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Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century. It consists primarily of Hindu temples where the dominating feature is the high gopura or gatehouse; large temples have several. Mentioned as one of three styles of temple building in the ancient book Vastu shastra, the majority of the existing structures are located in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Cholas, the Chera, the Kakatiyas, the Pandyas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
among others have made substantial contribution to the evolution of Tamizhian architecture. This style of architecture can also be found in parts of North India (Teli ka Mandir Gwalior, Bhitargaon
Bhitargaon
Baitala Deula, Bhubaneshwar), Northeastern and central Sri Lanka.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Composition and structure

2 Influence from different periods

2.1 Sangam period 2.2 Badami
Badami
Chalukyas 2.3 Pallavas 2.4 Rashtrakutas 2.5 Western Chalukyas 2.6 Pandya 2.7 Cholas 2.8 Hoysalas 2.9 Vijayanagara 2.10 Kerala 2.11 Jaffna

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit]

Typical layout of Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
which evolved from koyil as kings residence and is based on sthandila mandala.

Throughout Tamilakam, a king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance.[1] The king was 'the representative of God on earth’ and lived in a “koyil”, which means the “residence of God”. The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil. Titular worship was also given to kings.[2][3] Other words for king like “kō” “king”), “iṟai” “emperor”) and “āṇḍavar” “conqueror”) now primarily refer to God.[4] Tolkappiyar refers to the Three Crowned Kings as the “Three Glorified by Heaven”.[5] In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of divine kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state and temple.[6] Mayamata and Manasara shilpa texts estimated to be in circulation by 5th to 7th century AD, is a guidebook on Dravidian style of Vastu Shastra design, construction, sculpture and joinery technique.[7][8] Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another text from the 9th century describing the art of building in India in south and central India.[7][9] In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira
Varāhamihira
is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples.[10][11][12] Traditional Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
and symbolism are also based on Agamas. The Agamas are non-vedic in origin [13] and have been dated either as post-vedic texts [14] or as pre-vedic compositions.[15] The Agamas are a collection of Tamil and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scriptures chiefly constituting the methods of temple construction and creation of murti, worship means of deities, philosophical doctrines, meditative practices, attainment of sixfold desires and four kinds of yoga.[16] Composition and structure[edit]

The Meenakshi temple
Meenakshi temple
complex of Madurai

Chola
Chola
style temples consist almost invariably of the three following parts, arranged in differing manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:[17]

The porches or Mantapas, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell. Gate-pyramids, Gopuras, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples.Gopuras are very common in dravidian temples. Pillared halls (Chaultris or Chawadis) are used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

Besides these, a South Indian temple usually has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni – to be used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests – dwellings for all the grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.[17] Influence from different periods[edit] In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times.: Sangam period[edit] From 300BCE - 300CE, the greatest accomplishments of the kingdoms of the early Chola, Chera and the Pandyan kingdoms included brick shrines to deities Murugan, Shiva, Amman and Thirumal
Thirumal
(Vishnu) of the Tamil pantheon. Several of these have been unearthed near Adichanallur, Kaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuram, and the construction plans of these sites of worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature. One such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers. The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam
Tamilakkam
expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines. Sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the Madurai
Madurai
Meenakshi Amman Temple, and the Srirangam
Srirangam
Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period. Badami
Badami
Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Architecture

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka
Karnataka
built in 740

The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
also called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka
Karnataka
in the period 543 – 753 CE and spawned the Vesara style called Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Architecture. The finest examples of their art are seen in Pattadakal, Aihole
Aihole
and Badami
Badami
in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the Malaprabha
Malaprabha
basin. The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami
Badami
Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha
Malaprabha
basin in Karnataka.[18] The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, Badami, Aihole
Aihole
and Mahakuta are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are attributed to them.[19][20] This is the beginning of Chalukya
Chalukya
style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style. Pallavas[edit]

The rock-cut Shore Temple
Shore Temple
of the temples in Mahabalipuram, 700-728

The Pallavas
Pallavas
ruled from AD (600–900) and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
and their capital Kanchipuram, now located in Tamil Nadu. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 – 690 CE and structural temples between 690 – 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
at Mahabalipuram, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, including the Shore Temple. This group includes both excavated pillared halls, with no external roof except the natural rock, and monolithic shrines where the natural rock is entirely cut away and carved to give an external roof. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaram in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
built by Narasimhavarman II also known as Rajasimha is a fine example of the Pallava style temple. Contrary to popular impression about the succeeding empire of the Cholas
Cholas
pioneering in building large temple complexes, it was the Pallavas
Pallavas
who actually pioneered not only in making large temples after starting construction of rock cut temples without using mortar, bricks etc.(**) Examples of such temples are the Thiruppadagam and Thiruooragam temples that have 28 and 35 feet (11 m) high images of Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
in his manifestation as Pandavadhoothar and Trivikraman forms of himself. In comparison, the Siva Lingams in the Royal Temples of the Cholas
Cholas
at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and Gangaikonda Cholapurams are 17 and 18 feet (5.5 m) high. Considering that the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple built by Rajasimha Pallava was the inspiration for Raja Raja Chola's Brihadeeswara at Thanjavur, it can be safely concluded that the Pallavas
Pallavas
were among the first emperors in India to build both large temple complexes and very large deities and idols(**) Many Siva and Vishnu
Vishnu
temples at Kanchi built by the great Pallava emperors and indeed their incomparable Rathas and the Arjuna's penance Bas Relief (also called descent of the Ganga) are proposed UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. The continuous Chola, Pallava and Pandiyan belt temples (along with those of the Adigaimans near Karur and Namakkal), as well as the Sethupathy temple group between Pudukottai and Rameswaram uniformly represent the pinnacle of the South Indian Style of Architecture that surpasses any other form of architecture prevalent between the Deccan Plateau and Kaniyakumari. In the Telugu country the style was more or less uniformly conforming to the South Indian or Dravidian idiom of architecture. Rashtrakutas[edit]

The rock-cut Kailash Temple at Ellora

The Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
who ruled the Deccan from Manyakheta, Karnataka
Karnataka
in the period 753 – 973 CE built some of the finest Dravidian monuments at Ellora
Ellora
(the Kailasanatha temple), in the rock-cut architecture idiom, with a style showing influences from both north and south India. Some other fine monuments are the Jaina Narayana temple at Pattadakal
Pattadakal
and the Navalinga temples at Kuknur in Karnataka. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut shrines at Ellora
Ellora
and Elephanta, situated in present-day Maharashtra. It is said that they altogether constructed 34 rock-cut shrines, but most extensive and sumptuous of them all is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora. The temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art. The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
including Ravana, Shiva
Shiva
and Parvathi while the ceilings have paintings. These projects were commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India
South India
from the Deccan. The architectural style used was partly Dravidian. They do not contain any of the shikharas common to the Nagara style and were built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal
Pattadakal
in Karnataka.[21] Western Chalukyas[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture

Dodda Basappa temple, Dambal, Gadag
Gadag
district, Karnataka

The Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
also called the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
or Later Chalukyas
Chalukyas
ruled the deccan from 973 – 1180 CE from their capital Kalyani in modern Karnataka
Karnataka
and further refined the Chalukyan style, called the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture. Over 50 temples exist in the Krishna River- Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
doab in central Karnataka. The Kasi Vishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatii, Kalleshwara temple at Bagali and Mahadeva at Itagi are the finest examples produced by the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
architects. The reign of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty was an important period in the development of architecture in the deccan. Their architectural developments acted as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala
Hoysala
architecture popularised in the 13th century.[22][23] The art of Western Chalukyas is sometimes called the " Gadag
Gadag
style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region of present-day Gadag district
Gadag district
in Karnataka.[24] Their temple building reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century, with over a hundred temples built across the deccan, more than half of them in present-day Karnataka. Apart from temples they are also well known for ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, many of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. Their stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire in the coming centuries. Pandya[edit]

Srivilliputtur
Srivilliputtur
Andal

Srivilliputtur
Srivilliputtur
Andal
Andal
Temple is the official symbol of the Government of Tamil Nadu. It is said to have been built by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he won in debates held in the palace of Pandya
Pandya
King Vallabhadeva. The primary landmark of Srivilliputtur
Srivilliputtur
is 12-tiered tower structure dedicated to the Lord of Srivilliputtur, known as Vatapatrasayee. The tower of this temple rises 192 feet (59 m) high and is the official symbol of the Government of Tamil Nadu. Other significant temples of the Pandyas
Pandyas
include the famous Meenakshi temple
Meenakshi temple
in Madurai. Cholas[edit]

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Temple-Tamil Nadu

The Chola
Chola
kings ruled from AD (848–1280) and included Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple
Brihadeshvara Temple
of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and Brihadeshvara Temple
Brihadeshvara Temple
of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple
Airavatesvara Temple
of Darasuram
Darasuram
and the Sarabeswara
Sarabeswara
( Shiva
Shiva
)Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three among the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. The Cholas
Cholas
were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first king Vijayalaya Chola
Vijayalaya Chola
after whom the eclectic chain of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple near Narttamalai exists. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I
Aditya I
built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions.

A Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
style pillar in Airavatesvara temple, Darasuram, Thanjavur
Thanjavur
district, Tamil Nadu.

Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Aditya I
Aditya I
Parantaka I, Sundara Chola, Rajaraja Chola
Rajaraja Chola
and his son Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I. Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
1 built the Rajaraja Temple at Thanjur after his own name. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola
Chola
architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. He also proclaimed himself as Gangaikonda. In a small portion of the Kaveri belt between Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas have left over 2300 temples, with the Tiruchy- Thanjavur
Thanjavur
belt itself boasting of more than 1500 temples. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur
Thanjavur
built by Raja Raja I in 1009 as well as the Brihadisvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, completed around 1030, are both fitting memorials to the material and military achievements of the time of the two Chola
Chola
emperors. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, the Tanjore Brihadisvara is at the apex of South Indian architecture.[25] In fact, two succeeding Chola
Chola
kings Raja Raja II and Kulothunga III built the Airavatesvara Temple
Airavatesvara Temple
at Darasuram
Darasuram
and the Kampahareswarar Siva Temple at Tribhuvanam respectively, both temples being on the outskirts of Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
around AD 1160 and AD 1200. All the four temples were built over a period of nearly 200 years reflecting the glory, prosperity and stability under the Chola emperors. Contrary to popular impression, the Chola
Chola
emperors patronized and promoted construction of a large number of temples that were spread over most parts of the Chola
Chola
empire. These include 40 of the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desams
Divya Desams
out of which 77 are found spread most of South India and others in Andhra and North India. In fact, the Sri Ranganathaswamy
Ranganathaswamy
Temple in Srirangam, which is the biggest temple in India (**) and the Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Natarajar Temple (though originally built by the Pallavas
Pallavas
but possibly seized from the Cholas
Cholas
of the pre-Christian era when they ruled from Kanchi) were two of the most important temples patronized and expanded by the Cholas
Cholas
and from the times of the second Chola
Chola
King Aditya I, these two temples have been hailed in inscriptions as the tutelary deities of the Chola
Chola
Kings.

The Brihadeeswarar Temple
Brihadeeswarar Temple
(11th century), Tanjore has a vimana tower that is 216 ft (66 m) high, a classical example of Dravidian architecture.

Temple shrine on the Koneswaram temple
Koneswaram temple
promontory extremity and the Ketheeswaram temple
Ketheeswaram temple
and Munneswaram temple
Munneswaram temple
compounds contained tall gopuram towers by Chola
Chola
rule of Trincomalee, Mannar, Puttalam
Puttalam
and Chidambaram's expansion that escalated the building of those syncretic latter styles of Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
seen across the continent pictured.[26][27][28][29] Of course, the two Brihadisvara Temples at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and Gangaikonda Cholapuram as well as the other two Siva temples, namely the Airavatesvara Temple
Airavatesvara Temple
of Darasuram
Darasuram
and the Sarabeswara
Sarabeswara
( Shiva
Shiva
)Temple which is also popular as the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, both on the outskirts of Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
were the royal temples of the Cholas
Cholas
to commemorate their innumerable conquests and subjugation of their rivals from other parts of South India, Deccan Ilangai or Sri Lanka and the Narmada-Mahanadi-Gangetic belts (**). But the Chola emperors underlined their non-partisan approach to religious iconography and faith by treating the presiding deities of their other two peerless creations, namely the Ranganathaswamy
Ranganathaswamy
Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
at Srirangam
Srirangam
and the Nataraja
Nataraja
Temple at Chidambaram
Chidambaram
which actually is home to the twin deities of Siva and Vishnu
Vishnu
(as the reclining Govindarajar) to be their 'Kuladheivams' or tutelary (or family) deities. The Cholas
Cholas
also preferred to call only these two temples which home their tutelary or family deities as Koil
Koil
or the 'Temple', which denotes the most important places of worship for them, underlining their eq. The above-named temples are being proposed to be included among the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, which will elevate them to the exacting and exalting standards of the Great Living Chola Temples. The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I, was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola
Chola
Empire under Rajendra.[30] This temple has a larger Siva linga than the one at Thanjavur
Thanjavur
but the Vimana of this temple is smaller in height than the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
vimana. The Chola
Chola
period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India
South India
may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu
Vishnu
and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja
Nataraja
the Divine Dancer.[31] Hoysalas[edit]

Symmetrical architecture on Jagati, Somanathapura, Karnataka

Main article: Hoysala
Hoysala
architecture The Hoysala
Hoysala
kings ruled southern India during the period (1100–1343 CE) from their capital Belur
Belur
and later Halebidu
Halebidu
in Karnataka
Karnataka
and developed a unique idiom of architecture called the Hoysala architecture in Karnataka
Karnataka
state. The finest examples of their architecture are the Chennakesava Temple
Chennakesava Temple
in Belur, Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple in Somanathapura. The modern interest in the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas
Pandyas
to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
style,[32] shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is described as Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida,[33] and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.[34][35]

Vijayanagara[edit]

Virupaksha Temple
Virupaksha Temple
at Hampi, Karnataka

Main article: Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Architecture The whole of South India
South India
was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
from (1343–1565 CE), who built a number of temples and monuments in their hybrid style in their capital Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
in Karnataka. Their style was a combination of the styles developed in South India
South India
in the previous centuries. In addition, the Yali columns (pillar with charging horse), balustrades (parapets) and ornate pillared manatapa are their unique contribution. King Krishna Deva Raya
Krishna Deva Raya
and others built many famous temples all over South India
South India
in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Architecture style. Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya
Pandya
and Chola
Chola
styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries.[36][37] Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rayagopura (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of its durability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empire's monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open-air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[38] In the 14th century the kings continued to build Vesara
Vesara
or Deccan style monuments but later incorporated dravida-style gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and the Hazare Rama temple of Deva Raya I are examples of Deccan architecture.[39] The varied and intricate ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work.[40] At Hampi, though the Vitthala temple is the best example of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style, the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a modest but perfectly finished example.[41] A visible aspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by the Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasty.[42] A grand specimen of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
art, the Vitthala temple, took several decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva kings.[43] Kerala[edit] Main article: Architecture of Kerala The version of Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture
found in Kerala
Kerala
in the far south-west is significantly different. Very large temples are rare, and sloping roofs with projecting eaves dominate the outline, often arranged in a number of tiers. As in Bengal, this is an adaption to the heavy monsoon rainfall. There is usually a stone core below a timber superstructure. The architecture of Kerala
Kerala
goes back to the Chera dynasty
Chera dynasty
in the 12th century, and a variety of ground plans have been used, including circular ones. The development of multi-building complexes came relatively late.[44]

Chera dynasty
Chera dynasty
Style temple Layout

Vadakkunnathan Temple

Thirunelli Temple
Thirunelli Temple
front view

Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple

Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple

Jaffna[edit]

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Dravidian dynasties

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Chola
dynasty Chera dynasty Pandyan dynasty Satavahana dynasty Rashtrakuta dynasty Chalukya
Chalukya
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People

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Portal:Dravidian civilizations

v t e

The culture of a region is recognizable in architecture. Jaffna
Jaffna
was close to South India
South India
.[45] In former royal city of Nallur, there are architectural ruins of Jaffna
Jaffna
kingdom.

Nallur Kandaswamy temple
Nallur Kandaswamy temple
front entrance

Yamuna Eri, a 15th century pond in Nallur.

Corridor of Naguleswaram Temple

Mantri Manai, the remains of the minister's quarters of Jaffna Kingdom. It is build in a Euro-Dravidian style.[46]

See also[edit]

Hindu temples – South India
South India
and Tamil Nadu Hindu temple architecture
Hindu temple architecture
– Dravidian style Koyil – Hindu temples in Dravidian architectural style.

References[edit]

^ Harman, William P. (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 6.  ^ Anand, Mulk Raj (1980). Splendours of Tamil Nadu. Marg Publications.  ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (1979). History of South India. S. Chand.  ^ Bate, Bernard (2009). Tamil oratory and the Dravidian aesthetic: democratic practice in south India. Columbia University Press.  ^ A. Kiruṭṭin̲an̲ (2000). Tamil culture: religion, culture, and literature. Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. p. 17.  ^ Embree, Ainslie Thomas (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history: Volume 1. Scribner. ISBN 9780684188980.  ^ a b Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple Volume 1 & 2, ISBN 81-208-0223-3 ^ Tillotson, G. H. R. (1997). Svastika Mansion: A Silpa-Sastra in the 1930s. South Asian Studies, 13(1), pp 87-97 ^ Ganapati Sastri (1920), Īśānaśivagurudeva paddhati, Trivandrum Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Series, OCLC 71801033 ^ Meister, Michael W. (1983). "Geometry and Measure in Indian Temple Plans: Rectangular Temples". Artibus Asiae. 44 (4): 266–296. doi:10.2307/3249613. JSTOR 3249613.  ^ Heather Elgood (2000), Hinduism
Hinduism
and the religious arts, ISBN 978-0304707393, Bloomsbury Academic, pp 121-125 ^ H Kern (1865), The Brhat Sanhita of Varaha-mihara, The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta ^ Mudumby Narasimhachary (Ed) (1976). Āgamaprāmāṇya of Yāmunācārya, Issue 160 of Gaekwad's Oriental Series. Oriental Institute, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. ^ Tripath, S.M. (2001). Psycho-Religious Studies Of Man, Mind And Nature. Global Vision Publishing House. ISBN 9788187746041. [1] ^ Nagalingam, Pathmarajah (2009). The Religion of the Agamas. Siddhanta Publications. [2] ^ Grimes, John A. (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English. State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780791430682. LCCN 96012383. [3] ^ a b Fergusson, James (1997) [1910]. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Low Price Publications. p. 309.  ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole
Aihole
alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. "Monuments of India". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka
Karnataka
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Badami". 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ The Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace said art critic K.V. Sounderrajan. They have influenced the architecture in Vengi and Gujarat- Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka
Karnataka
from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p68 ^ Takeo Kamiya. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Arthikaje. "History of Karnataka
Karnataka
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples". webmaster@templenet.com,1996–2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.  ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 421 ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, pp 424–426 ^ Karen Schreitmuller (2012). Baedeker India, pp. 90 ^ Perniola, V. “The Catholic church in Sri Lanka. The Portuguese period”, vol. II, p. 366. ^ Bastin, Rohan. The domain of constant excess : plural worship at the Munnesvaram temples in Sri Lanka. pp. 114 ^ Nagasamy R, Gangaikondacholapuram
Gangaikondacholapuram
(1970) ^ The bronze image of nataraja at the Nagesvara Temple in Kumbakonam is the largest image known. ^ James Fergusson and Henry Cousens write that the Hoysala
Hoysala
style has many features in common with that of the Western Chalukya, Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17.  ^ Adam Hardy. "Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries, 1995". Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-17.  ^ Percy Brown writes that the Hoysala
Hoysala
style has negligible influences on the Indo-Aryan style and owing to its many independent features, qualifies as an independent school of architecture, Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka
Karnataka
from pre-historic times to the present, 2001, Jupiter books, MCC, (Reprinted 2002), p134 ^ Havell, R. Narasimhachar, M. Sheshadri and S. Settar also claim their style is an independent tradition, Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17.  ^ Art critic, Percy Brown calls Vijayanagar architecture a blossoming of Dravidian style, Kamath, p182 ^ Arthikaje Literary Activity ^ "So intimate are the rocks and the monuments they were used for make, it was sometimes impossible to say where nature ended and art began" (Art critic Percy Brown, quoted in Hampi, A Travel Guide, p64) ^ Fritz & Mitchell, p9 ^ Nilakanta Sastri about the importance of pillars in the Vijayanagar style in Kamath (2001), p183 ^ "Drama in stone" wrote art critic Percy Brown, much of the beauty of Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
architecture came from their pillars and piers and the styles of sculpting (Hampi, A Travel Guide, p77) ^ About the sculptures in Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
style, see Kamath (2001), p184 ^ Several monuments are categorised as Tuluva art (Fritz & Mitchell 2001, p9) ^ Michell, 155-158 ^ "Traditional buildings of Jaffna".  ^ "The Nallur Rajadhani". 

Michell, George, (1977) The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms, 1977, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1

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