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DRANGIANA or ZARANGIANA (Greek : Δραγγιανή, Drangianē; also attested in Old Western Iranian as Zranka was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake , wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin on the Iran
Iran
-Afghan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

HISTORY

In ancient times Drangiana
Drangiana
was inhabited by an Iranian tribe which the ancient Greeks called Sarangians or Drangians. Drangiana
Drangiana
was possibly subdued by another Iranian people, the Medes , and later, certainly, by the expanding Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC). According to Herodotus
Herodotus
, during the reign of Darius I
Darius I
(522-486 BC), the Drangians were placed in the same district as the Utians , Thamanaeans , Mycians , Drangians, and those deported to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. The capital of Drangiana, called Zarin or Zranka (like the Province), is identified with great probability with the extensive Achaemenid site of Dahan-e Gholaman southeast of Zabol
Zabol
in Iran
Iran
. Another significant center was the city of Prophthasia , possibly located at modern Farah in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. On occasion Drangiana
Drangiana
was governed by the same satrap as neighboring Arachosia . In 330-329 BC, the region was conquered by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. Drangiana
Drangiana
continued to constitute an administrative district under Alexander and his successors . At Alexander's death in 323 BC, it was governed by Stasanor of Soloi , and later, in 321 BC, it was allotted to another Cypriot , Stasandros. By the end of the 4th century BC, Drangiana
Drangiana
was part of the Seleucid Empire , but in the second half of the 3rd century BC it was at least temporarily annexed by Euthydemos I of Bactria . In 206-205 BC Antiochos III (222-187 BC) seems to have recovered Drangiana
Drangiana
for the Seleucids during his Anabasis. The history of Drangiana
Drangiana
during the weakening of Seleucid rule is unclear, but by the mid-2nd century BC the area was conquered by the expanding Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
of the Arsacids .

NOTES

* ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (15 December 1995). "DRANGIANA or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān". Encyclopædia Iranica . The name of the country and its inhabitants is first attested as Old Persian z-r-k (i.e., Zranka)in the great Bīsotūn (q.v. iii) inscription of Darius I
Darius I
(q.v.; col. I l. 16), apparently the original name. This form is reflected in the Elamite (Sir-ra-an-qa and variants), Babylonian (Za-ra-an-ga), and Egyptian (srng or srnḳ) versions of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions, as well as in Greek Zarángai, Zarangaîoi, Zarangianḗ (Arrian; Isidore of Charax), and Sarángai (Herodotus) and in Latin Zarangae (Pliny). Instead of this original form, characterized by non-Persian z (perhaps from proto-IE. palatal *γ or *γh), in some Greek sources (chiefly those dependent upon the historians of Alexander the Great, q.v.) the perhaps hypercorrect Persianized variant (cf. Belardi, p. 183) with initial d-, *Dranka (or even *Dranga?), reflected in Greek Drángai, Drangḗ, Drangēnḗ, Drangi(a)nḗ (Ctesias; Polybius; Strabo; Diodorus; Ptolemy; Arrian; Stephanus Byzantius) and Latin Drangae, Drangiana, Drangiani (Curtius Rufus; Pliny; Ammianus Marcellinus; Justin) or Drancaeus (Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6.106, 6.507) occurs. * ^ Schmitt (1995). * ^ Gnoli (1993) * ^ Schmitt (1995). * ^ Schmitt (1995). * ^ Schmitt (1995).

REFERENCES

* Schmitt, Rüdiger (15 December 1995). "DRANGIANA or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān". Encyclopædia Iranica . * G. Gnoli, "Dahan-e Ḡolāmān," Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 6 (1993) 582-585. * Drangiana
Drangiana
by Jona Lendering * R. Schmitt, "Drangiana," Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 7 (1995) 534-537.

* v * t * e

* Provinces of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
* (Behistun / Persepolis
Persepolis
/ Naqsh-e Rustam / Susa
Susa
/ Daiva inscriptions)

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Colchis
* Dahae * Drangiana * 1st Egypt / 2nd Egypt * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Elam * Kusha (Nubia) * Gandhara * Gedrosia * Hyrcania
Hyrcania
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See also Districts of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(according to Herodotus)

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Drangiana
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