HOME
The Info List - Draupadi


--- Advertisement ---



Draupadi
Draupadi
(Sanskrit: द्रौपदी, Sanskrit pronunciation: [d̪rəʊpəd̪i]) is one of the most important female characters in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata.[1][2][3][4] According to the epic, she is the daughter of Drupada, King of Panchala. Draupadi
Draupadi
is considered as one of the Panch-Kanyas or Five Virgins.[5]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Birth 3 Marriage 4 Draupadi
Draupadi
as the Empress

4.1 Duryodhana's insult

5 The game of dice 6 Living in exile

6.1 Abduction by Jayadratha 6.2 Kichaka's death

7 Kurukshetra War

7.1 Ashwatthama

8 Death and to heaven 9 Children

9.1 Polyandry 9.2 Draupadi
Draupadi
as a Goddess and Deity

10 In media and television 11 In literature 12 Draupadi
Draupadi
as an epitome of feminism 13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

Etymology Like other epic characters, Draupadi
Draupadi
is referred to by multiple names in the Mahabharata. Her names are as follows:

Draupadī - (Sanskrit: द्रौपदी) – daughter of Drupada. Kṛṣṇā - (Sanskrit: कृष्णा) – one who has a dark complexion. Panchalī - (Sanskrit: पाञ्चाली) – one from the land of Panchala. Yajñasenī - (Sanskrit: याज्ञसेनी) or Yajñasenā (याज्ञसेना) – daughter of Yajnasena, another name of Drupada. Alternately, one born from a Yajña or fire-sacrifice. Of the two variants of the name, the effeminate former is preferred over the more classical latter in Puranic texts. Drupadakanya - (Sanskrit: द्रुपदकन्या) – the daughter of Drupada. Sairandhrī - (Sanskrit: सैरन्ध्री) – an expert maid (her assumed name during her second exile in which she worked as Virat kingdom's queen Sudeshna's hair-stylist. Parṣatī - (Sanskrit: पर्षती) – the granddaughter of Pṛṣata. Nityayuvanī - (Sanskrit: नित्ययुवनी) – one who never becomes old. Malinī - (Sanskrit: मालिनी) – one who makes garlands. Yojanagandha - (Sanskrit: योजनगन्धा) – she whose fragrance can be felt for miles.

Birth

Vyasa
Vyasa
telling the secret of birth of Draupadi
Draupadi
to Draupada

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly
Bareilly
region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali'. King Drupada
Drupada
of Panchala
Panchala
had been defeated by the Pandava prince Arjuna
Arjuna
on behalf of Drona, who subsequently took half his kingdom. To gain revenge on Drona, he performed a yajña called Putrakameshti
Putrakameshti
yajna to obtain a means of besting him. From the sacrificial fire, Draupadi
Draupadi
emerged as a beautiful dark-skinned young woman after her sibling Dhrishtadyumna.[6] When she emerged from the fire, a heavenly voice said that she would bring about the destruction of the Kuru line.[7] Draupadi
Draupadi
is described in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
as a very beautiful woman of that time.[8]

Birth of Dhristadhyumna from yagna made by Bilal habsi, folio of razmnama

Marriage

Arjuna
Arjuna
wins Draupadi
Draupadi
in her Swayamvara

Drupada
Drupada
intended to wed his daughter to Arjuna. Upon hearing of the Pandavas' supposed death at Varnavata, he set up a Swayamvara
Swayamvara
contest for Draupadi
Draupadi
to choose her husband from the competitive contest.[9] At the Swayamvara, almost all the assorted monarchs were unable to complete the challenge.There are at most three primary variations regarding Karna's participation. The popular rendition shows Draupadi refusing to marry Karna
Karna
on account of being a Suta, some versions describe him missing the target by the "breadth of a hair", while others do not present his participation in the event at all.The Critical Edition of Mahabharat[10] compiled by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute[11] has officially identified the Draupadi's rejection as a later insertion into the text. It is ambiguous, however, whether Karna
Karna
failed or didn't participate at all. Mahabharata
Mahabharata
has multiple versions, recensions, retelling spread all over the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute published what they intend as a clean critical edition in 1919, to aid in having uniformity among scholars.[12] The result was the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
Project.[11] Various manuscripts(1259 in number) were collected from all across the nation, and collated using critical apparatus. Complicated logical and linguistic formulae were applied to identify the oldest shlokas and pull out later contamination as far as possible. After 60 years of extensive and exhaustive research, BORI published the first Critical Edition in 1966.[10] While comparing and collating these thousands of manuscripts, it was discovered with much surprise that Draupadi's rejection sequence - which by the time had become a very popular story - appears only in the newer manuscripts of the epic, those which were mainly composed after 16th to 17th Century AD. Vishnu Sitaram Sukthankar, General Editor of BORI published a comprehensive "Prolegomena to the Adi Parva",[13] in which he lay bare the reasons for the removal of various later created, spurious incidents in the Critical Edition, based on documented evidence and instrinsic probability. In Prolegomena(Page 65), he disclosed that Draupadi's rejection was found only in six out of 1259 Sanskrit manuscripts. The ones which contained the rejection were relatively newer, and the insertion was evidently the work of a later Vyaisaid. It appears that the rejection scene became a mainstream incident only after Neelakantha Chaturdhara
Neelakantha Chaturdhara
published his famous commentary Bharatabhavadipa [14] in the later half of 17th Century AD. Furthermore, M.A. Mehendale published an article in the book "Annals of Bhardarkar Oriental Research Institute",[15] named "Interpolations in the Mahabharata", found in public domain,[16] where she shed more light into the matter. She explained, Draupadi's rejection is not only later addition, but also an unrealistic situation, given the patriarchal era, when women had little choice in political alliances, especially in those Swayamvars or 'self-choice ceremony', where she was nothing more than "Viryasulka" or a prize to be offered to the winner of the contest. Interestingly, the prominent retelling and translations of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
published before 17th Century AD, namely Mahabharata
Mahabharata
by Kashiram Das in Bengali(15th-16th Century), Mahabharata in Oriya by Sarala Das
Sarala Das
(15th Century AD), Villi Bharatham in Tamil by Villiputturaar Alvaar (14th Century AD),[17] Razmnama, Persian translation of Mahabharata(16th Century AD) have no mention of Draupadi's rejection either. Even the Southern manuscripts in Sanskrit, as pointed out by Sukthankar, have no instance of rejection by Draupadi. Thus, the Critical Edition has omitted the incident as later insertion to the text. Despite the documented evidence provided by BORI, as Mehendale puts it in her essay, some of these incidents are so "deeply impressed on the popular mind" that they "still continue to haunt public mind".[16] Most fictional novels and TV series, such as the 1988 series Mahabharat, continue to depict the rejection scene for maximum dramatic effect and sensationalism. However, the Critical Edition (also known as Poona Edition) is now considered an authoritative source on Mahabharat.[18] In the end, Arjun succeeds in the task, dressed as a Brahmin. As the other attendees, including the Kauravas, protest at a Brahmin
Brahmin
winning the competition and attack, Arjuna
Arjuna
and Bhima
Bhima
protect Draupadi
Draupadi
and are able to retreat. When Draupadi
Draupadi
arrives with the five Pandavas
Pandavas
to meet Kunti, they inform her that Arjuna
Arjuna
won alms, to which Kunti
Kunti
says, "Share the alms equally". This motherly command leads the five brothers to become the five husbands of Draupadi.[9] [19] Draupadi
Draupadi
as the Empress With the Pandavas' survival revealed, a succession crisis was started. Upon the news of Yudhishthira's death, the title of crown prince had fallen to Duryodhana. Dhritrashtra
Dhritrashtra
invites the Pandavas
Pandavas
to Hastinapur and proposes that the kingdom be divided. The Pandavas
Pandavas
are assigned the wasteland Khandavprastha, referred to as unreclaimed desert. With the help of Krishna, Pandavas
Pandavas
rebuilt Khandavprastha
Khandavprastha
into the glorious Indraprastha. The crown jewel of the kingdom was built at the Khandava forest, where Draupadi
Draupadi
resided in the "Palace of Illusions".[20] Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
performed the Rajasuya
Rajasuya
Yagna with Draupadi
Draupadi
by his side; the Pandavas
Pandavas
gained lordship over many regions.[21] A lesser known fact is Draupadi's role as an Empress. Trained in economy, she took upon the responsibility of looking after the treasury of the Empire, and also ran a citizen liaison. Her duties as a busy Empress are mentioned in her famous conversation with Satyabhama, Krishna's favourite wife, during their exile.[22] Duryodhana's insult There is a popular story that is believed to be the reason why Duryodhana
Duryodhana
hated Draupadi. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
and his entourage were exploring the keep during their visit to Yudhishthira's Rajasuya
Rajasuya
Yagna. While touring the grounds, an unsuspecting Duryodhana
Duryodhana
fell prey to one of the many illusions that could be seen all around the palace. When he stepped on the apparently solid part of the courtyard, there was a splash and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
found himself waist deep in water, drenched from head to foot by the hidden pool. Draupadi
Draupadi
and her maids saw this from the balcony and were amused. Duryodhana
Duryodhana
felt extremely insulted that Draupadi
Draupadi
and her maids saw his embarrassing predicament. Draupadi joked Andhasya Putra Andhaha meaning 'a blind man's son is blind'. This famous story does not feature in Veda Vyasa's Mahabharatha. The story of 'blind man's son is blind' was the figment of imagination of much later playwright. It gained immense popularity gradually, and was repeatedly depicted in various adaptations of the epic across the length and breadth of the country. The most popular depiction was by B.R. Chopra
B.R. Chopra
in his masterpiece Mahabharata
Mahabharata
series that aired on Doordarshan in 1988. We find several references to blindness of the characters by eminent playwright Dharmveer Bharti, in his famous play 'Andha Yuga'. The play was published in 1954-55, in Hindi weekly magazine, Dharma
Dharma
Yuga. In Vyasa's Sanskrit epic, the scene is quite different.[23] It was Bhima, Arjuna, and the twin brothers alongside their retinues who had witnessed Duryodhana's fall and laughed with their servants. In the Sanskrit epic, Draupadi
Draupadi
is not mentioned in the scene at all, either laughing or insulting Duryodhana. Nonetheless, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
felt insulted by the behavior of the four Pandavas, stoking his hatred of them. Later on, he went back to Hastinapur, and expressed his immense agony on witnessing the riches of the Pandavas
Pandavas
to his blind father, which was the root cause for inviting his cousins for the dice-game. His main wish was to usurp the wealth of his cousins which they had accumulated on account of the Rajasuya
Rajasuya
Yajna. Known to few, during this conversation, Duryodhan mentions how he had observed Draupadi serving food to everyone, including physically challenged citizens as the Empress. He says to his father,"And, O king, Yajnaseni, without having eaten herself, daily seeth whether everybody, including even the deformed and the dwarfs, hath eaten or not."[24] He also expressed his wrath at having fallen into a pool of water, and being laughed at mockingly, mainly by Bhima, followed by Arjun, Nakul, Sahadeva
Sahadeva
and other menials in the palace. It is here, where he fleetingly mentioned Draupadi's name, who accordingly to Duryodhan, had "joined in the laughter with other females." Whether Duryodhana was speaking an untruth or her name was a later addition into this part of the text is debatable. This laughter of Draupadi's was later on singled out and romanticized by various poets and bards for years as a symbolic cause for the dice-game, and eventually the war. In Vyasa's Sanskrit epic, Draupadi's role in insulting Duryodhana
Duryodhana
is trivial compared to the exaggerated treatment it has received in popular adaptations. [23] The game of dice

Draupadi
Draupadi
& dushashan scene

Draupadi
Draupadi
is presented in a parcheesi game where Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
has gambled away all his material wealth.

This key incident is often considered to mark a definitive moment in the story of Mahabharata. It is one of the driving reasons that ultimately led to the Kurukshetra war. Together with his maternal uncle Shakuni, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
conspired to call on the Pandavas
Pandavas
to Hastinapur
Hastinapur
and win their kingdoms in a game of gambling. There is a famous folklore that the plan's architect, Shakuni
Shakuni
had magic dice that would never disobey his will, as they were made from the bones of Shakuni's father. This story however is non-existent in the Sanskrit epic. As the game proceeds, Yudhishthira loses everything at first. In the second round, Yudhishthira's brother Nakula
Nakula
is stake, and Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
loses him. Yudhisthira
Yudhisthira
subsequently gambles away Sahdev, Arjuna
Arjuna
and Bheem. Finally, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
puts himself at stake, and loses again. For Duryodhana, the humiliation of the Pandavas
Pandavas
was not complete. He prods Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
that he has not lost everything yet; Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
still has Draupadi
Draupadi
with him and if he wishes he can win everything back by putting Draupadi
Draupadi
at stake. Inebriated by the game, Yudhishthira, to the horror of everybody present, puts Draupadi
Draupadi
up as a bet for the next round. Playing the next round, Shakuni
Shakuni
wins. Draupadi
Draupadi
was horrified after hearing that she was staked in the game and now is a slave for Duryodhana. Draupadi questions Yudhishthira's right on her as he had lost himself first and she was still the queen. Duryodhana, angry with Draupadi's questions, commands his younger brother Dushasana
Dushasana
to bring her into the court, forcefully if he must.[25]

Draupadi
Draupadi
and Bhima, as depicted in yakshagana.

Dushasana
Dushasana
drags Draupadi
Draupadi
to the court by the hair. Seeing this, Bheem pledges to remove Dushasana's hands, as they touched Draupadi's hair. Now in an emotional appeal to the elders present in the forum, Draupadi
Draupadi
repeatedly questions the legality of the right of Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
to place her at stake. In order to provoke the Pandavas
Pandavas
further, Duryodhana
Duryodhana
bares and pats his thigh looking into Draupadi's eyes, implying that she should sit on his thigh. In rage Bhima
Bhima
vows in front of the entire assembly that he would break that thigh of Duryodhana, or accept being Duryodhana's slave for seven lifetimes. At this time Vikarna, a brother of Duryodhana
Duryodhana
asks the kings assembled in the court to answer the question of Draupadi. He gives his opinion that Draupadi
Draupadi
is not won rightfully as Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
lost himself first before staking her. Besides, no one has right to put a woman on bet according to shastras; not a husband, father, or even the gods. Hearing these words, Karna gets angry and says that when Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
lost all his possession he also lost Draupadi, even specifically staking her.[26] Karna
Karna
calls Draupadi
Draupadi
'unchaste' for being the wedded wife of five men, adding that dragging her to court is not surprising act whether she be attired or naked. He orders Dushasana
Dushasana
to take away the rich garments of Pandavas and Draupadi.[27][28] Seeing her husbands' passivity, Draupadi
Draupadi
prays to Krishna
Krishna
to protect her. A miracle occurs henceforward, which is popularly attributed to Krishna. Dushasana
Dushasana
unwraps layers and layers of her sari. As her sari keeps getting extended, everyone looks upon in awe, and Dushasana
Dushasana
himself is forced to stop due to exhaustion. At this point, a furious Bhima
Bhima
vows to drink the blood from his chest, at the pain of not seeing his ancestors/entering heaven. This vow unsettles the entire court. The only Kauravas
Kauravas
who object to the disrobing of Draupadi
Draupadi
in the court are Vikarna
Vikarna
and Vidura. Vidura
Vidura
openly calls Duryodhana
Duryodhana
a snake and a demon, but after finding no support even from his own brother, Vidura is helpless. Karna
Karna
further orders Dushasana
Dushasana
to take Draupadi
Draupadi
to the servants' quarters and derisively asks her to choose another husband who unlike Yudhistira would not gamble her away. Just then, jackals call out as a mark of evil omen. Queen mother Gandhari enters the scene and counsels Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
to undo her sons' misdeeds. Fearing the ill-omens, Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
intervenes and grants Draupadi
Draupadi
a boon. Draupadi
Draupadi
asks that her husband Yudisthir be freed from bondage so her son Prativindhya would not be called a slave. In order to pacify her further, Dhritarashtra
Dhritarashtra
offers a second boon. Calmly, she asks for the freedom of the Pandavas
Pandavas
along with their weapons. When Dhritarashtra asks her for her third wish, she reminds him that a kshatriya woman can seek only two wishes,three would be a sign of greed. Dhristarashtra gives them back their wealth, and grants them permission to go home. Amused by the sudden turn of events, Karna
Karna
remarks that they "have never heard of such an act, performed by any of the women noted in this world for their beauty." He taunts the Pandavas
Pandavas
by praising their wife, as she had rescued them "like a boat from their ocean of distress"[29] Having restored their pride and wealth, the Pandavas
Pandavas
and Draupadi leave for Indraprastha, only to receive another invitation for a game of dice, in which the loser would be given an exile of 12 years followed by a year of Agnathavas, meaning "living in incognito". Yudhishtira yet again accepts the invitation and loses,and goes on an exile with his brothers and wife Draupadi. Living in exile Abduction by Jayadratha

Draupadi
Draupadi
taken to forest by Simhika, who plans to kill her

While the Pandavas
Pandavas
were in the Kamyaka forest, they often went hunting, leaving Draupadi
Draupadi
alone. At this time Jayadratha, the son of Vriddhakshatra and the husband of Duryodhana's sister Dussala, passed through Kamyaka forest on the way to Salwa Desa. Jayadratha
Jayadratha
met Draupadi
Draupadi
and then started beseeching her to go away with him and desert her husbands. Draupadi
Draupadi
pointed out the immorality of deserting one's spouses when they were in difficulty, and attempted to stall and dissuade Jayadradtha by describing how the Pandavas
Pandavas
would punish him. Failing with words, Jayadratha
Jayadratha
forced her onto his chariot. Meanwhile, the Pandavas
Pandavas
finished their hunt and found Draupadi
Draupadi
missing. Learning of their wife's abduction by Jayadratha
Jayadratha
they rushed to save her. On seeing the Pandavas
Pandavas
coming after him, Jayadratha
Jayadratha
left Draupadi
Draupadi
on the road, though ultimately the Pandavas
Pandavas
managed to arrest him. Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
urged Bhima
Bhima
to spare Jayadratha's life for the sake of Dussala and Gandhari, much to the indignation of Draupadi. In some versions of the story, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
asks Draupadi
Draupadi
to pass the sentence since it was she who was attacked, and she begrudgingly counsels to spare him because of the relations they share. Before freeing him, the Pandavas
Pandavas
shaved Jayadratha's head at five places in order to publicly humiliate him.[citation needed] Kichaka's death

Draupadi
Draupadi
in Virata's palace, by Raja Ravi Varma

On the year they had to go into exile, the Pandavas
Pandavas
chose to stay in the Matsya
Matsya
Kingdom. One day Kichaka, and the commander of king Virata's forces, happened to see the Draupadi. He was filled with lust by looking at her and requested her hand in marriage. Draupadi
Draupadi
refused him, saying that she was already married to Gandharvas. She warned Kichaka
Kichaka
that her husbands were very strong and that he would not be able to escape death at their hands. Later, he forced his sister, the queen Sudeshna, to help him win Draupadi. Sudeshana ordered Draupadi
Draupadi
to fetch wine from Kichaka's house, overriding Draupadi's protests. When Draupadi went to get wine, Kichaka
Kichaka
tried to molest her. Draupadi
Draupadi
escaped and runs into the court of Virata. Kichaka
Kichaka
kicked her in front of all the courtiers, including Yudhishthira. Fearful of losing his most powerful warrior, even Virat did not take any action. Bhima
Bhima
is present, and only a look from Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
prevents him from attacking Kichaka. Furious, Draupadi
Draupadi
asked about the duties of a king and dharma. Draupadi
Draupadi
then cursed Kichaka
Kichaka
with death by her husband's hand. Laughing it off, Kichaka
Kichaka
only doubted their whereabouts and asked those present where are the Ghandaravas were. Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
then told Sairandhri to go to the temple, as Kichaka
Kichaka
would not do anything to her there (in some versions, he recommends she seeks refuge with the queen). With this, the king asked Kichaka
Kichaka
to leave and praised Yudhishthira's reply as he himself could not think of anything. Later that night, Arjuna
Arjuna
consoled Draupadi, and with Bhima, they hatched a plan to kill Kichaka. Draupadi
Draupadi
meets with Kichaka, pretending to actually love him and agreeing to marry him on the condition that none of his friends or brothers would know about their relationship. Kichaka
Kichaka
accepted her condition. Draupadi
Draupadi
asked Kichaka to come to the dancing hall at night. Bhima(in the guise of Draupadi), fights with Kichaka
Kichaka
and kills him.

Death of Kichaka

Kurukshetra War During the war, Draupadi
Draupadi
stays at Ekachakra with other women. On the 16th day, Bhima
Bhima
kills Dushasana, drinking his blood and fulfilling his oath. There is a popular myth often depicted in well-known adaptations on Mahabharata. It says, Draupadi
Draupadi
washed her hair with her brother-in-law Dushasana's blood, as a mark of her vengeance against the molestation she had suffered at the dice-game. Though an extremely powerful and symbolic theme, this incident does not appear in Vyasa's Sanskrit Mahabharata. Alf Hiltebeitel in his acclaimed research work, "The Cult of Draupadi" explores the source of this myth as he travels through the rural areas of South India. He discovers that the first literary mention of the blood-washing theme appeared in "Venisamhara" [30] or "Braiding The Hair (of Draupadi)", a Sanskrit play written in the Pallava period by eminent playwright Bhatta Narayana. Since then, this powerful theme of vengeance had been used in most retellings and adaptations on Mahabharat, thus mistakenly attributing the authorship to Veda Vyasa. Ashwatthama Ashwathama, in order to avenge his father's as well as other Kuru warriors' deceitful killing by the Pandavas, attacks their camp at night with Kripacharya
Kripacharya
and Kritavarma. Ashwathama
Ashwathama
killed Dhrishtadyumna, Shikhandi, Upapandavas, and the remaining Pandava
Pandava
and Panchala
Panchala
army.[31] In the morning, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
hears the news and asks Nakula
Nakula
to bring Draupadi
Draupadi
from Matsya
Matsya
kingdom.[32] Draupadi
Draupadi
vows that if the Pandavas
Pandavas
do not kill Ashwatthama, she would fast to death.[33][34] The Pandavas
Pandavas
find Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
at Vyasa's hut. Arjuna and Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
end up firing the Brahmashirsha astra
Brahmashirsha astra
at each other. Vyasa
Vyasa
intervenes and asks the two warriors to withdraw the destructive weapon. Not endowed with the knowledge to do so, Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
instead redirects the weapon to Uttara's womb, killing the Pandavas' only heir. Krishna
Krishna
curses him for this act. Ashwathama
Ashwathama
is caught by the Pandavas, and his jewel is taken away.[33] Draupadi
Draupadi
gives the jewel to Yudisthir and forgives the killer of her children. Due to the power of meditation, her wrath is subdued and she lets go off Ashwathama, son of their Preceptor Drone saying, "I desired to only pay off our debt for the injury we have sustained. The preceptor's son is worthy of my reverence as the preceptor himself. Let the king bind this gem on his head, O Bharata!" [35] Death and to heaven

Draupadi
Draupadi
falls as the Pandavas
Pandavas
proceed.

When her husbands retired from the world and went on their journey towards the Himalayas
Himalayas
and heaven, she accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the journey. When Bhima
Bhima
asked Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
why Draupadi
Draupadi
had fallen, Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
names Draupadi's partiality towards Arjuna
Arjuna
as the reason. On the remaining journey, the rest of the Pandavas
Pandavas
all fall, with only Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
surviving. Eventually, when Yudisthir goes to heaven, he sees Draupadi
Draupadi
sitting in meditation in the form Goddess Sri. He is told, that the Goddess had taken birth in the form of Draupadi
Draupadi
to be the wife of the Pandavas. Children Draupadi
Draupadi
had five sons, one son each from the Pandava
Pandava
brothers. They were known as Upapandavas. Their names were Prativindhya, Sutasoma, Shrutakarma, Satanika, and Shrutasena.[31] Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
killed Upapandavas
Upapandavas
during his surprise raid on Pandava
Pandava
camp. According to legends and folktales, She had a daughter called Suthanu as well, from Yudhishthira. She was born when they were in exile and after Kurukshetra War, she married Swarabhanu, Krishna-Satyabhama's son. Polyandry Polyandry, was not regarded without censure by the society spoken of in the epic. The Indo-Aryan texts almost never mention or allow polyandry, although polygamy was common among men of higher social ranks. Her marriage to five men was controversial. However, when questioned by Kunti
Kunti
to give an example of polyandry, Yudhishthira cites Gautam-clan Jatila (married to seven Saptarishi) and Hiranyaksha's sister Pracheti (married to ten brothers).[36] Draupadi
Draupadi
as a Goddess and Deity The Draupadi Amman
Draupadi Amman
cult (or Draupadi
Draupadi
cult) is a tradition that binds together a community of people in worshipping Draupadi Amman
Draupadi Amman
as a village goddess with unique rituals and mythologies. The cult believes that Draupadi
Draupadi
is the incarnation of the goddess Kali. Fire walking
Fire walking
or theemithi is a popular ritual enacted at Draupadi Amman
Draupadi Amman
temples.[37] At the ancient religious festival of Bengalore named Karaga, Draupadi is worshipped as an incarnation of Adishakti and Parvati in the nine day event.[38] [39]

Reclining Draupadi's head – near Auroville.

Draupati Amman idol in Udappu, Sri Lanka

There are over 400 temples dedicated to Draupadi
Draupadi
in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Karnataka
and other countries like Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius, Réunion, South Africa.[37] In these communities, Draupadi
Draupadi
is worshiped mainly by people of the Vanniyar caste.[40] There are a few processions and festivals which are conducted for about 3 weeks a year. The most famous festival is in the village Durgasamudram, Tirupati of Chittoor district.[41] In media and television In B.R.Chopra's Mahabharat, Draupadi
Draupadi
was portrayed by Roopa Ganguly. In the 2008 Television series, Kahaani Hamaaray Mahaabhaarat Ki, Draupadi
Draupadi
was enacted by Anita Hassanandani Reddy. In 2013 Mahabharat TV Series, Draupadi
Draupadi
was played by Pooja Sharma. In Dharmakshetra (2014), Draupadi
Draupadi
was portrayed by Kashmira Irani In Suryaputra Karna
Karna
(2015 TV Series) Draupadi
Draupadi
was portrayed by Pankhuri Awasthy In Draupadi
Draupadi
(DD Kisan) Mitali Nag essays the role of Draupadi
Draupadi
from Village Boy Production and In literature The fiery heroine of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
has been the topic of research and debate for centuries. There are various award-winning plays and novels attributed to her.

Yajnaseni by Pratibha Ray
Pratibha Ray
- This novel, originally written in Oriya was the recipient of Jnanpith Award, the highest literary award in India.[42] It was also translated in various languages like English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, etc. The Palace of Illusions: A Novel by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
- This novel is an award-winning international bestseller. Though deviated much from the Sanskrit text, Divakaruni manages to bring up the emotions of Draupadi, re-imagining the whole epic from her perspective. The Cult of Draupadi[43] by Alf Hiltebeitel - This acclaimed trilogy on the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
heroine is an exhaustive, scholarly account of the various folk traditions surrounding Draupadi
Draupadi
in South India. Hiltebeitel travels through various parts of India, tracing and recording the lesser-known customs and tribes in Gingi Cult and much more, who extensively worship Draupadi
Draupadi
as their deity - a status which has been attained by few Mahabharat characters. There are over 31 plays and ballads that are conducted in over 400 temples, that are dedicated to Draupadi
Draupadi
Amman. Nathabati Anathbat by Shaoli Mitra - This is a famous stage play [44] depicting the agony of Draupadi
Draupadi
as a woman who "has five husbands, and yet none to protect her." Dropodi [45] by Mahasweta Devi
Mahasweta Devi
in Bengali - The recipient of Jnanpith Award, Sahitya Akademi Award
Sahitya Akademi Award
and Padma Shri, the master storyteller weaves a contemporary tale of oppression with Draupadi
Draupadi
as the lead character, whose characteristics are derived from the fiery heroine.

Draupadi
Draupadi
as an epitome of feminism Draupadi
Draupadi
in Mahabharata
Mahabharata
is one of the only examples that participated in the practice of polyandry. She actively participated in her husbands’ political affairs.[46] When her husband Yudhishthira, put her at stake in a game of dice, she questioned his act instead of submitting to what he wanted. She also questioned the court as to why was it that when Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
had bet himself and lost the game, he has the right to still bet against her.[47] This showed that in a predominant male society, she raised her voice. She argued and pleaded to defend her honour several times. After the shameful incident of her attempted disrobing, King had to apologise for his sons’ disorderly conduct and offer her a boon. That’s when Draupadi
Draupadi
asked back for her husbands’ titles and lands, and nothing for her own self.[48] During the Agyaata Vaas in King Virata’s kingdom, Draupadi
Draupadi
was disguised as one of the queen’s maids. Keechaka, the King’s brother-in-law, tried to have his way with Draupadi, who turned to the king for help. This shows that Panchali had a firm belief in the law of the land, and was not afraid to take matters into her own hands if justice was at stake.[49] See also

Yajnaseni, a novel by Pratibha Ray Yajnaseni, a play by Suman Pokhrel

References

^ Mahasweta Devi
Mahasweta Devi
(6 December 2012). "Draupadi". In Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. In Other Worlds: Essays In Cultural Politics. Routledge. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-135-07081-6.  ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (1 January 1991). The cult of Draupadī: Mythologies : from Gingee to Kurukserta. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. ii. ISBN 978-81-208-1000-6.  ^ Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(March 2014). On Hinduism. Oxford University Press. p. 533. ISBN 978-0-19-936007-9.  ^ Devdutt Pattanaik
Devdutt Pattanaik
(1 September 2000). The Goddess in India: The Five Faces of the Eternal Feminine. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-59477-537-6.  ^ Bhattacharya, Pradip. Five Holy Virgins, Five Sacred Myths (PDF). Manushi.  ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 0-8160-5458-4.  ^ Doninger, Wendy (2009). The Hindus: An Alternative History. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 301.  ^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan. "Section CLXXXVI: Swayamvara
Swayamvara
Parva". The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: English Translation. Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd. Retrieved 16 January 2013.  ^ a b Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 136–137.  ^ a b VISHNU S. SUKTHANKAR (11 March 2018). "THE MAHABHARATHA". BHANDARKAR ORIENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, POONA – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b "The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute : Mahabharata Project". www.bori.ac.in.  ^ Bhandarkar Institute, Pune—Virtual Pune ^ " Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- BORI Critical Edition - Sanskrit Documents". sanskritdocuments.org.  ^ Sri Vyasadeva and Sri Nilakantha Chaturdhar (1 June 2013). " Mahabharata
Mahabharata
with the Commentary of Nilakantha" – via Internet Archive.  ^ D.R. BHANDARKAR (11 March 2018). "ANNALS OF THE BHANDARKAR ORIENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE VOL XVIII 1926-27". BHANDARKAR ORIENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, POONA – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b M. A. Mehendale (1 January 2001). "Interpolations In The Mahabharata" – via Internet Archive.  ^ "Villi Bharatham - Introduction Page". www.tamilvu.org.  ^ Ghadyalpatil, Abhiram (30 July 2016). "'BORI must set new paradigms of growth for future of research'".  ^ "Sacred-Texts: Hinduism". www.sacred-texts.com.  ^ Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. p. 166.  ^ Parmeshwarananad, Swami (2001). Encylopaedic Dictionary of Puranas. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. p. 524.  ^ "Vana Parva". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017.  ^ a b "Sabha parva". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved July 13, 2015.  ^ "Sabha parva". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved November 10, 2017.  ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva: Shishupala-badha Parva: Section LXVI". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20.  ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt. "The Clothes of Draupadi". Devdutt. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva: Shishupala-badha Parva: Section LXVII". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2015-07-24.  ^ " Mahabharata
Mahabharata
with the Commentary of Nilakantha". Archive.org. Retrieved 2015-07-24.  ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva: Shishupala-badha Parva: Section LXVII". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2017-11-10.  ^ Portessor Of Sanskrit Elphinstone College, Bombay (11 March 2018). "The Venisamhara Of Bhatta Narayana" – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha
Mahabharatha
Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 9 Ashwatthama
Ashwatthama
killing Dhrishtadyumna
Dhrishtadyumna
,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha
Mahabharatha
Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 10[permanent dead link] Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
crying over the death of Upapandavas
Upapandavas
,October 2003,Retrieved 2015-04-17 ^ a b "The Mahabharata, Book 10: Sauptika Parva: Section 11". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2015-07-24.  ^ "Asvathama and Kripa
Kripa
are born immortals and unslayable by any kind of weapons". Retrieved June 28, 2015.  ^ K M Ganguly(1883-1896). The Mahabharatha
Mahabharatha
Book 10: Sauptika Parva section 16 Draupadi
Draupadi
forgiving Ashwathama
Ashwathama
,October 2003,Retrieved 2017-11-10 ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Vaivahika Parva: Section CLXLVIII". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20.  ^ a b Hiltebeitel, Alf (1991). The Cult Of Draupadi
Draupadi
Mythologies:From Gingee To Kuruksetra. 1. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1000-6.  ^ "City to feel Karaga fervour tonight". Deccan Herald.  ^ "Adishakti Draupadi's Karaga Shakthiotsava". Retrieved 2018-01-18.  ^ Madhusudhan, N.R. (2012). "Ancient tradition comes alive". New Indian Express.  ^ "Drowpathi Sametha Dharmaraja Swamy Temple". Desibantu. Retrieved 13 June 2013.  ^ "Odia writer Pratibha Ray
Pratibha Ray
named for Jnanpith Award". India Today. 27 December 2012.  ^ "The Cult of Draupadi, Volume 1".  ^ Abhimonyu Deb (31 August 2016). "Nathabati Anathbat in Hindi - Shaoli Mitra" – via YouTube.  ^ "IJELLH (International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities)". www.ijellh.com.  ^ Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda ^ Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- The Song of God ^ Signposts: Gender Issues in Post-independence India ^ http://scs.sagepub.com/content/1/1/56.short

Sources

Eminent women in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
by Vanamala Bhawalkar. The Critical Edition of Mahabharat(1966) published by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(1999) by Krishna
Krishna
Dharma Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna
Krishna
Dwaipayana Vyasa, English translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli Hiltebeitel, Alf (1999). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics: Draupadi
Draupadi
among Rajputs, Muslims, and Dalits. Chicago: University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 0226340554. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Draupadi.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Draupadi

Sacred-texts.com The Kaurava
Kaurava
race of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the worship of Draupadi Karaga Worship is all about Goddess Draupadi

v t e

Mahabharata

Books (parvas)

Adi Sabha Vana Virata Udyoga Bhishma Drona Karna Shalya Sauptika Stri Shanti Anushasana Ashvamedhika Ashramavasika Mausala Mahaprasthanika Svargarohana Harivamsa

Kuru Kingdom

Shantanu Ganga Bhishma Satyavati Chitrāngada Vichitravirya Ambika Ambalika Vidura Dhritarashtra Gandhari Pandu Kunti Madri Pandavas

Yudhisthira Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva

Draupadi Kauravas

Duryodhana Dushasana Vikarna Yuyutsu Dushala

Hidimbi Ghatotkacha Ahilawati Subhadra Uttarā Ulupi Chitrāngadā Abhimanyu Iravan Babruvahana Barbarika Upapandavas Parikshit Janamejaya

Other characters

Amba Ashwatthama Balarama Bhagadatta Brihannala Chekitana Chitrasena Dhrishtadyumna Drona Drupada Durvasa Ekalavya Hidimba Jarasandha Jayadratha Kali (demon) Karna Kichaka Kindama Kripa Krishna Kritavarma Mayasura Sanjaya Satyaki Shakuni Shalya Shikhandi Shishupala Bahlika Sudeshna Uttara Kumara Virata Vrishasena Vyasa

Related articles

Avatars Hastinapur Indraprastha Kingdoms Kurukshetra War Bhagavad Gita Vedic-Puranic chronol

.