* Justice party
Tamil National Party
Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
* Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
* v * t * e
DRAVIDA MUNNETRA KAZHAGAM (DMK) (English: Dravidian Progress
Federation ) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu
* 1 History
* 1.1 Justice Party
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
* 1.6 Karunanidhi\'s presidency
* 1.6.1 MGR\'s exit * 1.6.2 Post-MGR
* 2 Party ideology * 3 Manifesto * 4 Party symbol
* 5 Election history
* 6 Media
* 7 Controversies
* 7.1 Connections with LTTE * 7.2 Allegations of nepotism * 7.3 Involvement in 2G Scam
* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links
DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice
Party ) formed in 1916, by
P. Thyagaraya Chetty , Dr.
In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravidar Kazhagham' out of the
Justice Party and the
DRAVIDA MUNNETRA KAZHAGAM
Over the years, many disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai , decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and appointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath , the nephew of Periyar, was considered his political heir.
Annadurai, on 17 September 1949 along with Kudanthai K.K.Neelamegam ,
V. R. Nedunchezhiyan ,
K. A. Mathiazhagan ,
N. V. Natarajan , E. V. K.
Sampath , called "Aimberum Thalaivargal" (Great Five Leaders) and
thousands of others in Robinson park in
In 1953, actor
M. G. Ramachandran ("MGR") joined the DMK, popularised
the party flag and symbol which at that time stood for secession from
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In 1967, DMK came to power in
Madras province 18 years after its
formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics.
This began the Dravidian era in
Madras province which later became
In 1969, party general secretary and founder, CN Annadurai died. After his death, there came the power tussle between M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan . Most of the elected MLAs of DMK, including leaders like Mathialagan, Nanjil Manoharan and the celluloid hero MGR favoured Karunanidhi as CM in preference to Nedunchezhiyan, the Senior leader after Anna. To pacify V. R. Nedunchezhiyan a new post called party president was created for M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan was the post of general secretary . MGR was appointed as the Treasurer of the Party.
During the Indian President election, there was divided opinion
between the leaders of Indian National Congress. Though the party
nominated Dr.Sanjiva Reddy as the Official Candidate, the then Prime
Minister, Mrs.Indira Gandhi had suddenly switched her allegiance to
Dr.V.V.Giri, the Opposition-sponsored Candidate. She had also advised
all party elected members to vote according to their conscience.
Dr.V.V.Giri was elected as the President of
In 1971 election, the DMK fought in alliance with Congress (Indira)and the Opposition alliance which consisted of the two Senior National Leaders, Rajaji and Kamarajar was termed as a strong alliance and was widely supported by Media to re-capture power in Tamil Nadu. However, the DMK emerged victorious with a vast majority of 184 seats out of 234 and Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi becoming the chief minister for second time. The Opposition Grand alliance could capture only 25 seats.
M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) who was a popular actor and the then party
treasurer had played a vital part in popularising the party's
ideologies. The political feud between MGR and the party president
Karunanidhi emerged as an aftermath of the latter calling himself
"Mujib of Tamil Nadu". In 1972, MGR called for a boycott of the
party's General Council. With the crisis falling into call for
corruption probe by MGR, he was eventually suspended from the General
Council. Thus emerged a new party All
In 1977, DMK lost the Assembly elections to MGR's AIADMK, and stayed
out of power in the state till 1989. After MGR's death in December
1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and
1991 election was held on the backdrop of DMK government dissolved within 2 years of formation due to pressure from Rajiv gandhi, in the same year Rajiv was killed by Human bomb during election campaign. Due to DMK's pro Tamil stance and the dismissal of the state government mid way by Rajiv, people persumption was against DMK and the sympathy wave in favour of AIADMK–Congress alliance and the DMK was deprived of any seats in the Parliament.
In the 1996 state elections, DMK came to power on strength of
corruption charges against J.
In the 2004 parliamentary elections, DMK formed an alliance with
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Two years later in 2006, the same alliance won in the state assembly elections and the DMK for the first time formed a minority government in the state with help from Congress. M Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister of the state for the fifth time. The DMK-Congress alliance was also successful in the 2009 parliamentary elections.
In the 2011 Assembly elections , held in the wake of the and allegations of nepotism, the DMK won only 23 seats, 127 seats less than earlier.
In the 2014
DMK, from its inception, wanted to have a separate independent state
for the Dravidians.
C. N. Annadurai wanted a separate
In April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India to pave the way for a true federal system.
The DMK and its prime opposition party, the ADMK have posted an array of populist schemes targeting the human development index of the state. Most of the schemes are accused to be targeting garner larger electoral support. Both the parties have schemes listed in the election manifestos covering various segments of the population involving fishermen, farmers and school children. Till the 2000s, the parties had welfare schemes like maternity assistance, subsidised public transport and educational grants. After the 2000s, the parties started competing at an increasing level over the distribution of consumer goods. The ADMK government distributed free cycles to class 11 and class 12 students during its tenure of 2001–06. The DMK, in competition, promised free colour televisions in its manifesto in 2006 elections. The competition continued during the 2011 elections when both parties announced free laptops for schools students and grinder, mixer and fans for public.
The party's election symbol is the sun arising from between two mountains, called the Rising Sun. It has a black and red flag.
YEAR ELECTION VOTES POLLED % OF VOTES POLLED SEATS WON/SEATS CONTESTED ALLIANCE(S)
1957 Second Assembly (Madras state) - 13.08 15/100
1962 Third Assembly (Madras state) 3,435,633 27.13 50/143
1967 Fourth Assembly (Madras state) 6,230,552 40.06 138/233
1971 Fifth Assembly 7,654,935 46.04 182/203 INC(I) /CPI /AIFB /PSP /IUML
1977 Sixth Assembly 4,258,771 24.89 48/230 None
1980 Seventh Assembly 4,164,389 22.65 37/112 INC(I)
1984 Eighth Assembly 6,362,770 29.34 24/167 CPI /CPM /JP
1989 Ninth Assembly 8,001,222 33.44 150/202 None
1991 Tenth Assembly 5,535,668 22.46 2/176 TMK /CPI /CPM /JD
1996 Eleventh Assembly 11,423,380 54.04 173/182 TMC-Sister Party of Congress
2001 Twelfth Assembly 8,669,864 30.92 31/183 NDA-BJP
2011 Fourteenth Assembly 8,249,991 22.39 23/124 INC /PMK /VCK /IUML /KMK
2016 Fifteenth Assembly 13,670,511 31.06 89/174 INC/PTP/IUML
YEAR ELECTION VOTES POLLED SEATS WON ALLIANCE(S)
1962 3rd Lok Sabha
1967 4th Lok Sabha
1971 5th Lok Sabha 5,622,758 23 INC(I)
1977 6th Lok Sabha 3,323,320 2 JP
1980 7th Lok Sabha 4,236,537 16 INC(I)
1984 8th Lok Sabha 5,597,507 2 CPI /CPM ]/JP /TNC
1989 9th Lok Sabha 7,038,849 0 CPI /CPM ]/JD
1991 10th Lok Sabha 5,601,597 0 NF
11th Lok Sabha
12th Lok Sabha
1999 13th Lok Sabha 6,298,832 12 NDA_BJP
2004 14th Lok Sabha 7,064,393 16 DPA-Congress (UPA , LF )
2009 15th Lok Sabha 7,625,397 18 UPA-Congress
2014 16th Lok Sabha 9,636,430 0
YEAR ELECTION VOTES POLLED SEATS WON
1974 3rd Assembly 47,823 2
1977 4th Assembly 30,441 3
1980 5th Assembly 68,030 14
1985 6th Assembly 87,754 5
1990 7th Assembly 101,127 9
1991 8th Assembly 96,607 4
1996 9th Assembly 105,392 7
2001 10th Assembly 83,679 7
2006 11th Assembly
2011 12th Assembly
2016 13th Assembly
YEAR ELECTION VOTES POLLED SEATS WON
1984 8th Lok Sabha 97,672 0
1989 9th Lok Sabha 157,250 0
1991 10th Lok Sabha 140,313 0
1996 11th Lok Sabha 183,702 0
1998 12th Lok Sabha 168,122 1
* % votes polled:
The DMK party runs two newspapers, one each in English and Tamil, namely "The Rising Sun" (weekly journal) and "Murasoli" (daily) respectively. Kalaignar TV is a channel started on 15 September 2007 and managed by Kanimozhi and Dayalu Ammal, the daughter and wife of Karunanidhi. The sister channels of Kalaignar TV are Isaiaruvi (music channel), Seithigal (news channel), Sirippoli (comedy channel), Kalaignar Asia and Chithiram (Tamil cartoon channel).
Indira Gandhi dismissed the Karunanidhi government in 1976 based on charges of possible secession and corruption. The DMK government has been indicted by the Sarkaria commission for corruption in allotting tenders for the Veeranam project. In 2001, the former chief secretary, K.A. Nambiar, and a host of others were arrested on charges of corruption in the construction of flyovers in Chennai. Karunanidhi and DMK party members were also charged under Sections 120(b) (criminal conspiracy), 167 (public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury), 420 (cheating) and 409 (criminal breach of trust) of the IPC, and Section 13 (2) read with 13 (1)(d) of the Prevention of Corruption Act, but no prima facie evidence was found against him and his son M K Stalin.
CONNECTIONS WITH LTTE
The interim report of Justice
Jain Commission , which oversaw the
ALLEGATIONS OF NEPOTISM
DMK has been accused by opponents, by some members of the party, and by other political observers of trying to promote nepotism and start a political dynasty along the lines of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Vaiko , who quit the DMK, has been the most vocal. Political observers say that Vaiko was sidelined as he was seen as a threat to M.K. Stalin and other family members.
Many political opponents and DMK party senior leaders have been critical of the rise of M. K. Stalin in the party. But some of the party men have pointed out that Stalin has come up on his own. Stalin was an MLA in 1989 and 1996 when his father Karunanidhi was the Chief Minister, and became Chennai's 44th mayor in 1996. In 2009, he was made the Deputy Chief Minister .
Karunanidhi has been accused of helping Murasoli Maran's son Kalanidhi Maran , who runs Sun Network , India's second largest television network. According to Forbes, Kalanidhi is among India's richest 20, with $2.9 billion.
Another son of Maran's, Dayanidhi Maran , served as Union Minister for Communications and IT portfolio. Dayanidhi was withdrawn from the because Dinakaran (a newspaper run by the Maran brothers) had shown the result of a public poll which read Dayanidhi Maran as the successor to Karunanidhi. This created a bloody violence in the Madurai branch of Dinakaran office, causing the death of three employees.
It has been pointed out that Karunanidhi has hesitated to take action against his erring family members.
Karunanidhi is also accused of allowing Azhagiri to function as an extraconstitutional authority in Madurai. The Dinakaran newspaper case was handed over to the CBI. But the District and Sessions court acquitted all the 17 accused in that case. So far, the case has not been appealed in a higher court to identify and punish the perpetrators of the crime. His daughter Kanimozhi is a member of Rajya Sabha .
INVOLVEMENT IN 2G SCAM
DMK has been facing allegations regarding
2G Spectrum scam . The
scam was bought into limelight in 2010 when case filed against
Minister for Communications and Information Technology
A. Raja had
been reported. 2G licenses were issued to private telecom players at
throwaway prices in 2008. The CAG estimated on the basis of 3G auction
2G Spectrum scam had cost the government ₹ 1.76 lakh crore
(equivalent to ₹2.8 trillion or US$43 billion in 2016) (short scale
). Rules and procedures were flouted while issuing licenses. The CBI
in the Supreme Court has since indicated that the factual loss is
around ₹ 30,000 crore (equivalent to ₹470 billion or US$7.3
billion in 2016). One of the party's TV channel stations, Kalaignar TV
was raided by
Central Bureau of Investigation
* ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main
Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of
India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
* ^ Rao, MSA (1979). Urban Sociology in India. Orient Longman
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* ^ Radhan, O.P. (2002). "A Time-Bound Plan for Muslim India".
Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications. p. 187. ISBN
* ^ Omvedt, Gail (2006). Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and
the Construction on an Indian Identity. Orient Longman. pp. 54–55.
ISBN 81-250-2895-1 .
* ^ "Ethnic balance".
* Ahuja, M. L. (1998). Electoral politics and general elections in
India, 1952–1998. New Delhi: Mittal Publication. ISBN 81-7099-711-9
* Murali, Geetha Kamalakshi; University of California, Berkeley
(2007). Tracing the signs: Voter mobilization and the functionality of
ideas in .. MI: ProQuest LLC. ISBN 9780549737612 .
* Mahendra Singh, Geetha Kamalakshi (2006).
* "Statistical report on
* Official website *