The Info List - Drug

A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.[2][3] In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[2] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[4] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[5] Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.[6][verification needed][7] The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.[8] Psychoactive
drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system, altering perception, mood or consciousness.[9] They include alcohol, a depressant (and a stimulant in small quantities), and the stimulants nicotine and caffeine. These three are the most widely consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide[10] and are also considered recreational drugs since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes.[11] Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and some of these are also used in spiritual or religious settings. Some drugs can cause addiction [12] and all drugs can have side effects.[13] Excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition.


1 Etymology 2 Medication 3 Spiritual and religious use 4 Smart drugs and designer drugs 5 Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use 6 Administration of drugs 7 Control of drugs 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.[14] The transitive verb "to drug" (meaning intentionally administer a substance to someone, often without their knowledge) arose later and invokes the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance.[15] Medication

is a proton-pump inhibitor. It is used to reduce the production of stomach acid.

Main articles: Pharmaceutical drug
Pharmaceutical drug
and Drug
class A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition. The use may also be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories—over-the-counter medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions; behind-the-counter medicines, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and prescription only medicines, which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician.[16] In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These medications are designated by the letter P on the label.[17] The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country. Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them. Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.[18] Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses.[6][7] The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.[8] Spiritual and religious use Main article: Entheogen

An Amazonian shaman

San Pedro, a psychoactive cactus

Some religions, particularly ethnic religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens, which are mostly hallucinogens,—psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants. Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink which is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean. Some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within"[19] to achieve religious ecstasy. Amazonian shamans use ayahuasca (yagé) a hallucinogenic brew for this purpose. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum
a psychoactive plant. Its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions.[20] Silene undulata
Silene undulata
is regarded by the Xhosa people
Xhosa people
as a sacred plant and used as an entheogen. Its root is traditionally used to induce vivid (and according to the Xhosa, prophetic) lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamans, classifying it a naturally occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia.[21] Peyote
a small spineless cactus has been a major source of psychedelic mescaline and has probably been used by Native Americans for at least five thousand years.[22][23] Most mescaline is now obtained from a few species of columnar cacti in particular from San Pedro and not from the vulnerable peyote.[24] The entheogenic use of cannabis has also been widely practised [25] for centuries.[26] Rastafari
use marijuana (ganja) as a sacrament in their religious ceremonies. Psychedelic mushrooms (psilocybin mushrooms), commonly called magic mushrooms or shrooms have also long been used as entheogens. Smart drugs and designer drugs Main articles: Nootropic
and Designer drug Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, learning, and many other things. Some nootropics are now beginning to be used to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost during aging. Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced. An early example of what today would be labelled a 'designer drug' was LSD, which was synthesised from ergot.[27] Other examples include analogs of performance-enhancing drugs such as designer steroids taken to improve physical capabilities and these are sometimes used (legally or not) for this purpose, often by professional athletes.[28] Other designer drugs mimic the effects of psychoactive drugs. Since the late 1990s there has been the identification of many of these synthesised drugs. In Japan and the United Kingdom this has spurred the addition of many designer drugs into a newer class of controlled substances known as a temporary class drug. Synthetic cannabinoids have been produced for a longer period of time and are used in the designer drug synthetic cannabis. Recreational drug
Recreational drug

Cannabis is a commonly used recreational drug.[29]

Main article: Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use Further information: Prohibition of drugs Recreational drug use
Recreational drug use
is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug.[30] Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs; and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are often heavily regulated. However, there are many recreational drugs that are legal in many jurisdictions and widely culturally accepted. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed controlled recreational drug in the world (as of 2012).[31] Its use in many countries is illegal but is legally used in several countries usually with the proviso that it can only be used for personal use. It can be used in the leaf form of marijuana (grass), or in the resin form of hashish. Marijuana
is a more mild form of cannabis than hashish. There may be an age restriction on the consumption and purchase of legal recreational drugs. Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the legal use of drugs such as khat is common.[32] There are a number of legal intoxicants commonly called legal highs that are used recreationally. The most widely used of these is alcohol. Administration of drugs All drugs, can be administered via a number of routes, and many can be administered by more than one.

Bolus is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is given to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by intramuscular, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection. Inhaled, (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol or dry powder. (This includes smoking a substance) Injection as a solution, suspension or emulsion either: intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous. Insufflation, or snorted into the nose. Orally, as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines. Rectally as a suppository, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon. Sublingually, diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Topically, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically.[33] Vaginally as a pessary, primarily to treat vaginal infections.

Control of drugs There are numerous governmental offices in many countries that deal with the control and oversee of drug manufacture and use, and the implementation of various drug laws. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty brought about in 1961 to prohibit the use of narcotics save for those used in medical research and treatment. In 1971, a second treaty the Convention on Psychotropic Substances had to be introduced to deal with newer recreational psychoactive and psychedelic drugs. The legal status of Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum
varies in many countries and even in states within the United States. Where it is legislated against the degree of prohibition also varies. The Food
and Drug
Administration (FDA) in the United States is a federal agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter medications, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, cosmetics, animal foods[34] and veterinary drugs. See also

and Pharmacology

Controlled Substances Act Drug
development Inverse benefit law Lifestyle drug List of drugs List of pharmaceutical companies List of psychoactive plants List of Schedule I drugs (US) Pharmacognosy Placebo Prodrug Specialty drugs (United States) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime


^ Richard Lovett (24 September 2005). "Coffee: The demon drink?". Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ a b "Drug". Dictionary.com Unabridged. v 1.1. Random House. 20 September 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007 – via Dictionary.com.  ^ " Drug
Definition". Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2014-05-01 – via Drugs.com.  ^ Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P, Temml V, Wang L, Schwaiger S, Heiss EH, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Breuss JM, Bochkov V, Mihovilovic MD, Kopp B, Bauer R, Dirsch VM, Stuppner H (December 2015). "Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review". Biotechnol Adv. 33 (8): 1582–614. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001. PMC 4748402 . PMID 26281720.  ^ "Drug". The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007 – via dictionary.com.  ^ a b Mahoney A, Evans J (6 November 2008). "Comparing drug classification systems". AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings: 1039. PMID 18999016.  ^ a b World Health Organization (2003). Introduction to drug utilization research (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 33. ISBN 924156234X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-22.  ^ a b Bergström, CA; Andersson, SB; Fagerberg, JH; Ragnarsson, G; Lindahl, A (16 June 2014). "Is the full potential of the biopharmaceutics classification system reached?". European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57: 224–31. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2013.09.010. PMID 24075971.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2015-03-16.  ^ Crocq MA (June 2003). "Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders". Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 5 (2): 175–185. PMC 3181622 . PMID 22033899.  ^ "Recreational Drug". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ Fox, Thomas Peter; Oliver, Govind; Ellis, Sophie Marie (2013). "The Destructive Capacity of Drug
Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug
Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society". ISRN Addiction. 2013: 1–6. doi:10.1155/2013/450348. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "MHRA Side Effects of Medicines." Archived 2014-05-02 at the Wayback Machine. MHRA Side Effects of Medicines, ^ Harper, Douglas. "drug". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Tupper KW (2012). " Psychoactive
substances and the English language: "Drugs," discourses, and public policy". Contemporary Drug
Problems. 39 (3): 461–492. doi:10.1177/009145091203900306.  ^ "About Registration: Medicines and Prescribing". Health and Care Professions Council. Archived from the original on 2016-01-13. Retrieved 22 January 2016.  ^ "Glossary of MHRA terms – P". U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-11-05.  ^ ""Generic Drugs", Center for Drug
Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug
Administration" (PDF). Fda.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ Entheogen, [dictionary.com], archived from the original on 2012-02-13, retrieved 2012-03-13  ^ Valdés, Díaz & Paul 1983, p. 287. ^ Sobiecki, Jean-Francois (July 2012). " Psychoactive
Spiritual Medicines and Healing Dynamics in the Initiation Process of Southern Bantu Diviners". Journal of Psychoactive
Drugs. 44 (3): 216–223. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.703101. PMID 23061321.  ^ El-Seedi HR, De Smet PA, Beck O, Possnert G, Bruhn JG (October 2005). "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas". J Ethnopharmacol. 101 (1–3): 238–42. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.022. PMID 15990261.  ^ "A Brief History of the San Pedro Cactus". Mescaline.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2017.  ^ Terry M (2013). "Lophophora williamsii". IUCN Red list of threatened species. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T151962A581420.en. Archived from the original on 2015-05-24.  ^ "Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology – Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology". scielo.br. Archived from the original on 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2009-01-14.  ^ Bloomquist, Edward (1971). Marijuana: The Second Trip. California: Glencoe.  ^ "Discovery And Synthesis Of LSD: What You Probably Did Not Know About It - Chemistry Hall". 2017-06-13. Archived from the original on 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2017-06-13. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Teale P, Scarth J, Hudson S (2012). "Impact of the emergence of designer drugs upon sports doping testing". Bioanalysis. 4 (1): 71–88. doi:10.4155/bio.11.291. PMID 22191595.  ^ Lingeman. Drugs from A-Z: A Dictionary. Penguin. ISBN 0-7139-0136-5.  ^ "DrugFacts: Hallucinogens - LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP". National Institute on Drug
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Further reading

Richard J. Miller (2014). Drugged: the science and culture behind psychotropic drugs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-995797-2. 

External links

DrugBank, a database of 4800 drugs and 2500 protein drug targets "Drugs", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Richard Davenport-Hines, Sadie Plant and Mike Jay (In Our Time, May 23, 2002)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drugs.

v t e

Pharmacology: major drug groups

Gastrointestinal tract/ metabolism (A)

stomach acid

Antacids H2 antagonists Proton pump inhibitors

Antiemetics Laxatives Antidiarrhoeals/Antipropulsives Anti-obesity drugs Anti-diabetics Vitamins Dietary minerals

and blood forming organs (B)


Antiplatelets Anticoagulants Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics


Platelets Coagulants Antifibrinolytics

Cardiovascular system (C)

cardiac therapy/antianginals

Cardiac glycosides Antiarrhythmics Cardiac stimulants

Antihypertensives Diuretics Vasodilators Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers renin–angiotensin system

ACE inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor antagonists Renin inhibitors


Statins Fibrates Bile acid sequestrants

Skin (D)

Emollients Cicatrizants Antipruritics Antipsoriatics Medicated dressings

Genitourinary system (G)

Hormonal contraception Fertility agents SERMs Sex hormones

Endocrine system (H)

Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones Corticosteroids

Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids

Sex hormones Thyroid hormones/Antithyroid agents

Infections and infestations (J, P, QI)

Antimicrobials: Antibacterials (Antimycobacterials) Antifungals Antivirals Antiparasitics

Antiprotozoals Anthelmintics Ectoparasiticides

IVIG Vaccines

Malignant disease (L01–L02)

Anticancer agents

Antimetabolites Alkylating Spindle poisons Antineoplastic Topoisomerase inhibitors

Immune disease (L03–L04)


Immunostimulants Immunosuppressants

Muscles, bones, and joints (M)

Anabolic steroids Anti-inflammatories


Antirheumatics Corticosteroids Muscle
relaxants Bisphosphonates

Brain and nervous system (N)

Analgesics Anesthetics

General Local

Anorectics Anti-ADHD agents Antiaddictives Anticonvulsants Antidementia agents Antidepressants Antimigraine
agents Antiparkinson
agents Antipsychotics Anxiolytics Depressants Entactogens Entheogens Euphoriants Hallucinogens

Psychedelics Dissociatives Deliriants

Hypnotics/Sedatives Mood Stabilizers Neuroprotectives Nootropics Neurotoxins Orexigenics Serenics Stimulants Wakefulness-promoting agents

Respiratory system (R)

Decongestants Bronchodilators Cough medicines H1 antagonists

Sensory organs (S)

Ophthalmologicals Otologicals

Other ATC (V)

Antidotes Contrast media Radiopharmaceuticals Dressings Senotherapeutics

v t e

Recreational drug
Recreational drug

Major recreational drugs


Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants


Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner



Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones



Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine



Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine


Hydrocodone Hydromorphone


Methadone Mitragyna speciosa








Amphetamine Arecoline


Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea




Coca Crack



MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine



Cocoa Chocolate


2C series 6-APB







toads Vilca Yopo



LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

/ Psilocin



DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum


and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine



Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana


Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA
(Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers


Cannabis culture

420 Cannabis cultivation Cannabis smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana
Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Cannabis and religion Stoner film


break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea

Drinking culture

Bartending Beer
culture Beer
festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub
crawl Sommelier Sports bar Tailgate party Wine
bar Wine


Psychonautics Art Drug Era Experience Literature Music Microdosing Therapy


Cigarette card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking
fetishism Tobacco


Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance party Drug
paraphernalia Drug
tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

production in Colombia Drug
precursors Opium
production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab


Illegal drug trade


Darknet market Drug

shop Cannabis shop Liquor store Liquor license

Issues with drug use

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug

Effects of cannabis

Addiction Dependence

Prevention Opioid
replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use

Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking

of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use


1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug
Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

State level


Decriminalization Prohibition Supply reduction

Policy reform

Demand reduction Drug
Policy Alliance Harm reduction Law Enforcement Action Partnership Liberalization

Latin America

Students for Sensible Drug
Policy Transform Drug
Policy Foundation

policy by country

Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Soviet Union Sweden Switzerland United States

Just Say No Office of National Drug
Control Policy School district drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia


Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug
court Drug
possession Drug
test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on Drugs

Mexican Drug
War Plan Colombia Philippine Drug

Zero tolerance

Lists of countries by...

Alcohol legality

Alcohol consumption

Anabolic steroid
Anabolic steroid
legality Cannabis legality

Annual use Lifetime use

Cigarette consumption Cocaine


legality Opiates use Psilocybin
mushrooms legality Salvia legality

v t e

Receptor/signaling modulators

Amino acids and similar/related

Amino acids and related: GABA receptor modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism and transport modulators GHB receptor modulators Glutamate metabolism and transport modulators Glycine receptor modulators Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators

Monoamines: Adrenergic receptor modulators Dopamine receptor modulators Histamine receptor modulators Melatonin receptor modulators Monoamine metabolism modulators Monoamine neurotoxins Monoamine releasing agents Monoamine reuptake inhibitors Serotonin receptor modulators TAAR modulators

Acetylcholine: Acetylcholine metabolism and transport modulators Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators

Others: Imidazoline receptor modulators Purine receptor modulators Sigma receptor modulators Thyroid hormone
Thyroid hormone
receptor modulators


Eicosanoids: Cannabinoid
receptor modulators Leukotriene signaling modulators Prostanoid signaling modulators

Phospholipids: Lysophospholipid signaling modulators PAF receptor modulators

Steroids: Androgen receptor modulators Estrogen receptor modulators Glucocorticoid
receptor modulators Mineralocorticoid
receptor modulators Progesterone receptor modulators Steroid metabolism modulators

Other nuclear receptors: Nuclear receptor modulators PPAR modulators Retinoid receptor modulators Vitamin
D receptor modulators Xenobiotic-sensing receptor modulators


General: Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators

Peptides: Angiotensin receptor modulators GH/IGF-1 axis signaling modulators GnRH and gonadotropin receptor modulators Melanocortin receptor modulators Neurokinin receptor modulators Opioid
receptor modulators Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor modulators

Cytokines: Cytokine receptor modulators Chemokine receptor modulators Interleukin receptor modulators TNF receptor superfamily modulators

Growth factors: Growth factor receptor modulators TGFβ receptor superfamily modulators

Others and non-receptor

Enzymes: Cytochrome P450 modulators Histone deacetylase inhibitors Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Ion channels: Ion channel modulators TRP channel modulators

Transporters: Symporter inhibitors

Others: Nitric oxide signaling modulators

See also Pharmacomodulation Cell signaling Neuro