats.

DUBAI SHOPPING FESTIVAL

The Dubai
Dubai
Shopping Festival is a yearly event in Dubai. It started in 1995, attracts a lot of visitors from worldwide to visit Dubai
Dubai
and get advantage of the sales during this festival.

In 2015 it started from 1 January and went until 1 February, but, The Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing in Dubai
Dubai
announced the cessation of all entertainment and musical activities related to the Dubai
Dubai
Shopping Festival for 3 days, starting from Friday, 23 January to Sunday, 25 January due to the death of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz former ruler of Saudi Arabia.

MEDIA

Main article: Dubai
Dubai
Media Incorporated See also: List of media outlets in Dubai
Dubai
Media City
City
and Radio and television channels of Dubai View of Etisalat Tower from Zabeel Park Dubai
Dubai
Media City
City

Many international news agencies such as Reuters
Reuters
, APTN , Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East
Middle East
Broadcasting Center (MBC) operate in Dubai
Dubai
Media City
City
and Dubai
Dubai
Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai
Dubai
One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai
Dubai
is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. _Dar Al Khaleej _, _Al Bayan _ and _Al Ittihad _ are the city's largest circulating Arabic language
Arabic language
newspapers, while _ Gulf News _, _Khaleej Times , Khaleej Mag_ and _7DAYS _ are the largest circulating English newspapers.

Etisalat , the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai
Dubai
prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links. Dubai
Dubai
houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2). Censorship is common in Dubai
Dubai
and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates. Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.

Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; and sites originating from Israel
Israel
. Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that as of 2002, 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services. The penal code contains official provisions that prohibit digital access to pornography; however, it does not address cyber crime or data protection.

SPORTS

Main article: List of sports venues in Dubai
Dubai
See also: Traditional sports in the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Dubai
Dubai
Tennis Stadium

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. Five teams ( Al Wasl FC , Al-Ahli Dubai
Dubai
, Al Nasr SC , Al Shabab Al Arabi Club and Dubai
Dubai
Club ) represent Dubai
Dubai
in UAE Pro-League . Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Dubai
Dubai
also hosts both the annual Dubai
Dubai
Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai
Dubai
tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai
Dubai
Desert Classic golf tournament and the Dubai
Dubai
World Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai
Dubai
World Cup , a thoroughbred horse race, is held annually at the Meydan Racecourse . Dubai
Dubai
also hosts the traditional rugby union tournament Dubai
Dubai
Sevens , part of the Sevens World Series Event pictures of Rugby 7 Dubai
Dubai
2015. In 2009, Dubai
Dubai
hosted the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens . Auto racing is also a big sport in Dubai, the Dubai
Dubai
Autodrome is home to many auto racing events throughout the year. It also features a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor Kartdrome, popular among racing enthusiasts and recreational riders.

Cricket

Australia
Australia
vs. Pakistan at Dubai
Dubai
Sports City
City
Cricket
Cricket
Ground

Cricket
Cricket
is followed by Dubai's large community of Indians and Pakistanis alongside the residents from other cricket playing nations (Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, England, Australia, South Africa and Nepal). In 2005, the International Cricket
Cricket
Council (ICC) moved its headquarters from London to Dubai. The city has hosted several Pakistan matches and two new grass grounds are being developed in Dubai
Dubai
Sports City
City
. Numerous tournaments also take place in Dubai. Since Pakistan played Australia
Australia
in a One-Day International in Dubai
Dubai
in 2009, not only have top international teams competed in the city, but the emirate is helping to improve the standard of cricket around the world with the ICC Cricket
Cricket
Academy, a training and coaching facility which is used by the world's leading nations. Board of Control for Cricket
Cricket
in India played some Indian Premier League matches here. Pakistan Super League was also played here.

DRESS CODE

The Emirati attire is typical of several countries in the Arabian peninsula. Women usually wear the "Abaya", a long black robe with a hijab (the head-scarf which covers the neck and part of the head). Some women may add a niqab which cover the mouth and nose and only leaves the eyes exposed. Men wear the "Kandurah" also referred to as "dishdasha" or even "thawb" (long white robe) and the headscarf (Ghotrah). The UAE traditional Ghotrah is white and is held in place by an accessory called "Egal", which resembles a black cord. The younger Emiratis prefer to wear red and white Ghotras and tie it round their head like a turban.

The above dress code is never compulsory and many people wear western or other eastern clothing without any problems; but prohibitions on wearing "indecent clothing" or revealing too much skin are aspects of the UAE to which Dubai's visitors are expected to conform, and are encoded in Dubai's criminal law. The UAE has enforced decency regulations in most public places, aside from waterparks, beaches, clubs, and bars.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Dubai
Dubai
See also: List of universities and colleges in Dubai
Dubai

The school system in Dubai
Dubai
follows that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009 , there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools. The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.

More than 15 schools offer an international education using the one or more of the four International Baccalaureate Programmes for students aged 3–19. Several schools have introduced the new IB Career-related Programme that can be combined with a vocational qualification such as a BTEC. The Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE).

Additionally a number of schools offer either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. The Indian High School , DPS are some examples. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children in Dubai.

A number of schools also offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. British style eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels include Dubai
Dubai
Gem Private School , Dubai
Dubai
British School , English Language School Pvt. Some schools, such as The American School of Dubai
Dubai
, also offer the curriculum of the United States.

The most well-known universities in Dubai
Dubai
are American University in Dubai
Dubai
, Hult International Business School , Al Ghurair University , The American College of Dubai, University of Wollongong in Dubai
Dubai
, British University in Dubai
Dubai
offering courses in Business Administration, Engineering, Architecture and Interior Design. American University in Dubai
Dubai
is one of the six UAE universities featured in QS World University Rankings 2014/2015. In 2013 Synergy University Dubai
Dubai
Campus opened its campus in Jumeirah Lakes Towers being a first University in Dubai
Dubai
to be located outside of Educational Zones (Knowledge Village or Academic City).

HEALTHCARE

Main articles: Dubai
Dubai
Health Authority and List of hospitals in Dubai
Dubai
Dubai's Iranian Hospital

Healthcare in Dubai
Dubai
can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate
Emirate
is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. There are now 28 hospitals in Dubai, 6 public and 22 private, with 3 more major hospitals scheduled to be built by 2025.

By the end of 2012, there were also a total of 1,348 medical clinics, 97% of which are operated privately. In 2015, Dubai
Dubai
phased in mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants, thereby leading to increased demand for medical services.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Dubai
Dubai

* Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
* Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
* Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in UAE

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Dubai
Dubai
is twinned with the following cities:

* Barcelona
Barcelona
, Barcelona
Barcelona
, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
(2006) * Busan
Busan
, South Korea
South Korea
(2006) * Detroit
Detroit
, Michigan
Michigan
, United States
United States
(2003) * Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Hessen
Hessen
, Germany, as a Friendship city since 2005 * Gold Coast , Queensland
Queensland
, Australia
Australia
(2001) * Shanghai
Shanghai
, China
China
(2009) * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(1997) * Padang
Padang
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(2015)

* Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
(2010)

SEE ALSO

* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
portal * Dubai
Dubai
portal

* Al Sufouh Archaeological Site * Dubai
Dubai
Desert Conservation Reserve * Dubai
Dubai
Silicon Oasis * Jumeirah Lake Towers * List of buildings in Dubai
Dubai
* List of cities with most skyscrapers * Sustainability in Dubai
Dubai

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ https://www.dsc.gov.ae/en-us * ^ Area of " Dubai
Dubai
emirate" , includes artificial islands. * ^ https://www.dsc.gov.ae/Report/Gross%20Domestic%20Product%20at%20Current%20Prices%202015-2014.pdf * ^ "United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas". World-gazetteer.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ The Government and Politics of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157 * ^ "Where is Dubai
Dubai
and Dubai
Dubai
city?". Thatsdubai.com. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ "The 2008 Global Cities Index". _Foreign Policy_. 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sampler & Eigner (2008). _Sand to Silicon_. UAE: Motivate. p. 11. ISBN 9781860632549 . * ^ DiPaola, Anthony (28 September 2010). " Dubai
Dubai
gets 2% GDP from oil". _Bloomberg_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Oil
Oil
share dips in Dubai
Dubai
GDP Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine . _ AMEInfo _ (9 June 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
economy set to treble by 2015 _ArabianBusiness.com_ (3 February 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Dubai
Dubai
diversifies out of oil". AMEInfo . 7 September 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008. * ^ Cornock, Oliver. " Dubai
Dubai
must tap booming halal travel industry - Khaleej Times". _www.khaleejtimes.com_. Retrieved 16 December 2016. * ^ Davis, Mike (September–October 2006). "Fear and money in Dubai". _ New Left Review
New Left Review
_. New Left Review. II (41): 47–68. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Job losses hasten property decline in Dubai
Dubai
but medium-long term outlook upbeat". Propertywire.com. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ "Mohammad Bin Rashid approves Dubai\'s budget for 2015". _gulfnews.com_. Retrieved 25 May 2015. * ^ Lucy Barnard (6 March 2013). "Cost of living in Dubai
Dubai
rising rapidly – The National". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ "Oslo, Zürich and Tokyo are most expensive cities". Thepeninsulaqatar.com. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
second-most expensive city to stay in, report says". Retrieved 30 September 2014. * ^ Gillian Duncan (8 March 2013). " Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Dubai
Dubai
are best places to live in the Middle East, survey says – The National". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ Alkaabi, Alyazya (July 2011). مسميات مناطق دبي قديماً . _AL JUNDI_ (IN ARABIC). MINISTRY OF DEFENSE. 444: 76. * ^ "Old Dubai". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ "How Did Dubai, Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and other Cities Get Their Names? Experts Reveal All". _UAE Interact_. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ Tahir, Mohammad A., et al. "Distribution of HLA-DQA1 alleles in Arab and Pakistani individuals from Dubai, United Arab Emirates." Forensic science international 85.3 (1997): 219–223. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "History and Traditions of the UAE" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ "The old ... turned new". Travel & Culture . 25 October 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Hellyer (2001). _United Arab Emirates: A perspective_. Trident Press. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0 . Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Coming of Islam
Islam
and the Islamic Period in the UAE. King, Geoffrey R." (PDF). Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Heard-Bey, Frauke (1990). _From Trucial States
Trucial States
to United Arab Emirates_. UK: Longman. p. 238. ISBN 0582277280 . * ^ Schofield, R (1990). _Islands and Maritime Boundaries of the Gulf 1798–1960_. UK: Archive Editions. p. 545. ISBN 9781852072759 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Modernity and tradition in Dubai
Dubai
architecture. Karim, Luiza". Alshindagah.com. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Davidson, Christopher, _The Emirates of Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
and Dubai: Contrasting Roles in the International System_. March 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Dubayy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008 * ^ "The UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman. Archived Editions. Walker, J". Archiveeditions.co.uk. 18 February 1969. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ The Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. Schofield, C. p 175 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Heard-Bey, Frauke. _From Trucial States
Trucial States
to United Arab Emirates_. London: Longman. p. 260. ISBN 0582277280 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Wilson, Graeme (1999). _Father of Dubai_. UAE: Media Prima. p. 126. ISBN 9789948856450 . * ^ Reporter, Mariam M. Al Serkal, Staff (9 April 2011). "Fifty years on, the tragedy of vessel MV Dara lingers". _GulfNews_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ Wilson, Graeme (2008). _Fly Buy Dubai_. UAE: Media Prima. p. 58. ISBN 9789948859437 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Historic population statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ Chapman, Len. "How Chicago Beach got its name...then lost it!". _ Dubai
Dubai
As It Used To Be_. Retrieved 20 August 2016. * ^ Wilson, Graeme (1999). _Father of Dubai_. UAE: Media Prima. p. 151. ISBN 9789948856450 . * ^ Al Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid (2012). _Spirit of the Union_. UAE: Motivate. pp. 27–39. ISBN 9781860633300 . * ^ Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid (2012). _Spirit of the Union_. UAE: Motivate. p. 30. ISBN 9781860633300 . * ^ Al Abed, Ibrahim (2001). _United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective_. https://www.uaeinteract.com/uaeint_misc/pdf/perspectives/06.pdf: Trident Press. pp. 129–133. ISBN 1-900724-47-2 . * ^ Ahmadi, Kourosh (2008). _Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf: The Abu Musa and Tunbs in Strategic Context_. London: Routledge. p. 96. * ^ "Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates". Retrieved 11 December 2016. * ^ " Beirut
Beirut
Showing Signs of Recovery From Wounds of War". _The New York Times_. 26 May 1977. pg.2 * ^ Dubai. Carter, T and Dunston, L. _Lonely Planet Publications_ * ^ "Free Zones in the UAE". uaefreezones.com. Retrieved 23 April 2010. * ^ Sampler & Eigner (2008). _Sand to Silicon: Going Global_. UAE: Motivate. p. 15. ISBN 9781860632549 . * ^ Environmental Development and Protection in the UAE. Aspinall, Simon * ^ _A_ _B_ Far enough from the fault lines. The National, 23 April 2008 * ^ Flora and fauna of Dubai
Dubai
Archived 2 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine . gowealthy.com * ^ Natural UAE UAE Interact Retrieved 29 April 2010 * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Floor Plan & Area Map". Retrieved 16 May 2017. * ^ "Climate in Dubai
Dubai
across the year. Dubai
Dubai
Meteorological office". Dubaiairport.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "Temperature and Humidity in Dubai". Godubai.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "UAE weather: Temperature soars to near record level". thenational.ae. Retrieved 18 May 2014. * ^ "Climate (Average Temperatures:1977–2015;Precipitation:1967-2009)". Dubai Meteorological Office. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "Dubai, Emirates". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 10 February 2013. * ^ "Climate Normals for Dubai" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 10 February 2013. * ^ "Monthly Dubai
Dubai
water temperature chart". Seatemperatures.org. Retrieved 20 January 2014. * ^ "Dubai, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
- Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 8 March 2017. * ^ US Library of Congress – Legislative Branches * ^ Organizational Chart. Dubai
Dubai
Municipality * ^ Dubai
Dubai
Municipality's e-government initiative. Powerpoint. 2 December 2005 * ^ Wheeler, Julia (13 October 2008). "Raw sewage threat to booming Dubai". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ "The UAE now has a Minister of Happiness – What\'s On Dubai". _What's On Dubai_. Retrieved 27 March 2016. * ^ "Members Of The Cabinet". _uaecabinet.ae_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ On the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE) Legal System. Gulf-Law.com * ^ UAE Consulate of the United States * ^ "Ask Ali: Kissing in public, renting a flat and the rababah – The National". * ^ "Jailed Dubai
Dubai
kissing pair lose appeal over conviction". * ^ "London man tells of \'shock\' jailing in Dubai
Dubai
over kiss". 5 July 2010. * ^ Za'za, Bassam (25 May 2008). "Women get jail and deportation for kissing on Dubai
Dubai
public beach". gulfnews. * ^ Etihad Airways (20 March 2014). "A Surprise Proposal on Etihad Airways" – via YouTube. * ^ http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2014/05/04/Nose-kiss-anyone-How-the-Gulf-Arab-greeting-has-evolved.html * ^ _Alcohol / liquor licence and laws in Dubai_ * ^ Reporter, Bassam Za'za', Senior (16 May 2010). "Law gets tough on drunk drivers in Dubai". _GulfNews_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ The Associated Press (22 July 2013). " Dubai
Dubai
Pardons Woman at Center of Rape Dispute". _New York Times_. Retrieved 22 July 2013. * ^ " Human Rights Watch – Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates". Retrieved 4 October 2014. * ^ Human Rights Watch. _Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates_ (PDF) (PDF ed.). Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ "UAE to allow construction unions". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 30 March 2006. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
fire investigation launched". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 19 January 2007. * ^ "Slaves in Dubai
Dubai
documentary". VICE. 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2013. * ^ "UAE to allow construction unions". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 30 March 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ Karin, Luiza (September 1999). "Modernity and tradition in Dubai
Dubai
architecture by Luiza Karim". alshindagah.com. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ Hadjari, Karim. "3D Modelling and Visualisation OF Al Baskita in Dubai
Dubai
IN Dubai, United Arab Emerites" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2017. * ^ "Tourism in Dubai" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ Lahmeyer, Jan (2001). "The United Arab Emigrates – Historical demographical data of the urban centers". .populstat. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke. "The Tribal Society of the UAE and its Traditional Economy" (PDF). uaeinteract.com. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ "Census 2005 U.A.E.". tedad.ae. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Younes, Bassem. "Roundabouts vs. Intersections: The Tale of Three UAE Cities" (PDF). ite.org. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Dubai
Dubai
in Figures 2009. Government of Dubai. Statistical Center". Dsc.gov.ae. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010. * ^ "Cost of living – The world\'s most expensive cities". City Mayors. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
population jumps 4.8 per cent to 2.17m". UAE interact. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014. * ^ "Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE". _ Reuters
Reuters
UK_. * ^ "GCC Citizenship Debate: A Place To Call Home". _Gulf Business_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief. MPI Data Hub * ^ HASSAN M. FATTAH; Nada El Sawy contributed reporting for this article. (4 December 2005). "Young Iranians Follow Dreams to Dubai". Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved 11 September 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "HSBC Reveals "The Future of Retirement: What the World Wants" Survey Results" (PDF). HSBC. 26 April 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2010. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
leads British exodus overseas". _Arabian Business_. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2012. * ^ " United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Demographics Profile 2014". _www.indexmundi.com_. Retrieved 21 December 2015. * ^ Christensen, Shane (2010). _Frommer's Dubai_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-470-71178-1 . * ^ "Nama Tuluveru all set to entertain UAE with Rangabhoomi\'s \'Kaala Chakra\'". _daijiworld.com_. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ "Languages spoken in Dubai". Justlanded.com. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Country Profile: United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(UAE). United States Library of Congress * ^ "Report on International Religious Freedom". _U.S. Department of State_. Retrieved 30 September 2014. * ^ Staff (22 July 2015). "UAE to deport expats abusing religions". _Emirates 247_. Retrieved 26 May 2017. * ^ Religion in Dubai. Dubaidreams * ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates". State.gov. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/general/it-s-easier-being-christian-in-abu-dhabi-than-in-uk-1.1330220 * ^ Everington, John (22 January 2015). " Dubai
Dubai
enters top five ranked fastest growing economies". _The National_. Retrieved 24 March 2015. * ^ "Dubai\'s gross domestic product is expected to reach US$107.1 billion, posting a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014 and exceeding Dubai government\'s estimates of 5%, according to Citibank.". _Zawya Thomson Reuters_. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
– Overview". _USA Today_. Retrieved 22 July 2007. * ^ "Dubai\'s oil discovery and Dubai\'s debt". Moneycontrol.com. 5 February 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "UAE Oil
Oil
and Gas". Uae.gov.ae. 19 June 1999. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ Prospects of Dubai
Dubai
Economic Sectors Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine .. Dubai
Dubai
Chamber of Commerce. 2003 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Dubai\'s foreign trade steady at Dh1.331 trillion in 2014". _Emirates 247_. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "World Port Rankings – 2008" (PDF). American Association of Port Authorities. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2010. * ^ "Free Zone Authorities in Dubai". Business-Dubai.com. Retrieved 15 November 2015. * ^ Armitstead, Louise (20 November 2008). "Dubai\'s Palm Jumeirah sees prices fall as crunch moves in". _The Daily Telegraph_. UK. Retrieved 20 November 2008. * ^ "World\'s Tallest Hotel
Hotel
Opens Its Doors". BBC
BBC
News. 1 December 1999. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ "Dubai: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly". _Dubai: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly_. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012. * ^ "Laid-Off Foreigners Flee as Dubai
Dubai
Spirals Down" article by Robert F. Worth in _The New York Times_ 11 February 2009 * ^ Hanif, Nadeem (12 November 2009). "JLT owners still waiting for homes promised in 2007". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012. * ^ Warner, Jeremy (27 November 2009) Dubai
Dubai
is just a harbinger of things to come for sovereign debt. The Telegraph * ^ "How Dubai
Dubai
real estate can avoid repeating past mistakes Bayut Blog". Blog.bayut.com. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Nasdaq Dubai
Dubai
Exchange Overview". _www.nasdaqdubai.com_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ gold-dubai (22 February 2016) "Gold rate in Dubai". * ^ "Citgy Mayors: World\'s best financial cities". Citymayors.com. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2009. * ^ "World\'s richest cities by purchasing power". City
City
Mayors. Retrieved 23 June 2013. * ^ MW-IndexRpt-CoComm FA.indd * ^ "Laws & Regulations Dubai
Dubai
International Financial Centre (DIFC)". _www.difc.ae_. Retrieved 16 October 2016. * ^ "Hot Spots 2025: Dubai
Dubai
Moves Up to 23rd Place Dubai
Dubai
Chronicle". Dubaichronicle.com. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Indians top foreign investors in Dubai
Dubai
realty". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Fashion 2020 To Be Unveiled Soon Dubai
Dubai
Chronicle". Dubaichronicle.com. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Construction of 10 buildings in Dubai
Dubai
Design District already underway". Dubaichronicle.com. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Bargain-hunting Fashionistas Descend onto Dubai". _Bargain-hunting Fashionistas Descend onto Dubai_. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012. * ^ "Shopping in Dubai". _Shopping Galore in Dubai_. 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013. * ^ Jacobs, Deborah L. "Most Visited Cities In The World 2013". _ Forbes
Forbes
_. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. * ^ "14.9 million overnight visitors for Dubai
Dubai
in 2016". _gulfnews.com_. Gulf News. Retrieved 29 May 2017. * ^ Jacobs, Deborah L. "Most Visited Cities In The World 2012". _forbes_. Retrieved 2 December 2013. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
History". dubai.ae. Retrieved 2 December 2013. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Creek for World Heritage List". _Khaleej Times_. Retrieved 2 December 2013. * ^ Krane, Jim (September 2009). _ City
City
of Gold: Dubai
Dubai
and the Dream of Capitalism_. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-53574-2 . * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Creek Park". _Capture Dubai_. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
FAQs. "Ski Dubai". * ^ "Ski Dubai
Dubai
– Majid Al Futtaim". * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Expo 2020 Master Plan". dubaichronicle.com. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. * ^ Kerr, Simeon. "Jubilant Dubai
Dubai
wins bid to host 2020 World Expo". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 March 2014. * ^ "According to a research from Oxford Economics, Dubai
Dubai
Expo 2020 may create over 270,000 jobs". dubaichronicle.com. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. * ^ "EXPO Dubai
Dubai
2020 – a preview". Inexhibit magazine. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
launches world\'s largest concentrated solar power project – Gulf Business". _gulfbusiness.com_. 2 June 2016. * ^ "UAE Gears Up Ahead of Dubai
Dubai
EXPO 2020". _shuraa.com_. * ^ Karim, Luiza Modernity and tradition in Dubai
Dubai
architecture. AlShindagah, 1999 * ^ "Design of Burj Khalifa". Burjkhalifa.ae. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "World\'s Ten Tallest Cities In 2012, the JW Marriott Marquis Dubai
Dubai
opened and is the World\'s tallest hotel, standing at 72 stories (1,165 ft).". _Ultrapolis Project_. Retrieved 3 November 2010. * ^ "Calculated Average Height of the Twenty-five Tallest (CAHTT)". Ultrapolisproject.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ " Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
records over 1.87 million visitors in 2013". khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017. * ^ " Hotel
Hotel
star ratings standards long overdue". _The National _. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2010. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
In Number", go-gulf.ae, 23 March 2015. Retrieved on 25 March 2015 * ^ "Iosif Stalin-2", capturedubai.com, 29 March 2015. Retrieved on 30 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Palm Jumeirah". Nakheel. 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2007. * ^ "World\'s Largest Natural Flower Garden Opens in Dubai". 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. * ^ "The World\'s most beautiful garden-In Dubai". Xpress. 20 February 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Will metro change Dubai
Dubai
car culture?". BBC
BBC
News. 11 September 2009. * ^ http://www.rta.ae * ^ "Gulfnews: Dubai
Dubai
traffic woes inflict losses of Dh4.6b a year". Archive.gulfnews.com. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ "Gulfnews: Public transport regains allure as Car-free Day gets under way". Archive.gulfnews.com. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. * ^ "Gulfnews: Rta wants 30 of dubai residents on public transport". Archive.gulfnews.com. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. * ^ Completed projects. RTA Dubai * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
buses may be privatised – The National Newspaper". Thenational.ae. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ "Gulfnews: Air-conditioned bus shelters for Dubai". Archive.gulfnews.com. 6 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2006. * ^ "Gulfnews: Dubai
Dubai
Metro gives boost to public transport in city". Archive.gulfnews.com. 6 March 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Taxi Corporation". Dtc.dubai.ae. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2010. * ^ "Getting Around in Dubai". dubai.com/. Retrieved 14 September 2011. * ^ "2008 Annual Report". Dubai
Dubai
Airport. 2009. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2009. * ^ " DXB Takes Over Top Spot for International Passenger Traffic". _dubaiairports.ae_. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. * ^ "Our Destinations". _Emirates_. * ^ " Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
International airport begins operations". Gulf News. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010. * ^ " Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
International airport receives first flight". Gulf News. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
RTA – Dubai
Dubai
Metro – Blue Line". zawya. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Municipality signs Dhs12.45 billion Metro contract". UAE Interact. 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. * ^ "Middle East\'s first monorail to start services in Palm Jumeirah by April". Gulf News . 7 August 2008. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2008. * ^ "Palm monorail tried and tested". Timeoutdubai. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2010. * ^ "First Monorail
Monorail
system in the Middle East
Middle East
takes first paying passengers.". _AEC Online_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ "About". _The Dubai
Dubai
Tram_. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ "GCC Rail Network". zawya projects. 14 April 2010. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "Port of Jebel Ali". worldportsource.com. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Abra-services dubai-online * ^ "RTA launches Water Bus System on Dubai
Dubai
Creek". AMEinfo. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Jonathan Sheikh-Miller. "UAE Weekend Switchover". AMEinfo. Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2010. * ^ Luxury Fashion Branding: Trends, Tactics, Techniques – Page 80, Uché Okonkwo – 2007 * ^ Dubai
Dubai
– Page 100, Terry Carter – 2009 * ^ Introduction to Sociology – Page 14, George Ritzer – 2012 * ^ Dubai
Dubai
Shopping Festival 2011 More Details * ^ DSF Milestones. Dubaicityguide * ^ "Sales will account for 8% of Dubai\'s GDP". Gulfnews.com. 3 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ " Gulf News Community". Retrieved 11 December 2016. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
is world\'s festival city". khaleejtimes.com. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
crowned World Festival and Event City
City
by IFEA". news.definitelydubai.com. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. * ^ "Top 7 Places to go Shopping in Dubai
Dubai
- Dubai
Dubai
Expats Guide". _ Dubai
Dubai
Expats Guide_. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine .. _GAIN Report_. United States Department of Agriculture * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Dubai
Dubai
Culture Archived 6 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine . dubai-livethedream.com * ^ Sherwood, Seth (9 December 2007). "Clubs Bloom in the Desert". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 23 April 2010. * ^ " Biryani
Biryani
in Dubai". zomato.com. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival". Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014. * ^ East, Ben (February 2014). "Taste of culture: Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival". Vision.ae. Retrieved 20 November 2014. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Food Festival 2017". * ^ "About Dubai
Dubai
Film Festival (DFF)". 7th Dubai
Dubai
International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2010. * ^ "du sponsors AR Rahman Live in Concert". ameinfo.com. 16 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Ferris-Lay, Claire (11 September 2008). "Kylie \'being paid $3.5mn\' for Atlantis gig". Arab Business.com. Retrieved 23 April 2010. * ^ "Carbon 12\'s website". Carbon12dubai.com. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "Cinema at Dubai
Dubai
Mall". yagulf.com. Retrieved 12 February 2016.

* ^ "The Dubai
Dubai
Mall". _www.reelcinemas.ae_. Retrieved 23 February 2017. * ^ "DSF to halt all entertainment, musical activities to mourn Saudi king\'s death". _Khaleej Times_. * ^ Largest-Circulation Arabic Newspapers. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. _Arab Reform Bulletin_, December 2004 * ^ Gulf News continues to lead the way. zawya. February 2010 * ^ " Etisalat ramps up UAE bandwidth". arabianbusiness.com. 11 June 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2010. * ^ Hashim, Abdulla (5 May 2005). "UAEnicat a Glance" (PDF). isoc.org. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ United Arab Emirates. OpenNet Interactive. 2008 * ^ Jack, Malvern (16 February 2009). "Geraldine Bedell\'s novel banned in Dubai
Dubai
because of gay character". _The Times_. UK. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ "Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
in 2004–2005: A Country Study". OpenNet Initiative. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 9 June 2010. * ^ "Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law No.2/2002". Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone Authority. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2010. * ^ "Silenced – United Arab Emirates". Privacyinternational.org. 21 September 2003. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "ICC moves to new headquarters in Sports City". Gulfnews.com. 18 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "Criminal Law of Dubai". * ^ Leijen, Majorie van. "UAE laws you must know to stay out of trouble". _Emirates 247_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ Mansell, Warwick (30 April 2010). "Expat guide to the UAE: schools". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. * ^ " Middle East
Middle East
International Baccalaureate Association (MEIBA) of Schools". * ^ "Welcome to BTEC". * ^ "ADEC signs a protocol agreement with the International Baccalaureate Organization today". _ADEC_. Retrieved 12 February 2016.

* ^ "List of schools in Dubai, Dubai
Dubai
school finder". Dubaifaqs.com. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2013. * ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2014/15". _topuniversities.com_. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ Synergy University Dubai
Dubai
Campus. "Synergy University Dubai Campus – Home Page". _Synergy University Dubai
Dubai
Campus_. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ DEG. "Synergy University, Dubai
Dubai
Educational Guide". Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ "UAE Expo 2020 bid in good health: Dubai
Dubai
gets new hospitals". 19 August 2013. * ^ " Dubai
Dubai
Healthcare Overview". _Colliers_. * ^ "Dubai\'s mandatory health insurance law comes into force". _The National_. 15 February 2014. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
is sister city to Barcelona, on the municipality\'s website (in Catalan), retrieved on 28 October 2015. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
and Busan
Busan
are sister cities, on the municipality\'s website Archived 18 March 2016 at Archive.is , 13 November 2006. * ^ Sister Cities Agreement between Detroit
Detroit
and Dubai, 28 September 2003. * ^ "Partnerships: Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main" (in German). Council of European Municipalities and Regions. Retrieved 16 February 2015. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
and Gold Coast are sister cities, on the municipality\'s website. Retrieved on 28 October 2015. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
is sister city to Shanghai, on the municipality\'s site , 27 July 2009. * ^ Dubai
Dubai
and Istanbul
Istanbul
are sister cities, on the municipality\'s website (in Turkish), 22 March 1997. * ^ "Wako: Kerjasama Padang-Perth- Dubai
Dub