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DRAVYA (Hindi : द्रव्य) is a term used to refer a substance. According to the Jain philosophy , the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls (_jīva_), non-sentient substance or matter (_pudgala _), principle of motion (_dharma _), the principle of rest (_adharma _), space (_ākāśa _) and time (_kāla_). The latter five are united as the _ajiva_ (the non-living). As per the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
etymology, _dravya_ means substances or entity, but it may also mean real or fundamental categories.

Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body, or thing, by declaring the former as a simple element or reality while the latter as a compound of one or more substances or atoms. They claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can ever be destroyed.

CONTENTS

* 1 Jīva (living entity)

* 2 Ajiva (five non-living entities)

* 2.1 Pudgala (Matter) * 2.2 Dharma
Dharma
* 2.3 Adharma * 2.4 Ākāśa (space) * 2.5 Kāla (time)

* 3 Astikaya * 4 Attributes of Dravya
Dravya
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography

JīVA (LIVING ENTITY)

Main article: Jīva (Jainism)

According to Jain philosophy , this universe consists of infinite _jivas _ or souls that are uncreated and always existing. There are two main categories of souls: unliberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this _samsara _ due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death. All souls are intrinsically pure but are found in bondage with karma since beginningless time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its true and pure form.

10th-century Jain monk Nemichandra describes the soul in _ Dravyasamgraha _:

The sentient substance (soul) is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions (doer), is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer (of its actions), located in the world of rebirth (samsara ) (or) emancipated _(moksa )_ (and) has the intrinsic movement upwards. — _Dravyasaṃgraha_ (2)

The qualities of the soul are _chetana_ (consciousness) and _upyoga_ (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are merely the modes of the soul. Thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in _samsara_ (universe), may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired.

AJIVA (FIVE NON-LIVING ENTITIES)

Main article: Ajiva

PUDGALA (MATTER)

Main article: Pudgala

Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gaseous, energy, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. _Paramāṇu_ or ultimate particle (atoms or sub-atomic particles) is the basic building block of all matter. It possesses at all times four qualities, namely, a color (_varna_), a taste (_rasa_), a smell (_gandha_), and a certain kind of palpability (_sparsha_, touch). One of the qualities of the _paramāṇu_ and _pudgala_ is that of permanence and indestructibility. It combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same.

DHARMA

Main article: Dharma (Jainism)

_Dharma_ means the principles of Motion that pervade the entire universe. Dharma
Dharma
and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without _Dharma_ motion is not possible. The medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water (helps) fish. However, it does not set in motion those that do not move.

ADHARMA

Without _adharma_, rest and stability is not possible in the universe. The principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay without moving, like the shade helps travellers. It does not stabilize those that move. According to Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
:

The necessity of Adharma as the accompanying cause of rest, that is, of cessation of motion will be clearly perceived by any one who will put to himself the question, how jīvas and bodies of matter support themselves when coming to rest from a state of motion. Obviously gravitation will not do, for that is concerned with the determination of the direction which a moving body may take...

ĀKāśA (SPACE)

Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading, infinite and made of infinite space-points.

KāLA (TIME)

Main article: Kāla (time)

_Kāla_ is a real entity according to Jainism
Jainism
and is said to be the cause of continuity and succession. Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
in his book "_The Key of Knowledge_ wrote:

...As a substance which assists other things in performing their ‘temporal’ gyrations, Time can be conceived only in the form of whirling posts. That these whirling posts, as we have called the units of Time, cannot, in any manner, be conceived as parts of the substances that revolve around them, is obvious from the fact that they are necessary for the continuance of all other substances, including souls and atoms of matter which are simple ultimate units, and cannot be imagined as carrying a pin each to revolve upon. Time must, therefore, be considered as a separate substance which assists other substances and things in their movements of continuity. —  Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain

Jaina philosophers call the substance of Time as _Niścay_ Time to distinguish it from _vyavhāra_ (practical) Time which is a measure of duration- hours, days and the like.

ASTIKAYA

_ Chart showing the classification of dravya_ and _astikaya_

Out of the six _dravyas_, five except time have been described as _astikayas_, that is, extensions or conglomerates. Since like conglomerates, they have numerous space points, they are described as _astikaya_. There are innumerable space points in the sentient substance and in the media of motion and rest, and infinite ones in space; in matter they are threefold (i.e. numerable, innumerable and infinite). Time has only one; therefore it is not a conglomerate. Hence the corresponding conglomerates or extensions are called—_jivastikaya_ (soul extension or conglomerate), _pudgalastikaya_ (matter conglomerate), _dharmastikaya_ (motion conglomerate), _adharmastikaya_ (rest conglomerate) and _akastikaya_ (space conglomerates). Together they are called _pancastikaya_ or the five _astikayas_.

ATTRIBUTES OF DRAVYA

These substances have some common attributes or gunas such as:

* _Astitva_ (existence): indestructibility; permanence; the capacity by which a substance cannot be destroyed. * _Vastutva_ (functionality): capacity by which a substance has function. * _Dravyatva_ (changeability): capacity by which it is always changing in modifications. * _Prameyatva_ (knowability): capacity by which it is known by someone, or of being the subject-matter of knowledge. * _Agurulaghutva_ (individuality): capacity by which one attribute or substance does not become another and the substance does not lose the attributes whose grouping forms the substance itself. * _Pradeshatva_ (spatiality): capacity of having some kind of location in space.

There are some specific attributes that distinguish the dravyas from each other:

* _Chetanatva_ (consciousness) and _amurtavta_ (immateriality) are common attributes of the class of substances soul or jiva. * _Achetanatva_ (non-consciousness) and _murtatva_ (materiality) are attributes of matter. * _Achetanatva_ (non-consciousness) and _amurtavta_ (immateriality) are common to Motion, Rest, Time and Space.

SEE ALSO

* Tattva (Jainism) * Dravyasamgraha

REFERENCES

* ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 1 of Introduction * ^ _A_ _B_ Grimes, John (1996). Pp.118–119 * ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1917 , p. 15. * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 4 * ^ Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). verses 16–21 * ^ Jaini 1998 , p. 90. * ^ Grimes, John (1996). p. 249 * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.10 * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.11 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Jain, Champat Rai (1975). _The Key Of Knowledge_ (Third ed.). New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow's Printers. p. 520–530. * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.11–12 * ^ Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.12–13 * ^ J. C. Sikdar (2001) p. 1107 * ^ _A_ _B_ Acarya Nemicandra; J. L. Jaini (1927) p. 4 (of introduction)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010), _Dravyasamgrha: Exposition of the Six Substances_, Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series (vol-19) (in Prakrit and English), Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay , ISBN 978-81-88769-30-8 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005), _Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda_, New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher, ISBN 81-7019-436-9 * Sikdar, J. C. (2001), "Concept of matter", in (ed.) Nagendra Kr. Singh, _Encyclopedia of Jainism_, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, ISBN 81-261-0691-3 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * Grimes, John (1996), _A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English_, New York: SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3068-5 * Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998) , _The Jaina Path of Purification_, Delhi
Delhi
: Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-1578-5 * Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
(1917), _The Practical Path_, The Central Jaina Publishing House * Jacobi, Hermann (1884), (ed.) F. Max Müller , ed., _The Ācāranga Sūtra_, Sacred Books of the East vol.22, Part 1 , Oxford: The Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-7007-1538-X CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) _Note: ISBN refers to the UK:Routledge (2001) reprint. URL is the scan version of the original 1884 reprint._

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