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Dual monarchy
Dual monarchy
occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing. The term is typically used to refer to Austria-Hungary, a dual monarchy that existed from 1867 to 1918. In the 1870s, using the Dual Monarchy
Monarchy
of Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
as a model, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) and William Ewart Gladstone proposed that Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain
Great Britain
form a dual monarchy.[1] Their efforts were unsuccessful, but the idea was later used in 1904 by Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
in his seminal work, The Resurrection of Hungary. Griffith noted how in 1867 Hungary went from being part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
to a separate co-equal kingdom in Austria-Hungary. Though not a monarchist himself, Griffith advocated such an approach for the Anglo-Irish relationship. The idea was not embraced by other Irish political leaders, and Ireland
Ireland
eventually fought a war of independence (1919–1921) to leave the Union of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Later historians have used the term to refer to other examples where one king ruled two states, such as Henry V and Henry VI, who were effectively kings of both England
England
and France
France
in the fifteenth century as a result of the formation of a puppet state in a large area of France
France
during the Hundred Years' War,[2][3] Denmark–Norway, a dual monarchy that existed from 1537 to 1814,[4] the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
between Portugal and Spain (1580–1640), and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795).[5] A dual monarchy is not necessarily a personal union. In a personal union two or more kingdoms are ruled by the same person but there are no other shared government structures. States in personal union with each other have separate militaries, separate foreign policies and separate customs duties. In this sense Austria–Hungary
Austria–Hungary
was not a mere personal union, as both states shared a cabinet that governed foreign policy, the Army and common finances.[6] See also[edit]

Iberian Union
Iberian Union
(1580–1640) Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(1867-1918)

References[edit]

^ Matthew, H. C. G.; Harrison, B. (May 2006) [first published September 2004], "Edward VII (1841–1910)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32975, retrieved 2008-11-24  ^ Saul, Nigel (May 1986), "Henry V and the Dual Monarchy", History Today, 36 (5): 39–43  ^ McKenna, J.W. (1965), " Henry VI of England
Henry VI of England
and the Dual Monarchy: Aspects of Royal Political Propaganda, 1422–1432", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 28: 145–162, doi:10.2307/750667, JSTOR 750667  ^ Slagstad, Rune (2004), "Shifting Knowledge Regimes: the Metamorphoses of Norwegian Reformism", Thesis Eleven, 77 (1): 65–83, doi:10.1177/0725513604044236  ^ Ronald Findlay; Kevin H. O'Rourke (10 August 2009). Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium. Princeton University Press. p. 189. ISBN 1-4008-3188-1.  ^ Columbia encyclopedia "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2008-

.