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The DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan
Pakistan
, southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Nepal
Nepal
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan
Bhutan
, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu , Tamil , Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
Malayalam
. There are also small groups of Dravidian-speaking scheduled tribes , who live beyond the mainstream communities, such as the Kurukh in Eastern India, Kui people of Odisha
Odisha
and Gond tribes in Central India.

Though some scholars argue that the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
may have been brought to India by migrations in the fourth or third millennium BCE
BCE
or even earlier, this hypothesis is generally discounted by mainstream scholars as there is no Dravidian language presence outside the Indian subcontinent. The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
cannot easily be connected to any other language, and they could well be indigenous to India.

Epigraphically the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
have been attested since the 2nd century BCE
BCE
. Only two Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are exclusively spoken outside India: Brahui in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Dhangar , a dialect of Kurukh , in Nepal
Nepal
. Dravidian place names along the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
coast and the Dravidian grammatical influence such as clusivity in the Indo-Aryan languages , namely Marathi , Konkani , Gujarati , Marwari , and Sindhi , suggest that Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
were once spoken more widely across the Indian subcontinent .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Classification

* 2.1 North Dravidian

* 3 Distribution * 4 Proposed relations with other families * 5 Literature

* 6 Prehistory

* 6.1 Origins

* 6.1.1 Indigenous Dravidian language * 6.1.2 Dravidian migrations

* 6.2 Differentiation

* 6.3 Indo-Aryan migrations and Sanskritization

* 6.3.1 Northern Dravidian pockets * 6.3.2 Dravidian influence on Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* 7 Grammar

* 8 Phonology
Phonology

* 8.1 Proto-Dravidian * 8.2 Numerals

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Alexander D. Campbell first suggested the existence of a Dravidian language family in 1816 in his _Grammar of the Teloogoo Language_, in which he and Francis W. Ellis argued that Tamil and Telugu descended from a common, non-Indo-European ancestor. In 1856 Robert Caldwell published his _Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages_, which considerably expanded the Dravidian umbrella and established Dravidian as one of the major language groups of the world. Caldwell coined the term "Dravidian" for this family of languages, based on the usage of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _drāviḍa_ in the work _Tantravārttika_ by Kumārila Bhaṭṭa . In his own words, Caldwell says,

The word I have chosen is 'Dravidian', from Drāviḍa, the adjectival form of Draviḍa. This term, it is true, has sometimes been used, and is still sometimes used, in almost as restricted a sense as that of Tamil itself, so that though on the whole it is the best term I can find, I admit it is not perfectly free from ambiguity. It is a term which has already been used more or less distinctively by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
philologists, as a generic appellation for the South Indian people and their languages, and it is the only single term they ever seem to have used in this manner. I have, therefore, no doubt of the propriety of adopting it.

The 1961 publication of the _Dravidian etymological dictionary_ by T. Burrow and M. B. Emeneau proved a notable event in the study of Dravidian linguistics.

As for the origin of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _drāviḍa_ itself, researchers have proposed various theories. Basically the theories deal with the direction of derivation between _tamiẓ_ and _drāviḍa_. There is no definite philological and linguistic basis for asserting unilaterally that the name _Dravida_ also forms the origin of the word _Tamil _ (Dravida → Dramila → Tamizha or Tamil). Kamil Zvelebil
Kamil Zvelebil
cites the forms such as _dramila_ (in Daṇḍin's Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work _Avanisundarīkathā_) _damiḷa_ (found in the Sri Lankan (Ceylonese) chronicle _ Mahavamsa _) and then goes on to say, "The forms _damiḷa_/_damila_ almost certainly provide a connection of _dr(a/ā)viḍa_ " and "... _tamiḷ_ < _tamiẓ_ ...whereby the further development might have been *_tamiẓ_ > *_damiḷ_ > _damiḷa_- / _damila_- and further, with the intrusive, 'hypercorrect' (or perhaps analogical) -_r_-, into _dr(a/ā)viḍa_. The -_m_-/-_v_- alternation is a common enough phenomenon in Dravidian phonology" Zvelebil in his earlier treatise states, "It is obvious that the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_dr(a/ā)viḍa_, Pali _damila_, _damiḷo_ and Prakrit _d(a/ā)viḍa_ are all etymologically connected with _tamiẓ_", and further remarks, "The _r_ in _tamiẓ_ → _dr(a/ā)viḍa_ is a hypercorrect insertion, cf. an analogical case of DED 1033 Ta. _kamuku_, Tu. _kangu_ "areca nut": Skt. _kramu(ka)_."

Further, another Dravidian linguist, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti , in his book _Dravidian Languages_ states,

Joseph (1989: IJDL 18.2:134-42) gives extensive references to the use of the term _draviḍa_, _dramila_ first as the name of a people, then of a country. Sinhala BCE
BCE
inscriptions cite _dameḍa_-, _damela_- denoting Tamil merchants. Early Buddhist and Jaina sources used _damiḷa_- to refer to a people of south India (presumably Tamil); _damilaraṭṭha_- was a southern non-Aryan country; _dramiḷa_-, _dramiḍa_, and _draviḍa_- were used as variants to designate a country in the south (_Bṛhatsamhita-_, _Kādambarī_, _Daśakumāracarita-_, fourth to seventh centuries CE) (1989: 134–138). It appears that _damiḷa_- was older than _draviḍa_- which could be its Sanskritization.

Based on what Krishnamurti states (referring to a scholarly paper published in the _International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics_), the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _draviḍa_ itself is later than _damiḷa_ since the dates for the forms with -r- are centuries later than the dates for the forms without -r- (_damiḷa_, _dameḍa_-, _damela_- etc.). The _Monier-Williams Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary_ lists for the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _draviḍa_ a meaning of "collective Name for 5 peoples, viz. the Āndhras, Karṇāṭakas, Gurjaras, Tailaṅgas, and Mahārāṣṭras".

CLASSIFICATION

The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
form a close-knit family. They are descended from the Proto-Dravidian language . There is reasonable agreement on how they are related to each other. Most scholars agree on four groups: North, Central (Kolami–Parji), South-Central (Telugu–Kui) and South Dravidian. Earlier classifications grouped Central and South-Central Dravidian in a single branch. The classification below follows Krishnamurti in grouping South-Central and South Dravidian. Languages recognized as official languages of India appear here in BOLDFACE.

Dravidian

Southern

South (SD I) (Tamil)

(Kannada-Tamil)

Tamil- Malayalam
Malayalam

TAMIL

MALAYALAM

Kodagu

Kodava

Kurumba

Kota

Toda

Kannada–Badaga

KANNADA

Badaga

Tulu

Koraga

Tulu (incl. Bellari ?)

Kudiya

South-Central (SD II) (Telugu–Kui)

Gondi–Kui

Gondi

Gondi

Madiya

Muria

Pardhan

Nagarchal

Khirwar

Konda

Mukha-Dora

Kui

Kuvi

Koya

Manda

Pengo

Telugu

TELUGU

Chenchu

Central (Kolami–Parji)

Naiki

Kolami

Ollari (Gadaba)

Duruwa

Northern

Kurukh–Malto

Kurukh (Oraon, Kisan)

Malto

Kumarbhag Paharia

Sauria Paharia

Brahui

In addition, _Ethnologue_ lists several unclassified Dravidian languages: Allar , Bazigar , Bharia , Malankuravan (possibly a dialect of Malayalam), Vishavan , as well as the otherwise unclassified Southern Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
Mala Malasar , Malasar , Thachanadan , Ullatan , Kalanadi , Kumbaran , Kunduvadi , Kurichiya , Attapady Kurumba , Muduga , Pathiya and Wayanad Chetti to Tamil-Kannada.

NORTH DRAVIDIAN

Some authors deny that North Dravidian forms a valid subgroup, splitting it into Northeast (Kurukh–Malto) and Northwest (Brahui). Their affiliation has been proposed primarily based on a small number of common phonetic developments, including:

* In some words, *k is retracted or spirantized, shifting to /x/ in Kurukh and Brahui, /q/ in Malto. * In some words, *c is retracted to /k/. * Word-initial *v develops to /b/. This development is however also found in several other Dravidian languages, including Kannada, Kodagu and Tulu.

McAlpin (2003) notes that no exact conditioning can be established for the first two changes, and proposes that distinct Proto-Dravidian *q and *kʲ should be reconstructed behind these correspondences; and that Brahui, Kurukh-Malto and the rest of Dravidian may be three coordinate branches, possibly with Brahui being the earliest language to split off. A few morphological parallels between Brahui and Kurukh-Malto are also known, but according to McAlpin they are analyzable as shared archaisms rather than shared innovations.

DISTRIBUTION

Language region map of India, most commonly spoken first language. Right click to see image summary giving 'List of percentage of people speaking as L1'.

Approximately 29% of India's population spoke Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
in 1981. The proportion has fallen due to lower birth rates compared to the Indo-Aryan speakers and according to 2001 census, about 21.5% or 220 million of total population of 1.02 billion were Dravidian speakers.

LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATION NUMBER OF SPEAKERS LOCATION

Tamil South 70,000,000 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Puducherry (including Karaikkal
Karaikkal
), parts of Andhra Pradesh (Chittoor and Nellore districts), Karnataka
Karnataka
( Bangalore
Bangalore
, Kolar ), Kerala
Kerala
(Palakkad and Idukki districts), Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
, Hongkong
Hongkong
, China, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Singapore
Singapore
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Thailand
Thailand
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Seychelles
Seychelles
, Australia, South Africa
South Africa
, Germany, Canada, United States
United States
, UK , UAE
UAE
, Myanmar
Myanmar
and Réunion
Réunion
, Australia, South Africa
South Africa
.

Kannada
Kannada
South 40,000,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
, Kerala
Kerala
( Kasaragod district ) and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
( Solapur
Solapur
, Sangli ), Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(Salem , Ooty
Ooty
, Chennai
Chennai
), Andhra Pradesh ( Ananthpur , Kurnool , Hyderabad
Hyderabad
) and Telangana
Telangana
( Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Medak
Medak
and Mehaboobnagar ), United States
United States
, Oman
Oman
, UAE
UAE
, UK , Australia
Australia

Malayalam
Malayalam
South 38,000,000 Kerala
Kerala
, Lakshadweep , Mahe district
Mahe district
of Puducherry , Dakshina Kannada
Kannada
and Kodagu districts of Karnataka
Karnataka
, Coimbatore , Neelagiri and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, UAE
UAE
, United States
United States
, Saudi Arabia , Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, UK , Qatar
Qatar
, Bahrain
Bahrain

Tulu South 1,700,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
( Dakshina Kannada , Udupi districts) and Kerala ( Kasaragod district ), Dubai, UAE
UAE

Beary Bashe South 1,500,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
( Dakshina Kannada , Udupi districts) and Kerala ( Kasaragod district )

Badaga South 400,000 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district )

Kodava South 300,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
( Kodagu district )

Kurumba South 220,000 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district )

Kanikkaran South 19,000 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district ) and Kerala
Kerala

Koraga South 14,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
( Dakshina Kannada , Udupi districts) and Kerala ( Kasaragod district )

Irula South 4,500 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district )

Toda South 1,100 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district )

Kota South 900 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
( Nilgiris district )

Allar South 300 Kerala
Kerala

Telugu South-Central 75,000,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Telangana
Telangana
and parts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Karnataka
Karnataka
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Odisha
Odisha
, Chattisgarh

Gondi South-Central 2,000,000 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Telangana
Telangana
, Odisha
Odisha

Muria South-Central 1,000,000 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Odisha
Odisha

Kui South-Central 700,000 Odisha
Odisha

Maria South-Central 360,000 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Telangana
Telangana
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Kuvi South-Central 350,000 Odisha
Odisha

Pengo South-Central 350,000 Odisha
Odisha

Khoya South-Central 330,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Telangana
Telangana
, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh

Pardhan South-Central 117,000 Telangana
Telangana
, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Chenchu South-Central 26,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Telangana
Telangana

Konda South-Central 20,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Odisha
Odisha

Nagarchal South-Central 7,000 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Manda South-Central 4,000 Odisha
Odisha

Kolami Central 115,000 Telangana
Telangana
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Duruwa Central 80,000 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh

Ollari Central 23,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Odisha
Odisha

Naiki Central 10,000 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Brahui Northern 4,200,000 Balochistan, Pakistan
Pakistan

Kurukh Northern 2,000,000 Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
, Odisha
Odisha
, West Bengal
West Bengal

Sauria Paharia Northern 120,000 Bihar
Bihar
, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
, West Bengal
West Bengal

Kumarbhag Paharia Northern 18,000 Jharkhand
Jharkhand
, West Bengal
West Bengal

PROPOSED RELATIONS WITH OTHER FAMILIES

Language families
Language families
in South Asia
South Asia

The Dravidian family has defied all of the attempts to show a connection with other languages, including Indo-European , Hurrian , Basque , Sumerian , and Korean . Comparisons have been made not just with the other language families of the Indian subcontinent (Indo-European , Austroasiatic , Sino-Tibetan , and Nihali ), but with all typologically similar language families of the Old World. Nonetheless, although there are no readily detectable genealogical connections, Dravidian shares strong areal features with the Indo-Aryan languages , which have been attributed to a substratum influence from Dravidian.

Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
display typological similarities with the Uralic language group, suggesting to some a prolonged period of contact in the past. This idea is popular amongst Dravidian linguists and has been supported by a number of scholars, including Robert Caldwell , Thomas Burrow , Kamil Zvelebil, and Mikhail Andronov. This hyphothesis has, however, been rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages, and has in recent times also been criticised by other Dravidian linguists such as Bhadriraju Krishnamurti .

Proposed relations also exist with the Korean and Japanese language
Japanese language
. All three share strong similarities in grammar, syntax and honorific speech. (See Indo-Pacific language family ).

Dravidian is one of the primary language families in the Nostratic proposal, which would link most languages in North Africa, Europe and Western Asia into a family with its origins in the Fertile Crescent sometime between the last Ice Age and the emergence of proto-Indo-European 4–6 thousand years BCE. However, the general consensus is that such deep connections are not, or not yet, demonstrable. McAlpin (1975) proposed linking Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
with the ancient Elamite language of what is now southwestern Iran
Iran
. However, despite decades of research, this Elamo-Dravidian language family has not been demonstrated to the satisfaction of other historical linguists.

LITERATURE

Jambai Tamil Brahmi inscription dated to the early Sangam age

Four Dravidian languages, Tamil , Kannada
Kannada
, Malayalam
Malayalam
and Telugu , have lengthy literary traditions. Literature in Tulu and Kodava is more recent.

The earliest known Dravidian inscriptions are 76 Old Tamil inscriptions on cave walls in Madurai and Tirunelveli districts in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, dating from the 2nd century BCE. These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script
Brahmi script
called Tamil Brahmi . The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the _Tolkāppiyam _, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could date from the 1st century BCE.

PREHISTORY

Further information: Proto-Dravidian language and Elamo-Dravidian languages

The origins of the Dravidian languages, as well as their subsequent development and the period of their differentiation are unclear, partially due to the lack of comparative linguistic research into the Dravidian languages.

ORIGINS

Indigenous Dravidian Language

According to Avari, the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are believed to be indigenous to India.

Dravidian Migrations

See also: ANI and ASI

Reich et al. (2009) discerned two major ancestral components in India, namely the _Ancestral North Indians_ (ANI) which is "genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans", and the _Ancestral South Indians_, (ASI) which is clearly distinct from ANI. These two groups mixed in India between 4,200 and 1,900 years ago (2200 BCE–100 CE), whereafter a shift to endogamy took place, possibly by the enforcement of "social values and norms" by the "Hindu Gupta rulers." Moorjani et al. (2013) describe three scenarios regarding the bringing together of the two groups: migrations before the development of agriculture (8,000–9,000 years before present (BP); migration of western Asian people together with the spread of agriculture, maybe up to 4,600 years BP; migrations of western Eurasians from 3,000 to 4,000 years BP. According to Metspalu, the ANI diverged from the present populations of West Eurasia 12,500 years ago. while according to Moorjani et al. (2013) these groups were plausibly present "unmixed" in India before 2,200 BC.

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam
Elam
, located in present-day southwestern Iran
Iran
. According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, Proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent. but more recently Heggarty and Renfrew noted that "McAlpin's analysis of the language data, and thus his claims, remain far from orthodoxy", adding that Fuller finds no relation of Dravidian language with other languages, and thus assumes it to be native to India. Renfrew and Bahn conclude that several scenarios are compatible with the data, and that "the linguistic jury is still very much out."

Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the 'Caucasoid-specific' mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture." at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the fertile Crescent " and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between Elamite and Dravidic populations".

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran
Iran
and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."

According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."

DIFFERENTIATION

Proto-Dravidian is thought to have differentiated into Proto-North Dravidian, Proto-Central Dravidian, Proto South-Central Dravidian and Proto-South Dravidian around 800 BC, although some linguists have argued that the degree of differentiation between the sub-families points to an earlier split.

INDO-ARYAN MIGRATIONS AND SANSKRITIZATION

Northern Dravidian Pockets

Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, in earlier times they probably were spoken in a larger area. Southern India has remained majority Dravidian, but pockets of Dravidian can be found in central India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal.

The Kurukh and Malto are pockets of Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
in central India, who may have migrated from south India. They do have myths about external origins. The Kurukh have traditionally claimed to be from the Deccan Peninsula , more specifically Karnataka
Karnataka
. The same tradition has existed of the Brahui, who call themselves immigrants. Many scholars hold this same view of the Brahui such as L. H. Horace Perera and M. Ratnasabapathy.

The Brahui population of Pakistan's Balochistan province has been taken by some as the linguistic equivalent of a relict population, perhaps indicating that Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
were formerly much more widespread and were supplanted by the incoming Indo-Aryan languages . However it has been argued that the absence of any Old Iranian (Avestan) loanwords in Brahui suggests that the Brahui migrated to Balochistan from central India less than 1000 years ago. The main Iranian contributor to Brahui vocabulary, Balochi , is a western Iranian language like Kurdish , and arrived in the area from the west only around 1000 AD. Sound changes shared with Kurukh and Malto also suggest that Brahui was originally spoken near them in central India.

Dravidian Influence On Sanskrit

Main article: Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit

According to Asko Parpola, the Harappan civilisation was Dravidian. It influenced the language of the migrating Indo-Aryans.

Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
show extensive lexical (vocabulary) borrowing, but only a few traits of structural (either phonological or grammatical) borrowing from Indo-Aryan, whereas Indo-Aryan shows more structural than lexical borrowings from the Dravidian languages. Many of these features are already present in the oldest known Indo-Aryan language , the language of the _ Rigveda
Rigveda
_ (c. 1500 BCE), which also includes over a dozen words borrowed from Dravidian.

Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
has retroflex consonants (ṭ/ḍ, ṇ) with about 88 words in the _Rigveda_ having unconditioned retroflexes. Some sample words are _Iṭanta_, _Kaṇva_, _śakaṭī_, _kevaṭa_, _puṇya_ and _maṇḍūka_. Since other Indo-European languages , including other Indo-Iranian languages , lack retroflex consonants, their presence in Indo-Aryan is often cited as evidence of substrate influence from close contact of the Vedic speakers with speakers of a foreign language family rich in retroflex consonants. The Dravidian family is a serious candidate since it is rich in retroflex phonemes reconstructible back to the Proto-Dravidian stage .

In addition, a number of grammatical features of Vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
not found in its sister Avestan language appear to have been borrowed from Dravidian languages. These include the gerund , which has the same function as in Dravidian, and the quotative marker _iti_. Some linguists explain this asymmetrical borrowing by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan languages were built on a Dravidian substratum . These scholars argue that the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Indic is language shift , that is, native Dravidian speakers learning and adopting Indic languages. Although each of the innovative traits in Indic could be accounted for by internal explanations, early Dravidian influence is the only explanation that can account for all of the innovations at once; moreover, it accounts for several of the innovative traits in Indic better than any internal explanation that has been proposed.

GRAMMAR

The most characteristic grammatical features of Dravidian languages are:

* Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are agglutinative . * Word order is subject–object–verb (SOV). * Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
have a clusivity distinction. * The major word classes are nouns (substantives, numerals, pronouns), adjectives, verbs, and indeclinables (particles, enclitics, adverbs, interjections, onomatopoetic words, echo words). * Proto-Dravidian used only suffixes, never prefixes or infixes, in the construction of inflected forms. Hence, the roots of words always occurred at the beginning. Nouns, verbs, and indeclinable words constituted the original word classes. * There are two numbers and four different gender systems, the ancestral system probably having "male:non-male" in the singular and "person:non-person" in the plural. * In a sentence, however complex, only one finite verb occurs, normally at the end, preceded if necessary by a number of gerunds. * Word order follows certain basic rules but is relatively free. * The main (and probably original) dichotomy in tense is past:non-past. Present tense developed later and independently in each language or subgroup. * Verbs are intransitive, transitive, and causative; there are also active and passive forms. * All of the positive verb forms have their corresponding negative counterparts, negative verbs .

PHONOLOGY

Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are noted for the lack of distinction between aspirated and unaspirated stops. While some Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
have accepted large numbers of loan words from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other Indo-Iranian languages in addition to their already vast vocabulary, in which the orthography shows distinctions in voice and aspiration , the words are pronounced in Dravidian according to different rules of phonology and phonotactics : aspiration of plosives is generally absent, regardless of the spelling of the word. This is not a universal phenomenon and is generally avoided in formal or careful speech, especially when reciting. For instance, Tamil does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless stops. In fact, the Tamil alphabet lacks symbols for voiced and aspirated stops. Dravidian languages are also characterized by a three-way distinction between dental , alveolar , and retroflex places of articulation as well as large numbers of liquids .

PROTO-DRAVIDIAN

Main article: Proto-Dravidian

Proto-Dravidian had five short and long vowels: _*a_, _*ā_, _*i_, _*ī_, _*u_, _*ū_, _*e_, _*ē_, _*o_, _*ō_. There were no diphthongs; _ai_ and _au_ are treated as *_ay_ and *_av_ (or *_aw_). The five-vowel system is largely preserved in the descendent subgroups.

The following consonantal phonemes are reconstructed:

LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR RETROFLEX PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

PLOSIVES *p *t *ṯ *ṭ *c *k

NASALS *m *n *ṉ (??) *ṇ *ñ

FRICATIVES

(*H)

FLAP/RHOTICS

*r *ẓ (ḻ, r̤)

LATERAL

*l *ḷ

GLIDES *w

*y

NUMERALS

See also: List of numbers in various languages

The numerals from 1 to 10 in various Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages (here exemplified by Hindi, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Marathi).

NUMBER SOUTHERN SOUTH-CENTRAL CENTRAL NORTHERN PROTO-DRAVIDIAN INDO-ARYAN IRANIAN

TAMIL MALAYALAM KODAVA TULU KANNADA TELUGU KOLAMI KURUKH BRAHUI HINDI SANSKRIT MARATHI BALOCHI PERSIAN

1 oṉṟu onnu ond onji ondu okaṭi okkod oṇṭa asiṭ *onṯu 1 ek éka ek yak yek

2 iraṇṭu raṇḍu danḍ raḍḍ eraḍu renḍu irāṭ indiŋ irāṭ *iraṇṭu 2 do dvi don do do

3 mūṉṟu mūnnu mūṉd mūji mūṟu mūḍu mūndiŋ mūnd musiṭ *muH- tīn tri tīn sē seh

4 nāṉku nālu nāl nāl nālku nālugu nāliŋ nāx čār (II) *nāl cār catúr cār cār cahār

5 aintu añcu añji ayN aidu ayidu ayd 3 pancē (II) panč (II) *cay-m- panc pañca pātc panc panj

6 āru āṟu ār āji āṟu āṟu ār 3 soyyē (II) šaš (II) *cāṯu che ṣáṣ sahā śaś śeś

7 ēẓu ēẓu ēḻ yēl ēlu ēḍu ēḍ 3 sattē (II) haft (II) *ēẓ sāt saptá sāt hapt, haft haft

8 eṭṭu eṭṭu eṭṭ enma eṇṭu enimidi enumadī 3 aṭṭhē (II) hašt (II) *eṇṭṭu āṭh aṣṭá āṭh haśt haśt

9 oṉpatu 5 ompatu 5 oiymbad ormba ombattu tommidi tomdī 3 naiṃyē (II) nōh (II) *toḷ/*toṇ nau náva nau nuo noh

10 pattu pattu patt patt hattu padi padī 3 dassē (II) dah (II) *paH(tu) das dáśa dahā da dah

* This is the same as the word for another form of the number one in Tamil and Malayalam
Malayalam
, used as the indefinite article ("a") and when the number is an attribute preceding a noun (as in "one person"), as opposed to when it is a noun (as in "How many are there?" "One"). * The stem *īr is still found in compound words, and has taken on a meaning of "double" in Tamil , Telugu , Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
Malayalam
. For example, _irupatu_ (20, literally meaning "double-ten"), _iravai_ (20 in Telugu), "iraṭṭi" ("double") or _iruvar_ ("two people", in Tamil). * The Kolami numbers 5 to 10 are borrowed from Telugu. * The word _tondu_ was also used to refer to the number nine in ancient sangam texts but was later completely replaced by the word _onpadu_. * These forms are derived from "one (less than) ten". Proto-Dravidian *toḷ is still used in Tamil and Malayalam
Malayalam
as the basis of numbers such as 90, _thonnooru_.

* Words indicated (II) are borrowings from Indo-Iranian languages (in Brahui's case, from Persian ).

SEE ALSO

* Dravidian Linguistics Association * Dravidian peoples

NOTES

* ^ Derenko: "The spread of these new technologies has been associated with the dispersal of Dravidian and Indo-European languages in southern Asia. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam
Elam
province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent."

Derenko refers to: * Renfrew (1987), _Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins_ * Renfrew (1996), _ Language families
Language families
and the spread of farming._ In: Harris DR, editor, _The origins and spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia_, pp. 70–92 * Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza (1994), _The History and Geography of Human Genes_.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Dravidian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ https://books.google.com.au/books?id=aUDAAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT72&lpg=PT72&dq=kurukh+people+bhutan+dravidian&source=bl&ots=MnYBtruTVA&sig=4sFJtn9Pte5RO6RNYUb9Er5bkJ8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjz8sPR8-LKAhVBjpQKHWxTA-YQ6AEINjAF#v=onepage&q&f=false * ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). _Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania_. Infobase Publishing. p. 713. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder (December 2001), "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India" (PDF), _Journal of Genetics_, Springer India, 80 (3): 125–35, PMID 11988631 , doi :10.1007/BF02717908 , retrieved 2008-11-25, _... More recently, about 15,000–10,000 years before present (ybp), when agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
region that extends from Israel through northern Syria to western Iran, there was another eastward wave of human migration (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994; Renfrew 1987), a part of which also appears to have entered India. This wave has been postulated to have brought the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
into India (Renfrew 1987). Subsequently, the Indo-European (Aryan) language family was introduced into India about 4,000 ybp ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Dhavendra Kumar (2004), _Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent_, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2 , retrieved 2008-11-25, _... The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran
Iran
and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam
Elam
in south-west Iran
Iran
to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran
Iran
(Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). ..._ * ^ Andronov (2003) , p. 299. * ^ Tamil Literature Society (1963), _Tamil Culture_, 10, Academy of Tamil Culture, retrieved 2008-11-25, _... together with the evidence of archaeology would seem to suggest that the original Dravidian-speakers entered India from Iran
Iran
in the fourth millennium BC ..._ * ^ _A_ _B_ Avari (2007) . * ^ Erdosy (1995) , p. 271. * ^ Edwin Bryant, Laurie L. Patton (2005), The Indo-Aryan controversy: evidence and inference in Indian history, p. 254 * ^ Alexander Duncan Campbell (1816) _A Grammar of the Teloogoo Language_, _commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the north eastern provinces of the Indian peninsula_, College of Fort St. George Press, Madras OCLC
OCLC
416559272 * ^ Sreekumar (2009) . * ^ Robert Caldwell (1856) _A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages_, Williams and Norgate, London OCLC
OCLC
20216805 * ^ Zvelebil (1990) , p. xx. * ^ Caldwell (1856) , p. 4. * ^ Zvelebil (1990) , p. xxi. * ^ Zvelebil (1975) , p. 53. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 2, footnote 2. * ^ Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 21. * ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Dravidian-languages * ^ Ruhlen (1991) , pp. 138–141. * ^ McAlpin, David W. (2003). "Velars, Uvulars and the Northern Dravidian hypothesis". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 123 (3): 521–546. doi :10.2307/3217749 . * ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 17 September 2016. * ^ Ishtiaq, M. (1999). _Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9788120816176 . Retrieved 7 September 2012. * ^ Comparative Speaker\'s Strength of Scheduled Languages – 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001, Census of India, 1991 * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , pp. 38–42. * ^ Tyler, Stephen (1968). "Dravidian and Uralian: the lexical evidence". _Language_. 44 (4): 798–812. doi :10.2307/411899 . * ^ Webb, Edward (1860). "Evidences of the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages, Condensed and Arranged from Rev. R. Caldwell's Comparative Dravidian Grammar". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 7: 271–298. doi :10.2307/592159 . * ^ Burrow, T (1944). "Dravidian Studies IV: The Body in Dravidian and Uralian". _Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies_. 11 (2): 328–356. doi :10.1017/s0041977x00072517 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Zvelebil, Kamal (2006). Dravidian Languages. In _Encyclopædia Britannica_ (DVD edition). * ^ Andronov, Mikhail S. (1971), "Comparative Studies on the Nature of Dravidian-Uralian Parallels: A Peep into the Prehistory of Language Families". _Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Tamil Studies_ Madras. 267–277. * ^ Zvelebil, Kamal (1970), _Comparative Dravidian Phonology_ Mouton, The Hauge. at p. 22 contains a bibliography of articles supporting and opposing the theory * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 43. * ^ _A_ _B_ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 22. * ^ Mahadevan (2003) , pp. 90–95. * ^ _A_ _B_ Reich et al. (2009) . * ^ Metspalu et al. (2011) . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Moorjani et al. (2013) . * ^ Basu et al. (2016) , p. 1598. * ^ Moorjani et al. (2013) , p. 422–423. * ^ Srinath Perur, _The origins of Indians. What our genes are telling us._, Fountain Ink Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", _Language_ vol. 50 no. 1 (1974); David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of Relationships", _Current Anthropology_ vol. 16 no. 1 (1975); David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation", in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: _Aryan and Non-Aryan in India_, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979); David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications", _Transactions of the American Philosophical Society_ vol. 71 pt. 3, (1981) * ^ Cavalli-Sforza (1994) , p. 221-222. * ^ _A_ _B_ Derenko (2013) . * ^ _A_ _B_ Heggarty, Paul; Renfrew, Collin (2014), "South and Island Southeast Asia; Languages", in Renfrew, Colin; Bahn, Paul, _The Cambridge World Prehistory_, Cambridge University Press * ^ Kivisild 1999 , p. 1331. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kivisild 1999 , p. 1333. * ^ Gallego Romero (2011) , p. 9. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rob Mitchum (2011), _Lactose Tolerance in the Indian Dairyland_, ScienceLife * ^ Palanichamy (2015) , p. 645. * ^ P. 83 _The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration_ Debate By Edwin Bryant * ^ P. 18 _The Orāons of Chōtā Nāgpur: their history, economic life, and social organization._ by Sarat Chandra Roy, Rai Bahadur; Alfred C Haddon * ^ P. 12 _Origin and Spread of the Tamils By V. R._ Ramachandra Dikshitar * ^ P. 32 _Ideology and status of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: contributions to the history of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language_ by Jan E M Houben * ^ P. 45 _The Brahui language, an old Dravidian language spoken in parts of Baluchistan and Sind_ by Sir Denys Bray * ^ _Ancient India; Culture and Thought_ By M. L. Bhagi * ^ P. 23 _Ceylon ">'". _Studia Iranica_. 16 (2): 215–233. doi :10.2143/SI.16.2.2014604 . * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , pp. 27, 142. * ^ Parpola (2010) . * ^ "Dravidian languages." Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. 30 Jun. 2008 * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 6. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kuiper (1991) . * ^ _A_ _B_ Witzel (1999) . * ^ _A_ _B_ Subrahmanyam (1983) , p. 40. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zvelebil (1990) . * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 36. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , pp. 36–37. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , pp. 40–41. * ^ Erdosy (1995) , p. 18. * ^ Thomason & Kaufman (1988) , pp. 141–144. * ^ Subrahmanyam (1983) . * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 90. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 48. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , p. 91. * ^ Krishnamurti (2003) , pp. 260–265.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Andronov, Mikhail Sergeevich (2003). _A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages_. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-04455-4 . * Avari, Burjor (2007), _Ancient India: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200_, Routledge, ISBN 9781134251629 * Basu, Analabha; Sarkar-Roya, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P. (February 9, 2016), "Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure", _PNAS_, 113 (6): 1594–9, Bibcode :2016PNAS..113.1594B, PMC 4760789  _, PMID 26811443 , doi :10.1073/pnas.1513197113 * Caldwell, Robert (1856), A comparative grammar of the Dravidian, or, South-Indian family of languages_, London: Harrison ; Reprinted London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner rev. ed. by J.L. Wyatt and T. Ramakrishna Pillai, Madras, University of Madras, 1961, reprint Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3 * Campbell, A.D. (1849), _A grammar of the Teloogoo language, commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the northeastern provinces of the Indian peninsula_ (3d ed.), Madras: Hindu Press. * Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; Piazza, Alberto (1994), _The History and Geography of Human Genes_, Princeton University Press * Derenko, Miroslava (2013), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians", _PLoS ONE_, 8 (11): e80673, PMC 3828245  _, PMID 24244704 , doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0080673 * Elst, Koenraad (1999), Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate_, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan , ISBN 81-86471-77-4 . * Erdosy, George, ed. (1995), _The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity_, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-014447-6 . * Gallego Romero, Irene; et al. (2011), "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence", _Mol. Biol. Evol._, 29 (1): 249–60, PMID 21836184 , doi :10.1093/molbev/msr190 * Kivisild; et al. (1999), "Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages" (PDF), _Curr. Biol._, 9 (22): 1331–1334, PMID 10574762 , doi :10.1016/s0960-9822(00)80057-3

* Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003), _The Dravidian Languages_, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-77111-0 . * Kuiper, F.B.J. (1991), _Aryans in the Rig Veda_, Rodopi, ISBN 90-5183-307-5 . * Mallory, J. P. (1989), _In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth_, London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 978-0-500-05052-1 . * Metspalu, Mait; Romero, Irene Gallego; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Hudjashov, Georgi; Nelis, Mari; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Ene; Remm, Maido; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas (2011), "Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia", _The American Journal of Human Genetics_, 89 (6): 731–744, ISSN 0002-9297 , PMC 3234374  _, PMID 22152676 , doi :10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.010 * Moorjani, P.; Thangaraj, K.; Patterson, N.; Lipson, M.; Loh, P. R.; Govindaraj, P.; Singh, L. (2013), "Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India", The American Journal of Human Genetics_, 93 (3): 422–438, PMC 3769933  _, PMID 23932107 , doi :10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.07.006 * Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder (2015), "West Eurasian mtDNA lineages in India: an insight into the spread of the Dravidian language and the origins of the caste system", Human Genetics_, 134 (6): 637–47, PMID 25832481 , doi :10.1007/s00439-015-1547-4 * Parpola, Asko (2010), _A Dravidian solution to the Indus script problem_ (PDF), World Classical Tamil Conference * Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji (2009), "Reconstructing Indian population history", _Nature_, 461 (7263): 489–494, Bibcode :2009Natur.461..489R, ISSN 0028-0836 , PMC 2842210  _, PMID 19779445 , doi :10.1038/nature08365 * Ruhlen, Merritt (1991), A Guide to the World's Languages: Classification_, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1894-3 . * Sreekumar, P. (2009), " Francis Whyte Ellis and the Beginning of Comparative Dravidian Linguistics", _Historiographia Linguistica_, 36 (1): 75–95, doi :10.1075/hl.36.1.04sre . * Subrahmanyam, P.S. (1983), _Dravidian Comparative Phonology_, Annamalai University. * Thomason, Sarah Grey; Kaufman, Terrence (1988), _Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics_, University of California Press (published 1991), ISBN 0-520-07893-4 . * Trask, Robert Lawrence (2000), _The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics_, Routledge, ISBN 1-57958-218-4 . * Witzel, Michael (1999), "Early Sources for South Asian Substrate Languages" (PDF), _Mother Tongue _ (extra number): 1–76. * Zvelebil, Kamil (1975), _Tamil Literature_, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-04190-7 . * —— (1990), _Dravidian Linguistics: An Introduction_, Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture, ISBN 978-81-8545-201-2 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. The complete Dravidian Etymological Dictionary in a searchable online form. * Swadesh lists of Dravidian basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)

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