Dresden (German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen);
Czech: Drážďany, Polish: Drezno) is the capital city and, after
Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of
Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border
with the Czech Republic.
Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the
Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city
with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union
the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel
Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial
American and British bombing of
World War II
World War II towards the
end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were
civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war,
restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner
city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous
German reunification in 1990
Dresden is again a cultural,
educational and political centre of
Germany and Europe. The Dresden
University of Technology
University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in
Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. The
Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in
Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech
branches, often called as “Silicon Saxony”. The city is also one
of the most visited in
Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per
year, with their Christmas markets attracting many during the
holidays. The royal buildings are among the most impressive
buildings in Europe. Main sights are also the nearby National Park of
Saxon Switzerland, the
Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe
Valley and Moritzburg Castle. The most prominent building in the city
Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the
Protestant church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining
ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial. The remains were also
left in the city center of
Dresden because funds to rebuild the
Frauenkirche were scarce. The newly built Frauenkirche has charred
stones from the destroyed church adapted with new stones as a reminder
of the destruction from World War II. The church was rebuilt from 1994
According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut (HWWI) and
Berenberg Bank in 2017,
Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the
future of all cities in Germany.
1.1 Early history
1.2 Early-modern age
1.2.1 Military history
1.3 Second World War
2.4 Flood protection
2.5 City structuring
3.1 Municipality and city council
3.2 Local affairs
4 Twin towns – sister cities
5 Culture and architecture
5.2 Museums, presentations and collections
5.3.1 Royal household
5.3.2 Sacred buildings
5.3.3 Contemporary architecture
5.3.4 Other buildings
5.3.5 Dresden-Hellerau—Germany's first garden city
5.3.6 Living quarters
Cinemas and cinematics
5.6 Main sights
6.2 Public utilities
9 Education and science
9.3 Higher secondary education
9.4 Sons and daughters of the town
10 See also
14 External links
Saxon sovereigns depicted in Meissen porcelain
See also: Timeline of Dresden
Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin
followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled
Neolithic era by
Linear Pottery culture
Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 5500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward
expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains,
and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name
etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of
Dresden later evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Dresden in 1521
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Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called
Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement
existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was
known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and later as Altendresden,
both literally "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose
Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record
calling the place "Civitas Dresdene".
Dresden became the capital of the margraviate. It was
given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288.
It was taken by the
Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was
restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great
in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from
1547 the electors as well.
Zwinger, 1719, wedding reception of
Augustus III of Poland
Augustus III of Poland and Maria
Josepha of Austria
The Elector and ruler of
Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King
Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong of
Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best
musicians, architects and painters from all over Europe to the
newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden. His reign
marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city
for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the
Augustus III of Poland
Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks
were built. These include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese
Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the
Pillnitz Castle and the two
landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran
Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were
founded. Notable examples include the
Dresden Porcelain Collection,
the Collection of Prints, Drawings and Photographs, the Grünes
Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1729, by decree
of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in
Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw.
Dresden suffered heavy
destruction in the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War (1756–1763), following its
capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, and a failed
Prussian siege in 1760.
Friedrich Schiller wrote his
Ode to Joy
Ode to Joy (the
literary base of the European anthem) for the
Masonic lodge in
1785. During the decline of
Dresden was site
of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising.
Napoleon Crossing the
Elbe by Józef Brodowski (1895)
The city of
Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous
Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan
Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the
Saxony (which was a part of the
German Empire from 1871).
Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of
operations, winning there the famous
Battle of Dresden
Battle of Dresden on 27 August
1813. Following the
November Uprising (1831) many Poles, including
writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna
Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian
Poland to Dresden. Also national poet Adam Mickiewicz
stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote
the poetic drama Dziady, Part III there.
Dresden saw a further influx
Poles after the 1848 and 1863 uprisings, amongst whom were authors
Józef Ignacy Kraszewski
Józef Ignacy Kraszewski and Wawrzyniec
Dresden itself was a centre of the German
Revolutions in 1848 with the May Uprising, which cost human lives and
damaged the historic town of Dresden.
During the 19th century, the city became a major centre of economy,
including motor car production, food processing, banking and the
manufacture of medical equipment.
In the early 20th century,
Dresden was particularly well known for its
camera works and its cigarette factories. Between 1918 and 1934,
Dresden was capital of the first Free State of Saxony.
Dresden was a
centre of European modern art until 1933.
Dresden during the 1890s, before extensive World War II
destruction. Landmarks include
Dresden Frauenkirche, Augustus Bridge,
and Katholische Hofkirche.
During the foundation of the
German Empire in 1871, a large military
facility called Albertstadt was built. It had a capacity of up to
20,000 military personnel at the beginning of the First World War. The
garrison saw only limited use between 1918 and 1934, but was then
reactivated in preparation for the Second World War.
Its usefulness was limited by attacks on 17 April 1945 on the
railway network (especially towards Bohemia). Soldiers had been
deployed as late as March 1945 in the Albertstadt garrison.
The Albertstadt garrison became the headquarters of the Soviet 1st
Guards Tank Army in the Group of Soviet Forces in
Germany after the
war. Apart from the German army officers' school (Offizierschule des
Heeres), there have been no more military units in
Dresden since the
army merger during German reunification, and the withdrawal of Soviet
forces in 1992. Nowadays, the Bundeswehr operates the Military History
Museum of the Federal Republic of
Germany in the former Albertstadt
Second World War
Dresden, 1945, view from the town hall (Rathaus) over the destroyed
city (the allegory of goodness in the foreground)
Main article: Bombing of
Dresden in World War II
Dresden, 1945—over 90 percent of the city centre was destroyed.
Nazi era from 1933 to 1945, the Jewish community of Dresden
was reduced from over 6,000 (7,100 people were persecuted as Jews) to
41, as a result of emigration and murders. Non-Jews were also
targeted, and over 1,300 people were executed by the Nazis at the
Münchner Platz, a courthouse in Dresden, including labour leaders,
undesirables, resistance fighters, and anyone caught listening to
foreign radio broadcasts. The bombing stopped prisoners who were
busy digging a large hole into which an additional 4,000 prisoners
were to be disposed of.
Dresden in the 20th century was a major communications hub and
manufacturing centre with 127 factories and major workshops and was
designated by the German Military as a defensive strongpoint, with
which to hinder the Soviet advance. Being the capital of the
German state of Saxony,
Dresden not only had garrisons but a whole
military borough, the Albertstadt. This military
complex, named after
Saxon King Albert, was not specifically targeted
in the bombing of Dresden, though it was within the expected area of
destruction and was extensively damaged.
During the final months of the Second World War,
some 600,000 refugees, with a total population of 1.2 million. Dresden
was attacked seven times between 1944 and 1945, and was occupied by
Red Army after the German capitulation.
Dresden was the site of the world's second man made firestorm. The
Dresden by the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States
Army Air Forces (USAAF) between 13 and 15 February 1945 remains
controversial. On the night of February 13–14, 1945 773 RAF
Lancaster bombers dropped 1,181.6 tons of incendiary bombs and 1,477.7
tons of high explosive bombs on the city. The inner city of Dresden
was largely destroyed (RAF Bomber Command 60th Anniversary –
Campaign Diary February 1945 Archived 7 June 2007 at the Wayback
Machine.) The high explosive bombs damaged buildings and exposed their
wooden structures, while the incendiaries ignited them, denying their
use by retreating German troops and refugees. Widely
Nazi propaganda reports claimed 200,000 deaths, but the German
Dresden Historians' Commission, made up of 13 prominent German
historians, in an official 2010 report published after five years of
research concluded that casualties numbered between 18,000 and
25,000. The Allies described the operation as the legitimate
bombing of a military and industrial target. Several researchers
have argued that the February attacks were disproportionate. Mostly
women and children died. When interviewed after the war in 1977,
Sir Arthur Harris stood by his decision to carry out the raids, and
reaffirmed that it reduced the German military's ability to wage
American author Kurt Vonnegut's novel
Slaughterhouse Five is loosely
based on his first-hand experience of the raid as a POW. In
remembrance of the victims, the anniversaries of the bombing of
Dresden are marked with peace demonstrations, devotions and
The destruction of
Dresden allowed Hildebrand Gurlitt, a major Nazi
museum director and art dealer, to hide a large collection of artwork
worth over a billion dollars that had been stolen during the
as he claimed it had been destroyed along with his house which was
located in Dresden.
After the Second World War,
Dresden became a major industrial centre
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic (former East Germany) with a great
deal of research infrastructure. It was the centre of Bezirk Dresden
Dresden District) between 1952 and 1990. Many of the city's important
historic buildings were reconstructed, including the Semper Opera
House and the Zwinger Palace, although the city leaders chose to
rebuild large areas of the city in a "socialist modern" style, partly
for economic reasons, but also to break away from the city's past as
the royal capital of
Saxony and a stronghold of the German
bourgeoisie. Some of the ruins of churches, royal buildings and
palaces, such as the Gothic Sophienkirche, the Alberttheater and the
Wackerbarth-Palais, were razed by the Soviet and East German
authorities in the 1950s and 1960s rather than being repaired.
Compared to West Germany, the majority of historic buildings were
From 1985 to 1990, the future President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, was
Dresden by the KGB, where he worked for Lazar Matveev,
KGB liaison officer there. On 3 October 1989 (the so-called
"battle of Dresden"), a convoy of trains carrying East German refugees
Prague passed through
Dresden on its way to the Federal Republic
of Germany. Local activists and residents joined in the growing civil
disobedience movement spreading across the German Democratic Republic,
by staging demonstrations and demanding the removal of the
Dresden Frauenkirche, a few years after its reconsecration
Dresden old town
Dresden Frauenkirche at night
Dresden has experienced dramatic changes since the reunification of
Germany in the early 1990s. The city still bears many wounds from the
bombing raids of 1945, but it has undergone significant reconstruction
in recent decades. Restoration of the
Dresden Frauenkirche was
completed in 2005, a year before Dresden's 800th anniversary, notably
by privately raised funds. The gold cross on the top of the church was
funded officially by "the British people and the House of Windsor".
The urban renewal process, which includes the reconstruction of the
area around the Neumarkt square on which the Frauenkirche is situated,
will continue for many decades, but public and government interest
remains high, and there are numerous large projects underway—both
historic reconstructions and modern plans—that will continue the
city's recent architectural renaissance.
Dresden remains a major cultural centre of historical memory, owing to
the city's destruction in World War II. Each year on 13 February, the
anniversary of the British and American fire-bombing raid that
destroyed most of the city, tens of thousands of demonstrators gather
to commemorate the event. Since reunification, the ceremony has taken
on a more neutral and pacifist tone (after being used more politically
during the Cold War). Beginning in 1999, white nationalists have
Nazi demonstrations in
Dresden that have been among the
largest in the post-war history of Germany. Each year around the
anniversary of the city's destruction, people convene in the memory of
those who died in the fire-bombing.
The completion of the reconstructed
Dresden Frauenkirche in 2005
marked the first step in rebuilding the Neumarkt area. The areas
around the square have been divided into 8 "Quarters", with each being
rebuilt as a separate project, the majority of buildings to be rebuilt
either to the original structure or at least with a façade similar to
the original. Quarter I and the front section of Quarters II, III, IV
and V(II) have since been completed, with Quarter VIII currently under
In 2002, torrential rains caused the
Elbe to flood 9 metres
(30 ft) above its normal height, i.e., even higher than the old
record height from 1845, damaging many landmarks (See 2002 European
flood). The destruction from this "millennium flood" is no longer
visible, due to the speed of reconstruction.
The United Nations' cultural organization
UNESCO declared the Dresden
Elbe Valley to be a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 2004. After being
placed on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites in 2006, the
city lost the title in June 2009, due to the construction of
the Waldschlößchenbrücke, making it only the second ever World
Heritage Site to be removed from the register.
in 2006 that the bridge would destroy the cultural landscape. The city
council's legal moves, meant to prevent the bridge from being built,
Elbe Valley was an internationally recognised site of
cultural significance by the
World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee for five
years. After being placed on the list of endangered World Heritage
Sites in 2006, the city had its status as world heritage site formally
removed in June 2009, for the wilful breach of the
Heritage Convention, due to the construction of a highway bridge
across the valley within 2 km (1 mi) of the historic centre.
The "Free State of Saxony" is responsible for the destruction of this
unique cultural landscape. It thereby became the first location ever
in Europe to lose this status, and the second ever in the world.
Dresden by night
Dresden by day (Brühl's Terrace)
Main article: Geography and urban development of Dresden
Saxon Switzerland a few kilometres outside of Dresden
Dresden lies on both banks of the
Elbe River, mostly in the Dresden
Basin, with the further reaches of the eastern
Ore Mountains to the
south, the steep slope of the Lusatian granitic crust to the north,
Elbe Sandstone Mountains to the east at an altitude of about
113 metres (371 feet). Triebenberg is the highest point in
384 metres (1,260 feet).
With a pleasant location and a mild climate on the Elbe, as well as
Baroque-style architecture and numerous world-renowned museums and art
Dresden has been called "Elbflorenz" (
Florence of the
Elbe). The incorporation of neighbouring rural communities over the
past 60 years has made
Dresden the fourth largest urban district by
Germany after Berlin,
Hamburg and Cologne.
The nearest German cities are
Chemnitz 80 kilometres (50 miles) to the
Leipzig 100 kilometres (62 miles) to the northwest and
Berlin 200 kilometres (120 miles) to the north. Prague, Czech Republic
is about 150 kilometres (93 miles) to the south and to the east 200
kilometres (120 miles) is the Polish city of Wrocław.
Dresden is one of the greenest cities in all of Europe, with 63% of
the city being green areas and forests. The
Dresden Heath (Dresdner
Heide) to the north is a forest 50 km2 in size. There are four
nature reserves. The additional
Special Conservation Areas cover
18 km2. The protected gardens, parkways, parks and old graveyards
host 110 natural monuments in the city. The
Elbe Valley is
a former world heritage site which is focused on the conservation of
the cultural landscape in Dresden. One important part of that
landscape is the
Elbe meadows, which cross the city in a 20 kilometre
Saxon Switzerland is an important nearby location.
Dresden has an oceanic climate (Cfb), influenced by its inland
location, with warm summers and slightly colder winters as compared to
the German average. The average temperature in January is 0.1 °C
(32.18 °F) and in July 19.0 °C (66.2 °F). The driest
months are February, March and April, with precipitation of around
40 mm (1.6 in). The wettest months are July and August, with
more than 80 mm (3.1 in) per month.
The microclimate in the
Elbe valley differs from that on the slopes
and in the higher areas, where the
Dresden district Klotzsche, at 227
metres above sea level, hosts the
Dresden weather station. The weather
Klotzsche is 1 to 3 °C (1.8 to 5.4 °F) colder than in
the inner city at 112 metres above sea level.
Climate data for Dresden,
Germany for 1981–2010, record temperatures
for 1967-2013 (Source: DWD)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst
Because of its location on the banks of the Elbe, into which some
water sources from the
Ore Mountains flow, flood protection is
important. Large areas are kept free of buildings to provide a flood
plain. Two additional trenches, about 50 metres wide, have been built
to keep the inner city free of water from the Elbe, by dissipating the
water downstream through the inner city's gorge portion. Flood
regulation systems like detention basins and water reservoirs are
almost all outside the city area.
The Weißeritz, normally a rather small river, suddenly ran directly
into the main station of
Dresden during the 2002 European floods. This
was largely because the river returned to its former route; it had
been diverted so that a railway could run along the river bed.
Many locations and areas need to be protected by walls and sheet
pilings during floods. A number of districts become waterlogged if the
Elbe overflows across some of its former floodplains.
Floods in 2002
Semperoper during 2005 floods
Elbe Flood in April 2006
Dresden skyline in 2006
Dresden under water in June 2013
Großer Garten in Dresden
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Dresden is a spacious city. Its districts differ in their structure
and appearance. Many parts still contain an old village core, while
some quarters are almost completely preserved as rural settings. Other
characteristic kinds of urban areas are the historic outskirts of the
city, and the former suburbs with scattered housing. During the German
Democratic Republic, many apartment blocks were built. The original
parts of the city are almost all in the districts of Altstadt (Old
town) and Neustadt (New town). Growing outside the city walls, the
historic outskirts were built in the 18th century. They were planned
and constructed on the orders of the
Saxon monarchs, which is why the
outskirts are often named after sovereigns. From the 19th century the
city grew by incorporating other districts.
Dresden has been divided
into ten districts called "Ortsamtsbereich" and nine former boroughs
("Ortschaften") which have been incorporated.
Significant foreign born populations
The population of
Dresden grew to 100,000 inhabitants in 1852, making
it one of the first German cities after
Berlin to reach
that number. The population peaked at 649,252 in 1933, and dropped to
450,000 in 1946 because of World War II, during which large
residential areas of the city were destroyed. After large
incorporations and city restoration, the population grew to 522,532
again between 1950 and 1983.
Since German reunification, demographic development has been very
unsteady. The city has struggled with migration and suburbanisation.
During the 1990s the population increased to 480,000 because of
several incorporations, and decreased to 452,827 in 1998. Between 2000
and 2010, the population grew quickly by more than 45,000 inhabitants
(about 9.5%) due to a stabilised economy and re-urbanisation. Along
Munich and Potsdam,
Dresden is one of the ten fastest-growing
cities in Germany, while the population of the surrounding new
federal states is still shrinking.
As of 2010[update] the population of the city of
523,058, the population of the
Dresden agglomeration was 780,561
as of 2008[update], and as of 2007[update] the population of the
Dresden region, which includes the neighbouring districts of Meißen,
Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge and the western part of the district
Bautzen was 1,143,197.
Dresden is one of the few German Cities
which has more inhabitants than ever since World War II.
As of 2006[update] about 51.3% of the population was female. As of
2007[update] the mean age of the population was 43 years, which is the
lowest among the urban districts in Saxony. As of
31 December 2013[update] there were 43,707 people with a
migration background (8.7% of the city's population), and about half,
25,224 or about 4.7% of all
Dresden citizens were foreigners. This
percentage is almost the same as in 2006 with 4%.
Main article: City Council of Dresden
Dresden is one of Germany's 16 political centres and the capital of
the Free State of Saxony. It has institutions of democratic local
self-administration that are independent from the capital
functions. Some local affairs of
Dresden receive national
Dresden hosted some international summits such as the Petersburg
Russia and Germany, the European Union's Minister of
the Interior conference and the G8 labour ministers conference in
recent years.
Municipality and city council
The city council defines the basic principles of the municipality by
decrees and statutes. The council gives orders to the "Bürgermeister"
("Burgomaster" or Mayor) by voting for resolutions and thus has some
executive power. As of 2008[update], there was no stable governing
Dresden city council (Stadtrat).
As of 2014[update] the 70 seats of the city council were distributed
Number of seats
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
Social Democratic Party of Germany
Alternative for Germany
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
National Democratic Party of Germany
Bündnis Freie Bürger
Pirate Party Germany
Burgomaster is directly elected by the citizens for a term
of seven years. Executive functions are normally elected indirectly in
Germany. However, the Supreme
Burgomaster shares numerous executive
rights with the city council. He/She is the executive head of the
municipality, and also the ceremonial representative of the city. The
main departments of the municipality are managed by seven
Waldschlösschen Bridge is a subject of controversy in
other parts of Germany
Local affairs in
Dresden often centre around the urban development of
the city and its spaces. Architecture and the design of public places
is a controversial subject. Discussions about the
Waldschlößchenbrücke, a bridge under construction across the Elbe,
received international attention because of its position across the
Elbe Valley World Heritage Site. The city held a public
referendum in 2005 on whether to build the bridge, prior to UNESCO
expressing doubts about the compatibility between bridge and heritage.
Its construction caused loss of World Heritage site status in
Dresden sold its publicly subsidized housing organization,
Dresden GmbH, to the US-based private investment company Fortress
Investment Group. The city received 987.1 million euro and paid off
its remaining loans, making it the first large city in
become debt-free. Opponents of the sale were concerned about Dresden's
loss of control over the subsidized housing market.
Since October 2014, PEGIDA, a nationalistic political movement based
Dresden has been organising weekly demonstrations against what it
perceives as the
Islamisation of Europe although the primarily Turkish
and Muslim population make up only 0.2% of the population of the city.
As the number of demonstrators increased to 17,500 on December 22, so
has the international media coverage of it. After this peak,
attendance quickly declined to well below 3,000 in 2016.
Twin towns – sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Along with its twin city
Coventry in England,
Dresden was one of the
first two cities to pair with a foreign city after the Second World
War. The cities became twins after the war in an act
of reconciliation, as both had suffered near-total destruction from
massive aerial bombing. Similar symbolism occurred in
Dresden twinned with the Dutch city of Rotterdam. The
Coventry Blitz and
Rotterdam Blitz bombardments by the German
Luftwaffe are also considered to be disproportional.
Dresden has had a triangular partnership with
Saint Petersburg and
Hamburg since 1987.
Dresden has 14 twin cities.
Coventry, West Midlands, England, United Kingdom, since 1959
Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 1961
Wrocław, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, since 1963
Skopje, Macedonia, since 1967
Ostrava, Czech Republic, since 1971
Brazzaville, Congo, since 1975
Florence, Tuscany, Italy, since 1978
Hamburg, Germany, since 1987
Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands, since 1988
Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, Grand Est, France, since 1990
Salzburg, Austria, since 1991
Columbus, Ohio, United States, since 1992
Hangzhou, China, since 2009
Culture and architecture
Main article: Culture in Dresden
Dresden at night
Dresden Frauenkirche, symbol of Dresden
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber and
Richard Wagner had a number of their works
performed for the first time in Dresden. Other famous
artists, such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka,
Gottfried Semper and Gret Palucca, were also active
in the city.
Dresden is also home to several
important art collections, world-famous musical ensembles, and
significant buildings from various architectural periods, many of
which were rebuilt after the destruction of the Second World
The Semperoper, completely rebuilt and reopened in 1985
Saxon State Opera descends from the opera company of the former
electors and Kings of Saxony. Their first opera house was the
Opernhaus am Taschenberg, opened in 1667. The Opernhaus am Zwinger
presented opera from 1719 to 1756, when the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War began.
Semperoper was completely destroyed during the bombing of
Dresden during the second world war. The opera's reconstruction was
completed exactly 40 years later, on 13 February 1985. Its musical
ensemble is the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, founded in
Dresden State Theatre runs a number of smaller theatres.
Operetta is the only independent operetta in
Germany. The Herkuleskeule (
Hercules club) is an important site in
German-speaking political cabaret.
There are several choirs in Dresden, the best-known of which is the
Dresdner Kreuzchor (Choir of The Holy Cross). It is a boys' choir
drawn from pupils of the Kreuzschule, and was founded in the 13th
century. The Dresdner Kapellknaben are not related to the
Staatskapelle, but to the former Hofkapelle, the Catholic cathedral,
since 1980. The
Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra
Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra is the orchestra of the
city of Dresden.
Throughout the summer, the outdoor concert series "Zwingerkonzerte und
Mehr" is held in the Zwingerhof. Performances include dance and
A big event each year in June is the Bunte Republik Neustadt, a
culture festival lasting 3 days in the city district of
Dresden-Neustadt. Bands play live concerts for free in the streets,
storefronts offer cultural experiences, and people can find all kinds
of refreshments and food. At night as well, concerts continue, turning
into a nightlife haven.
Museums, presentations and collections
Dresden hosts the Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen
Art Collections) which, according to the institution's own statements,
place it among the most important museums presently in existence. The
art collections consist of twelve museums, of which the
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) and the Grünes
Gewölbe (Green Vault) and the
Japanese Palace (Japanisches Palais)
are the most famous. Also known are
Galerie Neue Meister
Galerie Neue Meister (New
Masters Gallery), Rüstkammer (Armoury) with the Turkish Chamber, and
the Museum für Völkerkunde
Dresden (Museum of Ethnology). Other
museums and collections owned by the Free State of
Saxony in Dresden
The Deutsche Hygiene-Museum, founded for mass education in hygiene,
health, human biology and medicine
The Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte (State Museum of Prehistory)
The Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen
Dresden (State Collection
of Natural History)
The Universitätssammlung Kunst + Technik (Collection of Art and
Technology of the
Dresden University of Technology)
Dresden (Transport Museum)
Dresden Panometer (Panorama Museum)
Dresden City Museum
Dresden City Museum is run by the city of
Dresden and focused on
the city's history. The Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr
(Military History Museum) is placed in the former garrison in the
The book museum of the
Saxon State Library presents the famous Dresden
Codex. The Botanischer Garten
Dresden is a botanical garden in the
Großer Garten that is maintained by the
Dresden University of
Technology. Also located in the
Großer Garten is the
The Kraszewski-Museum is a museum dedicated to the most prolific
Polish writer Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, who lived in
Dresden from 1863
Dresden is often said to be a
Baroque city, its architecture
is influenced by more than one style. Other eras of importance are the
Renaissance and Historism, as well as the contemporary styles of
Modernism and Postmodernism.
Dresden has some 13 000 listed cultural monuments and eight
districts under general preservation orders.
The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in
Dresden Castle was the seat of the royal household from
1485. The wings of the building have been renewed, built upon and
restored many times. Due to this integration of styles, the castle is
made up of elements of the Renaissance,
Baroque and Classicist
Zwinger Palace is across the road from the castle. It was built on
the old stronghold of the city and was converted to a centre for the
royal art collections and a place to hold festivals. Its gate by the
moat, surmounted by a golden crown, is famous.
Other royal buildings and ensembles:
Brühl's Terrace was a gift to Heinrich, count von Brühl, and became
an ensemble of buildings above the river Elbe.
Elbe Valley with the
Pillnitz Castle and other castles
Dresden included the Hofkirche during
The Hofkirche was the church of the royal household. Augustus the
Strong, who desired to be King of Poland, converted to Catholicism, as
Polish kings had to be Catholic. At that time
Dresden was strictly
Protestant. Augustus the Strong ordered the building of the Hofkirche,
the Roman Catholic Cathedral, to establish a sign of Roman Catholic
religious importance in Dresden. The church is the cathedral
"Sanctissimae Trinitatis" since 1980. The crypt of the Wettin Dynasty
is located within the church. King
Augustus III of Poland
Augustus III of Poland is
buried in the Cathedral, as one of very few Polish Kings to be buried
Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.
In contrast to the Hofkirche, the Lutheran Frauenkirche was built
almost contemporaneously by the citizens of Dresden. It is said to be
the greatest cupola building in Central and Northern Europe. The
city's historic Kreuzkirche was reconsecrated in 1388.
There are also other churches in Dresden, for example a Russian
Orthodox Church in the Südvorstadt district.
The locally controversial UFA-Palast
Dresden has been an important site for the development of contemporary
architecture for centuries, and this trend has continued into the 20th
and 21st centuries.
Historicist buildings made their presence felt on the cityscape until
the 1920s sampled by public buildings such as the Staatskanzlei or the
City Hall. One of the youngest buildings of that era is the Hygiene
Museum, which is designed in an impressively monumental style, but
employs plain façades and simple structures. It is often attributed,
wrongly, to the
Bauhaus school.
Most of the present cityscape of
Dresden was built after 1945, a mix
of reconstructed or repaired old buildings and new buildings in the
modern and postmodern styles. Important buildings erected between 1945
and 1990 are the Centrum-Warenhaus (a large department store)
representing the international Style, the Kulturpalast, and several
smaller and two bigger complexes of
Plattenbau housing in Gorbitz,
while there is also housing dating from the era of Stalinist
The New Synagogue
After 1990 and German reunification, new styles emerged. Important
contemporary buildings include the New Synagogue, a postmodern
building with few windows, the Transparent Factory, the
Parliament and the New Terrace, the UFA-Kristallpalast cinema by Coop
Himmelb(l)au (one of the biggest buildings of
Germany), and the
Saxon State Library.
Daniel Libeskind and Norman
Foster both modified existing buildings. Foster roofed the main
railway station with translucent Teflon-coated synthetics. Libeskind
changed the whole structure of the Bundeswehr Military History Museum
Museum by placing a wedge through the historical arsenal
The gilded equestrian sculpture of August the Strong of
Other buildings include important bridges crossing the
Elbe river, the
Blaues Wunder bridge and the Augustusbrücke, which is on the site of
the oldest bridge in Dresden.
There are about 300 fountains and springs, many of them in parks or
squares. The wells serve only a decorative function, since there is a
fresh water system in Dresden. Springs and fountains are also elements
in contemporary cityspaces.
The most famous sculpture in
Dresden is Jean-Joseph Vinache's golden
equestrian sculpture of August the Strong called the Goldener Reiter
(Golden Cavalier) on the Neustädter Markt square. It shows August at
the beginning of the Hauptstraße (Main street) on his way to Warsaw,
where he was King of
Poland in personal union. Another sculpture is
the memorial of
Martin Luther in front of the Frauenkirche.[citation
Dresden-Hellerau—Germany's first garden city
The Garden City of Hellerau, at that time a suburb of Dresden, was
founded in 1909. In 1911
Heinrich Tessenow built the Hellerau
Festspielhaus (festival theatre) and
Hellerau became a centre of
modernism with international standing until the outbreak of World War
Hellerau was incorporated into the city of Dresden. Today the
Hellerau reform architecture is recognized as exemplary. In the 1990s,
the garden city of
Hellerau became a conservation area.[citation
Dresden's urban parts are subdivided in rather a lot of city quarters,
up to around 100, among them relatively many larger villa quarters
dominated by historic multiple dwelling units, especially, but not
only along the river, most known are Blasewitz, Loschwitz, Pillnitz
and Weißer Hirsch. Also some Art Nouveau living quarters and two
bigger quarters typical for communist architecture – but much
renovated – can be found. The villa town of
Radebeul joins the
Dresden city tram system, which is expansive due to the lack of an
underground system.
Cinemas and cinematics
There are several small cinemas presenting cult films and low-budget
or low-profile films chosen for their cultural value.
Dresden also has
a few multiplex cinemas, of which the Rundkino is the oldest.[citation
Dresden has been a centre for the production of animated films and
optical cinematic techniques.
The DDV-Stadion, the current home of Dynamo Dresden
Dresden is home to Dynamo Dresden, which had a tradition in UEFA club
competitions up to the early 1990s.
Dynamo Dresden won eight titles in
the DDR-Oberliga. Currently, the club is a member of the 2. Bundesliga
after some seasons in the
Bundesliga and 3. Liga.
In the early 20th century, the city was represented by Dresdner SC,
who were one of Germany's most successful clubs in football. Their
best performances came during World War II, when they were twice
German champions, and twice Cup winners.
Dresdner SC is a multisport
club. While its football team plays in the sixth-tier Landesliga
Sachsen, its volleyball section has a team in the women's Bundesliga.
Dresden has a third football team SC Borea Dresden. ESC Dresdner
Eislöwen is an ice hockey club playing in the 2nd
Dresden Monarchs are an
American football team in the German Football
Dresden Titans are the city's top basketball team. Due to good
performances, they have moved up several divisions and currently play
in Germany's second division ProA. The Titans' home arena is the
Since 1890, horse races have taken place and the Dresdener Rennverein
1890 e.V. are active and one of the big sporting events in
Major sporting facilities in
Dresden are the DDV-Stadion, the
Heinz-Steyer-Stadion and the
EnergieVerbund Arena for ice hockey.
Dresden New Town Hall
Dresden old town
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts
Münzgasse at Neumarkt
View over Altmarkt (Old market) during Striezelmarkt
Dresden at night
Yenidze at night
Dresden TV tower
German Hygiene Museum
Bundeswehr Military History Museum
Dresden Central Station
Main article: Transportation in Dresden
The longest trams in
Dresden set a record in length
Bundesautobahn 4 (European route E40) crosses
Dresden in the
northwest from west to east. The
Bundesautobahn 17 leaves the A4 in a
south-eastern direction. In
Dresden it begins to cross the Ore
Mountains towards Prague. The
Bundesautobahn 13 leaves from the
three-point interchange "Dresden-Nord" and goes to Berlin. The A13 and
the A17 are on the European route E55. Several
crossing or running through Dresden.
There are two main inter-city transit hubs in the railway network in
Dresden Hauptbahnhof and Dresden-Neustadt railway station.
The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague,
Chemnitz. A commuter train system (
Dresden S-Bahn) operates on three
lines alongside the long-distance routes.
Dresden Airport is the city's international airport, located at the
north-western outskirts of the town. Its infrastructure has been
improved[when?] with new terminals and a motorway access route.
Dresden Central Station
Dresden Central Station is the main inter-city transport hub
Dresden has a large tramway network operated by Dresdner
Verkehrsbetriebe, the municipal transport company. Because the
geological bedrock does not allow the building of underground
railways, the tramway is an important form of public
transport. The Transport Authority operates twelve lines on a
200 km (124 mi) network. Many of the new low-floor
vehicles are up to 45 metres long and produced by Bombardier
Transportation in Bautzen. While about 30% of the system's lines are
on reserved track (often sown with grass to avoid noise), many tracks
still run on the streets, especially in the inner city.
CarGoTram is a tram that supplies Volkswagen's Transparent
Factory, crossing the city. The transparent factory is located not far
from the city centre next to the city's largest park.
The districts of
Loschwitz and Weisser Hirsch are connected by the
Dresden Funicular Railway, which has been carrying passengers back and
forth since 1895.
Sächsische Staatskanzlei (
Saxon State Chancellery) is an
institution assisting the Minister-President of the State
Dresden is the capital of a German Land (federal state). It is home to
the Landtag of Saxony and the ministries of the
The controlling Constitutional Court of
Saxony is in Leipzig. The
Saxon court in civil and criminal law, the Higher Regional
Court of Saxony, has its home in Dresden.
Most of the
Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden.
home to the Regional Commission of the
Dresden Regierungsbezirk, which
is a controlling authority for the
Saxon Government. It has
jurisdiction over eight rural districts, two urban districts and the
city of Dresden.
Like many cities in Germany,
Dresden is also home to a local court,
has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many
subsidiaries of federal agencies (such as the Federal Labour Office or
the Federal Agency for Technical Relief). It hosts some divisions of
the German Customs and the eastern Federal Waterways
Dresden is home to a military subdistrict command, but no longer has
large military units as it did in the past.
Dresden is the traditional
location for army officer schooling in Germany, today carried out in
the Offizierschule des Heeres.
Main article: Economy of Dresden
Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices factory
The International Congress Center Dresden
Until famous enterprises like
Dresdner Bank left
Dresden in the
communist era to avoid nationalisation,
Dresden was one of the most
important German cities, an important industrial centre of the German
Democratic Republic. The period of the GDR until 1990
was characterized by low economic growth in comparison to western
German cities. In 1990
Dresden had to struggle with
the economic collapse of the
Soviet Union and the other export markets
in Eastern Europe. After reunification enterprises and production
sites broke down almost completely as they entered the social market
economy, facing competition from the Federal Republic of Germany.
After 1990 a completely new legal system and currency system was
introduced and infrastructure was largely rebuilt with funds from the
Federal Republic of Germany.
Dresden as a major urban centre has
developed much faster and more consistently than most other regions in
the former German Democratic Republic, but it still faces many social
and economic problems stemming from the collapse of the former system,
including high unemployment levels.
Between 1990 and 2010 the unemployment rate fluctuated between 11% and
15% but since then continuously decreased to 6.7% in 2016.
Dresden has raised its GDP per capita to 31,100 euro, close to the GDP
per capita of some West German communities (the average of the 50
biggest cities is around 35,000 euro).
Thanks to the presence of public administration centres, a high
density of semi-public research institutes and an extension of
publicly funded high technology sectors, the proportion of highly
Dresden is again among the highest in
Germany and by
Dresden regularly ranks among the best ten bigger
Germany to live in.
Transparent Factory owned by Volkswagen
Three major sectors dominate Dresden's economy:
Saxony Saxony's semiconductor industry was built up in 1969.
Major enterprises today are AMD's spin-off GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Infineon
ZMDI and Toppan Photomasks. Their factories attract many
suppliers of material and cleanroom technology enterprises to Dresden.
The pharmaceutical sector developed at the end of the 19th century.
The 'Sächsisches Serumwerk Dresden' (
Saxon Serum Plant, Dresden),
owned by GlaxoSmithKline, is a global leader in vaccine
production. Another traditional pharmaceuticals
producer is Arzneimittelwerke
Dresden (Pharmaceutical Works,
A third traditional branch is that of mechanical and electrical
engineering. Major employers are the
Volkswagen Transparent Factory,
Elbe Flugzeugwerke (
Elbe Aircraft Works), Siemens and
Linde-KCA-Dresden.The tourism industry enjoys high
revenue and supports many employees. There are around one hundred
bigger hotels in Dresden, many of which cater in the upscale
Dresden still has a shortage of corporate
The media sector is not particularly strong in Dresden.[citation
needed] The media in
Dresden include two major newspapers of regional
Sächsische Zeitung (
Saxon Newspaper, circulation around
228,000) and the
Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten (Dresden's Latest News,
circulation around 50,000).
Dresden has a broadcasting centre
belonging to the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. The Dresdner Druck- und
Dresden printing plant and publishing house) produces
part of Spiegel's print run, amongst other newspapers and
Education and science
Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden
Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German
cities it is a more recent location for academic education.
Dresden University of Technology
Dresden University of Technology (Technische Universität Dresden)
with more than 36,000 students (2011) was founded in 1828 and is
among the oldest and largest Universities of Technology in Germany. It
is currently the university of technology in
Germany with the largest
number of students but also has many courses in social studies,
economics and other non-technical sciences. It offers 126 courses. In
TU Dresden was successful in the German Universities
Excellence Initiative of the Federal Ministry of Education and
Dresden University of Technology
Dresden University of Technology founded a Kids-University in
Dresden University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik
und Wirtschaft Dresden) was founded in 1992 and had about 5,300
students in 2005.
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts (Hochschule für Bildende Künste
Dresden) was founded in 1764 and is known for its former professors
and artists such as George Grosz, Sascha Schneider, Otto Dix, Oskar
Kokoschka, Bernardo Bellotto, Carl-Gustav Carus, Caspar David
Friedrich and Gerhard Richter.
Palucca School of Dance
Palucca School of Dance (Palucca Hochschule für Tanz) was
Gret Palucca in 1925 and is a major European school of free
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber College of Music was founded in 1856.
Other universities include the "Hochschule für Kirchenmusik", a
school specialising in church music, the "Evangelische Hochschule für
Sozialarbeit", an education institution for social work. The
Dresden International University" is a private postgraduate
university, founded in April of 2003 in cooperation with the
Dresden University of Technology.
Dresden World Trade Centre at night
Dresden hosts many research institutes, some of which have gained an
international standing. The domains of most
importance are micro- and nanoelectronics, transport and
infrastructure systems, material and photonic technology, and
bio-engineering. The institutes are well connected among one other as
well as with the academic education institutions.
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is the largest complex of
research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban
areas. It focuses on nuclear medicine and physics. As part of the
Helmholtz Association it is one of the German
Big Science research
Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society focuses on fundamental research. In Dresden
there are three Max Planck Institutes (MPI); the MPI of Molecular Cell
Biology and Genetics, the MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids and the
MPI for the Physics of Complex Systems.
Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also
offer mission-oriented research to enterprises. With eleven
institutions or parts of institutes,
Dresden is the largest location
Fraunhofer Society worldwide. The
Fraunhofer Society has
become an important factor in location decisions and is seen as a
useful part of the "knowledge infrastructure".
The Leibniz Community is a union of institutes with science covering
fundamental research and applied research. In
Dresden there are three
Leibniz Institutes. The Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research
and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research
are both in the material and high-technology domain, while the Leibniz
Institute for Ecological and Regional Development is focused on more
fundamental research into urban planning.[citation
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf was member of the Leibniz
Community until the end of 2010.
Higher secondary education
Dresden has[when?] more than 20 Gymnasien which prepare for a tertiary
education, five of which are private. The "Sächsisches
Landesgymnasium für Musik" with a focus on music is supported, as its
name implies by the State of Saxony, rather than by the city.
There are some Berufliche Gymnasien which combine vocational education
and secondary education and a Abendgymnasium which prepares higher
education of adults avocational.
Sons and daughters of the town
Arnulf Baring (born 1932), historian, lawyer, journalist and author
Georg Bartisch (ca 1535-1607), eye surgeon and author of first
German-language textbook of ophthalmology
Christine Bergmann (born 1939), politician (SPD)
August Buchner (1591–1661), influential
Carle Hessay (1911-1978), Canadian painter
Hans Hüttig (1894–1980), German
Nazi SS concentration camp
Erich Kästner (1899–1974), author of books
Victor Klemperer (1881-1960) Jewish author of "I Will Bear Witness"
Siarhei Mikhalok (born 1972), Belarusian rock musician and actor
Karl Reinisch (1921–2007), engineer
Gerhard Richter (born 1932), painter
Helmut Schön (1915–1996), football trainer, lead
Germany to world
championship in 1974
Herbert Wehner (1906–1990), politician SPD
Outline of Dresden
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Militärbauten in Dresden. Dresden, 1880
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^ a b
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^ a b Bridge takes
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^ (in German) Weltkulturerbe: Unesco-Titel in Gefahr, Focus, 14 March
2007; accessed 15 May 2007
Dresden is deleted from UNESCO's World Heritage List,
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^ Connolly, Kate (25 June 2009). "Bridge takes
Dresden off Unesco
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^ a b List of cities in
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^ Statistical office of the Free State of Saxony: Sachsen sind im
Durchschnitt 45 Jahre alt – Dresdner am jüngsten,
Hoyerswerdaer am ältesten (German)
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World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee threatens to remove
Valley (Germany) from World Heritage List
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Hamburg und seine Städtepartnerschaften (
cities)" (in German). Hamburg's official website . Retrieved
2008-08-05. External link in publisher= (help)
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Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved
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April 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
Dresden Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback
^ Kreuzchor Archived 22 May 2016 at the Portuguese Web Archive
^ steffen wollmerstaedt. "Landesbühnen Sachsen l
Dresden l Theater l
Rathen l Zwinger l Sachsen". Dresden-theater.de. Retrieved 12 March
^  Bunte Republik Neustadt
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^ "O Códice de Dresden". World Digital Library. 1200–1250.
Retrieved 21 August 2013.
^ Dresden: Monument preservation Archived 29 January 2008 at the
^ Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden: The History of the Royal Palace
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Semperbau Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Roman Catholic Diocese of Dresden-Meissen: Kathedrale Ss. Trinitatis
^ Evangelisch-Lutherische Kreuzkirchgemeinde Dresden: History of the
Church of the Holy Cross Archived 29 April 2008 at the Wayback
Dynamo Dresden e. V. :: DFB - Deutscher
Fußball-Bund e.V." datencenter.dfb.de. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
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^ Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe: Gleise und Haltestellen
^ Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe: "CarGoTram". Archived from the original
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original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Funicular Railway VVO Navigator - Your mobility portal for
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^ "Funicular Railway VVO Navigator - Your mobility portal for
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Dresden City Webpage Archived 3 July 2010 at the Wayback
Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945 by Frederick Taylor, 2005;
Dresden and the Heavy Bombers: An RAF Navigator's Perspective by Frank
Musgrove, 2005; ISBN 1-84415-194-8
Dresden by Maria Ritter, 2004; ISBN 1-57806-596-8
Dresden: Heute/Today by Dieter Zumpe, 2003; ISBN 3-7913-2860-3
Dresden by David Irving, 1972; ISBN 0-345-23032-9
Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, 1970; ISBN 0-586-03328-9
"Disguised Visibilities: Dresden/"Dresden" by
Mark Jarzombek in Memory
and Architecture, Ed. By Eleni Bastea, (University of Mexico Press,
Preserve and Rebuild:
Dresden during the Transformations of
1989–1990. Architecture, Citizens Initiatives and Local Identities
by Victoria Knebel, 2007; ISBN 978-3-631-55954-3
La tutela del patrimonio culturale in caso di conflitto Fabio
Maniscalco (editor), 2002; ISBN 88-87835-18-7
See also: Bibliography of the history of Dresden
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dresden.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Official homepage of the city
Dresden travel guide from Wikivoyage
Official tourist office
Homepage of the Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe, the public transport
Network maps of the public transport system
http://www.neumarkt-dresden.de/ Organisation for reconstruction of the
Places adjacent to Dresden
Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)
Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany
Capitals of area states
Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Hanover (Lower Saxony)
Bremen (State of Bremen)
Capitals of former states
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau (South Baden, 1949–1952)
Stuttgart (Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952)
Tübingen (Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)
1 Unlike the mono-city states
Berlin and Hamburg, the State of Bremen
consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of
Former urban districts
Former rural districts
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Capitals of the former East German Bezirke