DUALISM (from the
Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement of or conflict between the benevolent and the malevolent. It simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and independent of how these may be represented. Moral opposites might, for example, exist in a worldview which has one god, more than one god, or none. By contrast, ditheism or bitheism implies (at least) two gods. While bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between good and evil, or light and dark, or summer and winter. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one god is a creator, and the other a destroyer.
Alternatively, in ontological dualism, the world is divided into two
overarching categories. The opposition and combination of the
universe's two basic principles of yin and yang is a large part of
Chinese philosophy, and is an important feature of
* 1 Moral dualism
* 1.1 History
* 2 Duotheism, bitheism, ditheism
* 3 Theistic dualism
* 3.1 In
* 4 Ontological dualism
* 4.1 In Chinese philosophy
* 5 Mind-matter and mind-body dualism
* 6 Consciousness–matter dualism
* 6.1 In
* 7 In philosophy of science * 8 In modern and contemporary philosophy * 9 In physics * 10 Political dualism * 11 In cybernetics * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 External links
Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between the benevolent and the malevolent.
Like ditheism/bitheism (see below), moral dualism does not imply the absence of monist or monotheistic principles. Moral dualism simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation of what might be "moral" and - unlike ditheism/bitheism - independent of how these may be represented.
For example, Mazdaism (Mazdean
Moral dualism began as a theological belief.
The religious dualism of
DUOTHEISM, BITHEISM, DITHEISM
See also: Dualistic cosmology
In theology , dualism may refer to duotheism, bitheism, or ditheism. Although ditheism/bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism/bitheism implies (at least) two gods, while moral dualism does not imply any -theism (theos = god ) whatsoever.
Both bitheism and ditheism imply a belief in two equally powerful
gods with complementary or antonymous properties; however, while
bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition,
such as between good and evil, or bright and dark, or summer and
winter. For example, a ditheistic system would be one in which one god
is creative, the other is destructive (cf. theodicy ). In the original
In a bitheistic system, by contrast, where the two deities are not in
conflict or opposition, one could be male and the other female (cf.
duotheism). One well-known example of a bitheistic or duotheistic
theology based on gender polarity is found in the neopagan religion of
Wicca . In Wicca, dualism is represented in the belief of a god and a
goddess as a dual partnership in ruling the universe. This is centered
on the worship of a divine couple , the Moon Goddess and the Horned
However, bitheistic and ditheistic principles are not always so
easily contrastable, for instance in a system where one god is the
representative of summer and drought and the other of winter and
rain/fertility (cf. the mythology of
In theology, dualism can refer to the relationship between
The Cathars being expelled from
The dualism between
The tolerance of dualism ranges widely among the different Christian
traditions. As a monotheistic religion, the conflict between dualism
and monism has existed in
The Cathars , a Christian sect in southern France, believed that
there was a dualism between two gods, one representing good and the
other representing evil. The Roman Catholic Church denounced the
Cathars as heretics, and sought to crush the movement in the 13th
Dvaita Vedanta (dualistic conclusions of the
The yin and yang symbolizes the duality in nature and all things in the Taoist religion.
Alternatively, dualism can mean the tendency of humans to perceive
and understand the world as being divided into two overarching
categories . In this sense, it is dualistic when one perceives a tree
as a thing separate from everything surrounding it. This form of
ontological dualism exists in
IN CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
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The opposition and combination of the universe's two basic principles
of yin and yang is a large part of
Chinese philosophy , and is an
important feature of
Some of the common associations with yang and yin, respectively, are: male and female, light and dark , active and passive, motion and stillness. Some scholars recognize that the two ideas may have originally referred to two opposite sides of a mountain, facing towards and away from the sun. The yin and yang symbol in actuality has very little to do with Western dualism; instead it represents the philosophy of balance, where two opposites co-exist in harmony and are able to transmute into each other. In the yin-yang symbol there is a dot of yin in yang and a dot of yang in yin. In Taoism, this symbolizes the inter-connectedness of the opposite forces as different aspects of Tao, the First Principle. Contrast is needed to create a distinguishable reality, without which we would experience nothingness. Therefore, the independent principles of yin and yang are actually dependent on one another for each other's distinguishable existence.
The complementary dualistic concept seen in yin and yang represent
the reciprocal interaction throughout nature, related to a feedback
loop , where opposing forces do not exchange in opposition but instead
exchange reciprocally to promote stabilization similar to homeostasis
. An underlying principle in
MIND-MATTER AND MIND-BODY DUALISM
IN PHILOSOPHY OF MIND
Main article: Dualism (philosophy of mind)
In philosophy of mind , dualism is any of a narrow variety of views
about the relationship between mind and matter, which claims that mind
and matter are two ontologically separate categories. In particular,
mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be
reduced to each other in any way, and thus is opposed to materialism
in general, and reductive materialism in particular. Mind-body dualism
can exist as substance dualism which claims that the mind and the body
are composed of a distinct substance, and as property dualism which
claims that there may not be a distinction in substance, but that
mental and physical properties are still categorically distinct, and
not reducible to each other. This type of dualism is sometimes
referred to as "mind and body" and stands in contrast to philosophical
monism , which views mind and matter as being ultimately the same kind
of thing. See also
IN BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY
During the classical era of
The first significant argument against dualism came from Thomas
Hobbes 's (1588–1679) materialist critique of the human person.
Hobbes argues that all of human experience comes from biological
processes contained within the body (see:
The Leviathan ). In
response to Hobbes, the French philosopher René Descartes
During the 19th and 20th centuries, materialistic monism became the norm. Still, in addition to already discussed theories of dualism (particularly the Christian and Cartesian models) there are new theories in the defense of dualism. Naturalistic dualism comes from Australian philosopher, David Chalmers (born 1966) who argues there is an explanatory gap between objective and subjective experience that cannot be bridged by reductionism because consciousness is, at least, logically autonomous of the physical properties upon which it supervenes. According to Chalmers, a naturalistic account of property dualism requires a new fundamental category of properties described by new laws of supervenience ; the challenge being analogous to that of understanding electricity based on the mechanistic and Newtonian models of materialism prior to Maxwell\'s equations .
A similar defense comes from Australian philosopher Frank Jackson (born 1943) who revived the theory of epiphenomenalism which argues that mental states do not play a role in physical states. Jackson argues that there are two kinds of dualism. The first is substance dualism that assumes there is second, non-corporeal form of reality. In this form, body and soul are two different substances. The second form is property dualism that says that body and soul are different properties of the same body. He claims that functions of the mind/soul are internal, very private experiences that are not accessible to observation by others, and therefore not accessible by science (at least not yet). We can know everything, for example, about a bat's facility for echolocation, but we will never know how the bat experiences that phenomenon. In Jackson's mind experiment, he imagines a girl who grows up in a black-and-white room. She may grow up learning all about the scientific facts of colors, but has no way of experiencing colors other than black or white. When someone brings a red tomato into her room, she is stunned. She discovers a new fact: the experience of red is 'like this.' That experience is not a physical fact but a conscious one.
Main article: Soul dualism
In some cultures, people (or also other beings) are believed to have two or more kinds of soul . In several cases, one of these souls is associated with body functions (and is sometimes thought to disappear after death, but not always), and the other one is able to leave the body (for example, a shaman 's free-soul may be held to be able to undertake a spirit journey). The plethora of soul types may be even more complex.
The Bipartite view of theology recognizes the existence of both material and immaterial aspects of human life, typically body and soul. This is distinct from the Tripartite view that holds soul and spirit to be separate aspects of a person along with the body.
While Western philosophical traditions , as exemplified by Descartes, equate mind with the conscious self and theorize on consciousness on the basis of mind/body dualism; some Eastern philosophies provide an alternate viewpoint, intimately related to substance dualism , by drawing a metaphysical line between consciousness and matter — where matter includes both body and mind.
IN SAMKHYA AND YOGIC PHILOSOPHY
By including mind in the realm of matter, Samkhya-
IN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
In the philosophy of science , dualism often refers to the dichotomy between the "subject" (the observer) and the "object" (the observed). Another dualism, in Popperian philosophy of science refers to "hypothesis" and "refutation" (for example, experimental refutation). This notion also carried to Popper 's political philosophy .
IN MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
The American philosopher
Arthur Oncken Lovejoy in his The Revolt
In physics , dualism refers to media with properties that can be associated with the mechanics of two different phenomena. Because these two phenomena's mechanics are mutually exclusive, both are needed in order to describe the possible behaviors. All matter , for example, has wave–particle duality .
Main article: dualism (politics)
In politics, dualism refers to the separation of powers between the legislature and executive .
In the context of the history of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire ,
"dualism" refers to the political doctrine of
In cybernetics , Norbert Wiener described "Manicheaen devils" (dualistic adversarial systems) as those systems or problems in which an intelligent adversary is attempting to exploit weaknesses of the investigator (such as in a game-playing opponent, adversarial law, evolutionary systems of predator/parasite and prey/host, politics/enslavement attempts, etc.). Wiener's "Cybernetics" contrasted such systems with "Augustinian devils" that were systems or problems that, though very complex and difficult to figure out, did not feature an adversary with contrary intent. Victories or "expansions of knowledge" in such systems were able to be built upon incrementally, through science (experimentation expanding empirical knowledge bases). Wiener noted that temporary weaknesses (such as errors to perceive all components of a system) were not fatal in attempts to defeat "Augustinian devils" because another experiment could simply be pursued (and he noted that he had personally defeated many "Augustinian devils" with his contributions to science and engineering). Wiener further noted that temporary lapses in judgment against "Manicheaen devils" were more often fatal or destructive, due to the desire of the opponent to "win/survive at all costs," even going so far as to introduce any level of deception into the system (and he noted that he had been defeated by many "Manicheaen devils," such as on occasions when he was temporarily careless in chess). Although this "duality" between "complexity" and "opposition" may seem obvious, there are deep implications in many areas of science, such as game theory , political science , computer science , network science , security science , military science , evolutionary biology , cryptography , etc.
* ^ The term dualism is recorded in English since 1785–95 (Random
House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary , 2001, "dualism").
* ^ "Egypt and Mesopotamia"
* ^ "soul"
* ^ Enrico Riparelli, Il volto del Cristo dualista. Da Marcione ai
catari, Peter Lang, Bern - Berlin - Bruxelles - Frankfurt am Main -
New York - Oxford - Wien 2008, 368 pp. ISBN 978-3-03911-490-0
* ^ A B C D Rouner, Leroy (1983). The Westminster Dictionary of
Christian Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 166. ISBN
* ^ Peters, Edward (2011). Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe.
University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8122-0680-7 .
* ^ A B Russell, Jeffrey (1998). A History of Heaven: The Singing
Silence. Princeton University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-691-00684-0 .
* ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference
on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic
Church. Robert Appleton Company. 1912. p. 170.
* ^ Hamilton, Janet; Hamilton, Bernard; Stoyanov, Yuri (1998).
Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World, C. 650-c. 1450:
Selected Sources. Manchester University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN
* ^ Chidester, David (2001). Christianity: A Global History.
HarperCollins. pp. 266–268. ISBN 978-0-06-251770-8 .
* ^ Etter, Christopher. A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism.
iUniverse Inc. P. 59-60. ISBN 0-595-39312-8 .
* ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to
* Haney, William S. Culture and Consciousness: Literature Regained. Bucknell University Press (August 1, 2002). ISBN 1611481724 . * Isaac, J. R.; Dangwal, Ritu; Chakraborty, C. Proceedings. International conference on cognitive systems (1997). Allied Publishers Ltd. ISBN 81-7023-746-7 . * Leaman, Oliver. Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-17357-4 .
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