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Defunct parties

Justice party Tamil National Party Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam Makkal Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani Thayaga Marumalarchi Kazhagam Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam

Contemporary parties

Dravidar Kazhagam Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Latchiya Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Dravidar Viduthalai Kazhagam Thanthai Periyar Dravidar Kazhagam

Chief Ministers

Madras Presidency

Subbarayalu Panagal Raja Munuswamy Naidu R. R. Rao P. T. Rajan

Tamil Nadu

C. N. Annadurai V. R. Nedunchezhiyan Karunanidhi M. G. Ramachandran Janaki Ramachandran J. Jayalalithaa O. Panneerselvam

v t e

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK), (Tamil: திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம்), (English: Dravidian Progress Federation)[2] is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
in India. It is a Dravidian party
Dravidian party
founded by C. N. Annadurai
C. N. Annadurai
in 1949 as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party until 1944) headed by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy. Since 1969, DMK has been headed by M. Karunanidhi, who has served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu several times. It was the first party other than the Indian National Congress to win state-level elections with a clear majority on its own in any state in India. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK) under Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
pronounced publicly the party's tamil supremacist views and was ideologically opposed towards the use of hindi language as noted by the Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations.[citation needed] Head office of the party is called as Anna Arivalayam, located at Anna Salai, previously called as Mount road, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Contents

1 Justice Party 2 Dravidar Kazhagam 3 Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 4 MGR's entry 5 1960s 6 Karunanidhi's presidency

6.1 MGR's exit 6.2 Post-MGR

7 Party ideology 8 Manifesto 9 Party symbol 10 Election history

10.1 Tamil Nadu 10.2 Puducherry

11 Media 12 Controversies

12.1 Connections with LTTE 12.2 Allegations of nepotism 12.3 Involvement in 2G case

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Justice Party[edit] DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thyagaraya Chetty, Dr. P.T. Rajan, Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar and a few others. The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first General Elections to the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
in 1920.[3] E. V. Ramasami ("Periyar"), a popular Tamil reformist leader of the time, had joined Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1919, to oppose what he considered the Brahminic leadership of the party.[4] Periyar's experience at the Vaikom Satyagraha
Vaikom Satyagraha
made him to start the Self-Respect Movement
Self-Respect Movement
in 1926 which was rationalistic and "anti-Brahministic".[5] He quit Congress and in 1935, he joined the Justice Party. In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
under C. Rajagopalachari ("Rajaji") came to power in Madras Presidency. Rajaji's introduction of Hindi
Hindi
as a compulsory subject in schools led to the anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations, led by Periyar and his associates. Dravidar Kazhagam[edit] In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravidar Kazhagham' out of the Justice Party and the Self-Respect Movement
Self-Respect Movement
at the Salem Provincial Conference.[6] Dravidar Kazhagam, conceived as a movement and not a political party, insisted on an independent nation for Dravidians called Dravida Nadu
Dravida Nadu
consisting of areas that were covered under Madras Presidency. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[edit] Over the years, many disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai, decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and appointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath, the nephew of Periyar, was considered his political heir.[7] Annadurai, on 17 September 1949 along with Kudanthai K.K.Neelamegam, V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K. A. Mathiazhagan, N. V. Natarajan, E. V. K. Sampath, called "Aimberum Thalaivargal" (Great Five Leaders) and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram
Royapuram
in Chennai
Chennai
announced the formation of the DMK. The name of the party (DMK) was announced by Kudanthai Perunthagai. K. K. Neelamegam. MGR's entry[edit] In 1953, actor M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
("MGR") joined the DMK, popularised the party flag and symbol which at that time stood for secession from India
India
by showing it in his movies. MGR was a member of the DMK, and he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Adimaippenn
Adimaippenn
and Dheiva Thai produced and scripted by R.M.Veerappan, another strong DMK ideology propagator from C.N.Annadurai school .[8] DMK entered the electoral fray rather unsuccessfully in 1957 with even senior leader V. R. Nedunchezhiyan losing from Salem although M Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
won after initially having opposed all-Indian government and later supporting only those parties which promised to help its secession from India
India
cause.[citation needed]Then in 1962 another prominent actor S.S.Rajendran ("SSR") contested in Theni, legislative assembly election, against the then popular congress leader NRTheagarajan and won the seat.He is the first actor to become an MLA. 1960s[edit]

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DMK leaders K. A. Mathialagan, V. P. Raman, C. N. Annadurai
C. N. Annadurai
and M. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
with Rajaji

In 1967, DMK came to power in Madras province
Madras province
18 years after its formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics. This began the Dravidian era in Madras province
Madras province
which later became Tamil Nadu. In 1969, party general secretary and founder, CN Annadurai
CN Annadurai
died. After his death, there came the power tussle between M Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan. Most of the elected MLAs of DMK, including leaders like Mathialagan, Nanjil Manoharan and the celluloid hero MGR favoured Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
as CM in preference to Nedunchezhiyan, the Senior leader after Anna. To pacify V. R. Nedunchezhiyan a new post called party president was created for M Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan was the post of general secretary . MGR was appointed as the Treasurer of the Party. During the Indian President election, there was divided opinion between the leaders of Indian National Congress. Though the party nominated Dr.Sanjiva Reddy as the Official Candidate, the then Prime Minister, Mrs.Indira Gandhi had suddenly switched her allegiance to Dr.V.V.Giri, the Opposition-sponsored Candidate. She had also advised all party elected members to vote according to their conscience. Dr.V.V.Giri was elected as the President of India
India
with the support of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. This has resulted in the split of Congress Party and in October 1969. Senior Leaders like Morarji Desai, Athulya Ghosh, Kamarajar, S K Patil and Nijalingappa on the one side as Congress (Organisation) and Indira Gandhi, Shankar Dayal Sharma, Jagjivan Ram, C Subramaniam on the Other Side as Congress (Indira). The DMK, led by Mr. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
took a stance to support Mrs.Indira Gandhi in certain reforms like abolition of privy purse, nationalisation of Banks. In 1971 election, the DMK fought in alliance with Congress (Indira)and the Opposition alliance which consisted of the two Senior National Leaders, Rajaji and Kamarajar was termed as a strong alliance and was widely supported by Media to re-capture power in Tamil Nadu. However, the DMK emerged victorious with a vast majority of 184 seats out of 234 and Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi
M. Karunanidhi
becoming the chief minister for second time. The Opposition Grand alliance could capture only 25 seats. Karunanidhi's presidency[edit] MGR's exit[edit] M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(MGR) who was a popular actor and the then party treasurer had played a vital part in popularising the party's ideologies. The political feud between MGR and the party president Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
emerged as an aftermath of the latter calling himself "Mujib of Tamil Nadu". In 1972, MGR called for a boycott of the party's General Council. With the crisis falling into call for corruption probe by MGR, he was eventually suspended from the General Council. Thus emerged a new party All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). The new party ADMK had drubbed the parent party DMK in the by-election to the Loksabha seat at Dindigul in 1974.[9] Post-MGR[edit] In 1977, DMK lost the Assembly elections to MGR's AIADMK, and stayed out of power in the state till 1989.[10] After MGR's death in December 1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and Jayalalithaa. DMK returned to power in 1989 State assembly elections and Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
took over as chief minister in January 1989. 1991 election was held on the backdrop of DMK government dissolved within 2 years of formation due to pressure from Rajiv gandhi, in the same year Rajiv was killed by Human bomb during election campaign. Due to DMK's pro Tamil stance and the dismissal of the state government mid way by Rajiv, people persumption was against DMK and the sympathy wave in favour of AIADMK–Congress alliance and the DMK was deprived of any seats in the Parliament. In the 1996 state elections, DMK came to power on strength of corruption charges against J. Jayalalithaa
Jayalalithaa
and the alliance with Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC), headed by G.K. Moopanar
G.K. Moopanar
and supported by cine actor Rajinikanth. However, in 2001, the AIADMK, on strength of a strong alliance and the incumbency factor against DMK, came back to power in the state assembly elections. In the 2004 parliamentary elections, DMK formed an alliance with Congress, the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(MDMK) and the Pattali Makkal Katchi
Pattali Makkal Katchi
(PMK) and swept a grand Victory, the alliance winning all 40 seats including Puducherry. This enabled 7 ministerial posts in the Central government and influential power to DMK. Two years later in 2006, the same alliance won in the state assembly elections and the DMK for the first time formed a minority government in the state with help from Congress. M Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
became the Chief Minister of the state for the fifth time. The DMK-Congress alliance was also successful in the 2009 parliamentary elections. In the 2011 Assembly elections, held in the wake of the 2G case and allegations of nepotism, the DMK won only 23 seats, 127 seats less than earlier. In the 2014 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
election DMK failed to win any seats; however, by vote percentage it was second only to AIADMK. Party ideology[edit] DMK, from its inception, wanted to have a separate independent state for the Dravidians. C. N. Annadurai
C. N. Annadurai
wanted a separate Dravida Nadu
Dravida Nadu
but the DMK changed its stance with the Chinese invasion in 1962 and suspended its demand for the length of the war and supported India
India
for raising funds for the war. When the war ended, nationalistic feelings were so strong that DMK gave up the separate Dravida nation idea.[11] The Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of 1965 forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi
Hindi
as the only official language of the country; still Hindi
Hindi
imposition continued as Indian government employees are asked to write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi.[11] In April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India
India
to pave the way for a true federal system.[11] Manifesto[edit] The DMK and its prime opposition party, the ADMK have posted an array of populist schemes targeting the human development index of the state. Most of the schemes are accused to be targeting garner larger electoral support. Both the parties have schemes listed in the election manifestos covering various segments of the population involving fishermen, farmers and school children. Till the 2000s, the parties had welfare schemes like maternity assistance, subsidised public transport and educational grants. After the 2000s, the parties started competing at an increasing level over the distribution of consumer goods. The ADMK government distributed free cycles to class 11 and class 12 students during its tenure of 2001–06. The DMK, in competition, promised free colour televisions in its manifesto in 2006 elections. The competition continued during the 2011 elections when both parties announced free laptops for schools students and grinder, mixer and fans for public.[12] Party symbol[edit] The party's election symbol is the sun arising from between two mountains, called the Rising Sun. It has a black and red flag. Election history[edit] Tamil Nadu[edit]

Year Election Votes Polled % of Votes polled Seats Won/Seats contested Alliance(s)

1957 Second Assembly (Madras state) - 13.08 15/100[13][14]

1962 Third Assembly (Madras state) 3,435,633 27.13 50/143[15]

1967 Fourth Assembly (Madras state) 6,230,552 40.06 138/233[16]

1971 Fifth Assembly 7,654,935 46.04 182/203[17] INC(I)/CPI/AIFB/PSP/IUML

1977 Sixth Assembly 4,258,771 24.89 48/230[18][19] None

1980 Seventh Assembly 4,164,389 22.65 37/112[10][20] INC(I)[10]

1984 Eighth Assembly 6,362,770 29.34 24/167[10][21] CPI/CPM/JP

1989 Ninth Assembly 8,001,222 33.44 150/202[22][23] None

1991 Tenth Assembly 5,535,668 22.46 2/176[24] TMK/CPI/CPM/JD

1996 Eleventh Assembly 11,423,380 54.04 173/182[25][26] TMC-Sister Party of Congress

2001 Twelfth Assembly 8,669,864 30.92 31/183[27] NDA-BJP

2006 Thirteenth Assembly 8,728,716 26.46 96/132[28][29] DPA- India
India
National Congress (UPA, LF)

2011 Fourteenth Assembly 8,249,991 22.39 23/124[30] INC/PMK/VCK/IUML/KMK

2016 Fifteenth Assembly 13,670,511 31.06 89/174 INC/PTP/IUML

Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won Alliance(s)

1962 3rd Lok Sabha

07[31]

1967 4th Lok Sabha

25[31]

1971 5th Lok Sabha 5,622,758 23[31] INC(I)

1977 6th Lok Sabha 3,323,320 2[31] JP

1980 7th Lok Sabha 4,236,537 16[31] INC(I)

1984 8th Lok Sabha 5,597,507 2 CPI/CPM/JP/TNC

1989 9th Lok Sabha 7,038,849 0 CPI/CPM/JD

1991 10th Lok Sabha 5,601,597 0 NF

1996 11th Lok Sabha 6,967,679 17[31] UF-Janata Dal

1998 12th Lok Sabha 5,140,266 5[32] UF-Janata Dal

1999 13th Lok Sabha 6,298,832 12[31] NDA_BJP

2004 14th Lok Sabha 7,064,393 16[31] DPA-Congress (UPA, LF)

2009 15th Lok Sabha 7,625,397 18 UPA-Congress

2014 16th Lok Sabha 9,636,430 0

Puducherry[edit]

Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won

1974 3rd Assembly 47,823 2

1977 4th Assembly 30,441 3

1980 5th Assembly 68,030 14

1985 6th Assembly 87,754 5

1990 7th Assembly 101,127 9

1991 8th Assembly 96,607 4

1996 9th Assembly 105,392 7

2001 10th Assembly 83,679 7

2006 11th Assembly

7

2011 12th Assembly

3

2016 13th Assembly

2

Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won

1984 8th Lok Sabha 97,672 0

1989 9th Lok Sabha 157,250 0

1991 10th Lok Sabha 140,313 0

1996 11th Lok Sabha 183,702 0

1998 12th Lok Sabha 168,122 1

Sources:

 % votes polled:[33]

Media[edit] The DMK party runs two newspapers, one each in English and Tamil, namely "The Rising Sun" (weekly journal) and "Murasoli" (daily) respectively.[34] Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV
is a channel started on 15 September 2007 and managed by Kanimozhi and Dayalu Ammal, the daughter and wife of Karunanidhi. The sister channels of Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV
are Isaiaruvi (music channel), Seithigal (news channel), Sirippoli (comedy channel), Kalaignar Asia and Chithiram (Tamil cartoon channel).[35] Controversies[edit] Indira Gandhi dismissed the Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
government in 1976 based on charges of possible secession and corruption. The DMK government has been indicted by the Sarkaria commission for corruption in allotting tenders for the Veeranam
Veeranam
project.[36] In 2001, the former chief secretary, K.A. Nambiar, and a host of others were arrested on charges of corruption in the construction of flyovers in Chennai. Karunanidhi and DMK party members were also charged under Sections 120(b) (criminal conspiracy), 167 (public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury), 420 (cheating) and 409 (criminal breach of trust) of the IPC, and Section 13 (2) read with 13 (1)(d) of the Prevention of Corruption Act, but no prima facie evidence was found against him and his son M K Stalin. Connections with LTTE[edit] The interim report of Justice Jain Commission, which oversaw the investigation into Rajiv Gandhi's assassination, indicted Karunanidhi for abetting the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE).[37] The interim report recommended that Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
and the DMK party be held responsible for abetting Rajiv Gandhi's murderers. The final report contained no such allegations.[38] Allegations of nepotism[edit]

M. K. Stalin, son of Karunanidhi

DMK has been accused by opponents, by some members of the party, and by other political observers of trying to promote nepotism and start a political dynasty along the lines of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Vaiko, who quit the DMK, has been the most vocal. Political observers say that Vaiko
Vaiko
was sidelined as he was seen as a threat to M.K. Stalin
M.K. Stalin
and other family members. Karunanidhi's nephew, Murasoli Maran, was a Union Minister; however, it has been pointed out that he was in politics long before Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
became the Chief Minister in 1969.[39] Many political opponents and DMK party senior leaders have been critical of the rise of M. K. Stalin
M. K. Stalin
in the party. But some of the party men have pointed out that Stalin has come up on his own.[40] Stalin was an MLA in 1989 and 1996 when his father Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
was the Chief Minister, and became Chennai's 44th mayor in 1996. In 2009, he was made the Deputy Chief Minister. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
has been accused of helping Murasoli Maran's son Kalanidhi Maran, who runs Sun Network, India's second largest television network. According to Forbes, Kalanidhi is among India's richest 20, with $2.9 billion.[41] Another son of Maran's, Dayanidhi Maran, served as Union Minister for Communications and IT portfolio. Dayanidhi was withdrawn from the because Dinakaran (a newspaper run by the Maran brothers) had shown the result of a public poll which read Dayanidhi Maran
Dayanidhi Maran
as the successor to Karunanidhi. This created a bloody violence in the Madurai branch of Dinakaran office, causing the death of three employees. It has been pointed out that Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
has hesitated to take action against his erring family members.[42] Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
is also accused of allowing Azhagiri to function as an extraconstitutional authority in Madurai.[43] The Dinakaran newspaper case was handed over to the CBI. But the District and Sessions court acquitted all the 17 accused in that case.[44] So far, the case has not been appealed in a higher court to identify and punish the perpetrators of the crime. His daughter Kanimozhi is a member of Rajya Sabha. Involvement in 2G case[edit] DMK has been facing allegations regarding 2G spectrum case.[45] The case was bought into limelight in 2010 when case filed against Minister for Communications and Information Technology A. Raja had been reported. 2G licenses were issued to private telecom players at throwaway prices in 2008. The CAG estimated on the basis of 3G auction that the 2G Spectrum case had cost the government ₹1.76 lakh crore (equivalent to ₹2.8 trillion or US$43 billion in 2017) (short scale). Rules and procedures were flouted while issuing licenses.[46] The CBI in the Supreme Court has since indicated that the factual loss is around ₹30,000 crore (equivalent to ₹480 billion or US$7.3 billion in 2017). One of the party's TV channel stations, Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV
was raided by Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) officers in connection with the 2G Spectrum case on 19 February 2011.[47] Karunanidhi's daughter MK Kanimozhi arrested and sent to Tihar jail
Tihar jail
on 20 May 2011 for alleged kickbacks in 2G case. She has been arrested for the illegal transfer of money to the DMK's official channel Kalaignar TV. DMK MP A Raja is the prime accused in 2G case and sent to Tihar Jail. Kanimozhi was subsequently released on bail on 29 November 2011[48]On 21 December 2017 IN THE COURT OF O. P. SAINI: SPL. JUDGE, CBI (04) (2G SPECTRUM CASES), NEW DELHI acquitted all the members, including former telecom minister A. Raja and DMK Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
member Kanimozhi in the 2G spectrum allocation case. See also[edit]

List of political parties in India Politics of India

Notes[edit]

^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.  ^ Rao, MSA (1979). Urban Sociology in India. Orient Longman Publishers. ISBN 9780861252961.  ^ Radhan, O.P. (2002). "A Time-Bound Plan for Muslim India". Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications. p. 187. ISBN 81-7488-865-9.  ^ Omvedt, Gail (2006). Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction on an Indian Identity. Orient Longman. pp. 54–55. ISBN 81-250-2895-1.  ^ "Ethnic balance". India
India
Today. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ Dirks, Nicholas B. (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-691-08895-2.  ^ "Priest-less weddings in TN VIP families". Sify News. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's other Film Industry. Psychology Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780203930373.  ^ Hardgrave, Jr., Robert L. (1973). Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK. Asian Survey. University of California Press.  ^ a b c d Murali 1994, p. 82 ^ a b c Palanithurai, Ganapathy (1997). Polyethnicity in India
India
and Canada: Possibilities for Exploration. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9788175330399.  ^ Kohli, Atul; Singh, Prerna (2013). Routledge Handbook of Indian Politics. Routledge. p. 285. ISBN 9781135122744.  ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1952–57 1957, p. 2 ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1952–57 1957, p. 119 ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1962–70 1967, pp. 6–7 ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1967–70 1971, p. 7 ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1971–76 1976, p. 157 ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1977–80 1980, p. 9 ^ Murali 2007, p. 81 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1980, p. 10 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1984, p. 10 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1989, p. 10 ^ Murali 2007, p. 83 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1991, p. 10 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1996, p. 11 ^ Murali 2007, p. 84 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 2001, p. 11 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 2006, p. 11 ^ Murali 2007, p. 86 ^ Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 2011, p. 12 ^ a b c d e f g h Rana 2006, p. 398 ^ Ahuja 1998, p. 358 ^ V., Annamalai (1996). Formation and Transformation of Power in Rural India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 48. ISBN 9788171413232.  ^ "DMK homepage". Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Kalaignar Channel". Kalaignar Channel. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "What the Sarkaria Commission said". The Hindu. 10 June 2001. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ Chawla, Prabhu (17 November 1997). " Jain Commission Revelations: Damning the DMK". India
India
Today. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "No adverse comments on DMK leaders in Jain report". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 14 February 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Maran – the eyes and ears of DMK in Delhi". Indiainfo.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Politics: Special
Special
Series; M K Stalin". India
India
Today. 1 November 1999. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "The World's Billionaires Page 11 of 41". Forbes. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "DMK's sonny-come-lately". Tehelka. 13 May 2006. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Charge sheet filed against Azhagiri in Kiruttinan case". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 August 2003. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "All acquitted in Dinakaran case". The Hindu. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "It's a Bit too Transparent". Outlook. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ 2G Spectrum Scam ^ "CBI raids Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
family's Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV
office". The Times of India. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ " Kanimozhi walks out of Tihar jail". The Hindu. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 

References[edit]

Ahuja, M. L. (1998). Electoral politics and general elections in India, 1952–1998. New Delhi: Mittal Publication. ISBN 81-7099-711-9.  Murali, Geetha Kamalakshi; University of California, Berkeley (2007). Tracing the signs: Voter mobilization and the functionality of ideas in . MI: ProQuest LLC. ISBN 9780549737612.  Mahendra Singh, Geetha Kamalakshi (2006). India
India
votes: Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
& Vidhan Sabha elections 2001–2005. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. ISBN 81-7625-647-1.  " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1957–62" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1962.  " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1962–67" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1967.  " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1967–70" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1971. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013.  " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1971–76" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1976.  " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1977–80" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. 1980.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly elections 1984" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1984.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly elections 2001" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 2001.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly elections 2011" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 2011.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1980" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1980.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1989" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1989.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1991" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1991.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 1996" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2010.  "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly general elections 2006" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 2006. 

External links[edit]

Official website Election reports by EC[permanent dead link]

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Dravidian political parties

Related topics

Self-respect Movement Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Tamil Nadu Cinema in Dravidian politics Rise of Dravidian parties

Forerunners

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Iyothee Thass Rettamalai Srinivasan Natesa Mudaliar Maraimalai Adigal Theagaroya Chetty T. M. Nair

List of Dravidian parties

Defunct parties

Justice party Tamil National Party Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam Makkal Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani Thayaga Marumalarchi Kazhagam HINDRAF(Malaysia)

Current parties

Dravidar Kazhagam Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Latchiya Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
(Malaysia) Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party
Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party
(Malaysia) Human Right Party(Malaysia)

Chief Ministers from Dravidian parties

Madras Presidency

A. Subbarayalu Reddiar Panagal Raja P. Munuswamy Naidu Ramakrishna Ranga Rao P. T. Rajan

Tamil Nadu

C. N. Annadurai V. R. Nedunchezhiyan Karunanidhi M. G. Ramachandran V. N. Janaki J. Jayalalithaa O. Panneerselvam Edappadi K. Palaniswami

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Separatist movements in India

Movements

Dravida Nadu Insurgency in Northeast India

Assam separatist movements Insurgency in Meghalaya Insurgency in Manipur Ethnic conflict in Nagaland

Kashmir conflict Khalistan movement Naxalite–Maoist insurgency

Separatist organisations

All Tripura Tiger Force Babbar Khalsa Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan Bodo Liberation Tigers Force Dal Khalsa Dashmesh Regiment International Sikh Youth Federation Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
(Yasin Malik) Kamtapur Liberation Organization Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup Khalistan Liberation Army Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front Khalistan Zindabad Force Mizo National Front Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam National Democratic Front of Bodoland People's Liberation Army of Manipur People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Liberation Army Tehreek-e-Hurriyat Tripura National Volunteers United Liberation Front of Asom United National Liberation Front United People's Democratic Solidarity

Political parties

All- India
India
Muslim League Bodoland People's Front All Parties Hurriyat Conference All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party Jammu Kashmir Democratic Liberation Party United Kashmir People's National Party

People

Abhizeet Asom Amanullah Khan Angami Zapu Phizo Anup Chetia Arabinda Rajkhowa Ayub Thakur Biswamohan Debbarma Fateh Singh Hashim Qureshi Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode Mirwaiz Umar Farooq Mohammad Abbas Ansari Muppala Lakshmana Rao Paresh Baruah Ranjit Debbarma Sheikh Abdul Aziz Syed Ali Shah Geelani Sukhdev Singh Babbar Talwinder Singh Parmar

Nationalism

Assamese nationalism Bodo nationalism Kashmiriyat Naga nationalism Sikh nationalism Tamil nationalism Tripuri nationalism

Controversies

1984 Sikh Massacre Hashimpura massacre Human rights abuses in Assam Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir Human rights abuses in Manipur Human rights issues in Northeast India Human rights abuses in Punjab Persecution of Chinese Indians

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Political parties in India
India

Current national coalitions

National Democratic Alliance United Progressive Alliance Third Front Janata Parivar

Former national coalitions

Janata Party National Front United Front

Recognised national parties

All India
India
Trinamool Congress Bahujan Samaj Party Bharatiya Janata Party Communist Party of India Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist) Indian National Congress Nationalist Congress Party

Recognised state parties

Aam Aadmi Party All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Forward Bloc All India
India
Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen All India
India
United Democratic Front Asom Gana Parishad Biju Janata Dal Bodoland People's Front Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Indian National Lok Dal Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(Secular) Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(United) Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik) Karnataka
Karnataka
Pragnyavantha Janatha Party Kerala Congress Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(Mani) Lok Jan Shakti Party Maharashtra Navnirman Sena Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Manipur Peoples Party Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Meghalaya Democratic Party Mizo National Front Mizoram People's Conference Muslim League Kerala State Committee Naga People's Front National People's Party N.R. Congress Pattali Makkal Katchi People's Party of Punjab Rashtriya Janata Dal Rashtriya Lok Dal Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Revolutionary Socialist Party Samajwadi Party Shiromani Akali Dal Shiv Sena Sikkim Democratic Front Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telugu Desam Party United Democratic Party Uttarakhand Kranti Dal YSR Congress Party Mahan Dal Zoram Nationalist Party

Other parties in parliament

Apna Dal
Apna Dal
(Sonelal) Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi Jan Adhikar Party Socialist Unity Centre of India
India
(Communist) Swabhimani Paksha Swatantra Bharat Paksh

Unrecognised parties or parties with limited presence

Apna Dal All India
India
Muslim Forum Arunachal Congress Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Bharatiya Awam Party Chhattisgarh Janata Congress Communist Marxist Party Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Democratic Socialist Party (Prabodh Chandra) Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Hindu Sena Hindustani Awam Morcha Indian Federal Democratic Party Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(Socialist) Indian National League Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra Jana Sena Party Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy Jharkhand Party Karnataka
Karnataka
Janata Paksha Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(Balakrishna Pillai) Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(Jacob) Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(Secular) Kerala People's Party Kongunadu Munnetra Peravai Lok Satta Party Naam Tamilar Katchi People's Guardian Peoples Republican Party Peoples’ Resurgence and Justice Alliance Perunthalaivar Makkal Katchi Pragatisheel Indira Congress Professionals Party of India Puthiya Tamilagam Puducherry
Puducherry
Munnetra Congress Republican Party of India
India
(Gavai) Republican Party of India
India
(Athvale) Republican Party of India
India
(Kamble) Republican Party of India
India
(Democratic) Republican Party of India
India
(Khobragade) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Baby John) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Tamizhaga Vazhvurimai Katchi United Goans Democratic Party Welfare Party of India

Former political parties

Janata Dal Justice Party Praja Socialist Party Swatantra Party

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of India

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United Progressive Alliance

Members

National Party

Indian National Congress

State Parties

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Indian Union Muslim League Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(M) Revolutionary Socialist Party (India) Rashtriya Lok Dal Rashtriya Janata Dal Mahan Dal Peace Party of India Communist Marxist Party Kerala Congress
Kerala Congress
(Jacob)

Leaders

Sonia Gandhi Rahul Gandhi Manmohan Singh Motilal Vora Ghulam Nabi Azad Mallikarjun Kharge M. Karunanidhi M.K. Stalin Lalu Prasad Yadav Tejashwi Yadav E. Ahmed K. M. Mani P. J. Joseph T. J. Chandrachoodan Ajit Singh Jayant Chaudhary Keshav Dev Maurya Mohammad Ayub CP John Anoop Jacob Johnny Nellore Ahmed Patel Madhusudan Mistry Anand Sharma Digvijaya Si

.