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_DRANG NACH OSTEN_ (German: , "yearning for the East", "thrust toward the East", "push eastward", "drive toward the East" or "desire to push East" ) was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands. The term became a motto of the German nationalist movement in the late nineteenth century. In some historical discourses, "Drang nach Osten" combines historical German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe , medieval (12th-13th centuries) military expeditions like the ones of the Teutonic Knights (see Northern Crusades ), and Germanisation policies and warfare of Modern Age German states like the Nazi Lebensraum concept. In Poland , the term "Drang nach Osten" was used in discourse when describing Germanization of Poland while on the German side the slogan was part of a wider nationalist discourse approving the medieval settlement in the east and the idea of the "superiority of German culture". The slogan DRANG NACH WESTEN ("thrust toward the West") derived from "Drang nach Osten" was used to depict an alleged Polish drive westward. It was one of the core elements of German nationalism and part of Nazi ideology ; as Adolf Hitler said on 7 February 1945: _It is eastwards, only and always eastwards, that the veins of our race must expand. It is the direction which Nature herself has decreed for the expansion of the German peoples._

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin of the term * 2 Background

* 3 _Drang nach Osten_ in German discourse

* 3.1 "Drang nach Westen"

* 4 Lebensraum concept of Nazi Germany * 5 Expulsion of Germans from the East after World War II * 6 See also * 7 References

ORIGIN OF THE TERM

The first known use of "Drang nach Osten" was by the Polish journalist Julian Klaczko in 1849, yet it is debatable whether he invented the term as he used it in form of a citation. Because the term is used almost exclusively in its German form in English, Polish, Russian, Czech and other languages, it has been concluded that the term is of German origin.

BACKGROUND

Main articles: History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe , Ostsiedlung , and Prussia Phases of German eastward expansion, 700–1400

_Drang nach Osten_ is connected with the medieval German _Ostsiedlung _. This "east colonization" referred to the expansion of German culture, language, states, and settlement into eastern and Northern European regions inhabited by Slavs and Balts .

Population growth during the High Middle Ages stimulated movement of peoples from the Rhenish , Flemish , and Saxon territories of the Holy Roman Empire eastwards into the less-populated Baltic region and Poland . These movements were supported by the German nobility, the Slavic kings and dukes, and the medieval Church. The majority of this settlement took place at the expense of Polabian Slavs and pagan Balts (see Northern Crusades ).

The future state of Prussia , named for the conquered Old Prussians , had its roots largely in these movements. As the Middle Ages came to a close, the Teutonic Knights , who had been invited to northern Poland by Konrad of Masovia , had assimilated and forcibly converted much of the southern Baltic coastlands.

After the Partitions of Poland by the Kingdom of Prussia , Austria , and the Russian Empire in the late 18th century, Prussia gained much of western Poland. The Prussians, and later the Germans, engaged in a policy of Germanization in Polish territories. Russia and Sweden eventually conquered the lands taken by the Teutonic Knights in Estonia and Livonia .

_DRANG NACH OSTEN_ IN GERMAN DISCOURSE

The term became a centerpiece of the program of the German nationalist movement in 1891, with the founding of the Alldeutschen Verbandes, in the words: „Der alte Drang nach dem Osten soll wiederbelebt werden" ("The old Drang nach Osten must be revived"). Nazi Germany employed the slogan in calling the Czechs a "Slav bulwark against the Drang nach Osten" in the 1938 Sudeten crisis .

Despite _Drang nach Osten_ policies, population movement took place in the opposite direction also, as people from rural low-developed areas in the East were attracted by the prospering industrial areas of Western Germany. This phenomenon became known by the German term _ Ostflucht _, literally the _flight from the East_.

"DRANG NACH WESTEN"

A new _Drang nach Osten_ was called for by German nationalists to oppose a Polish _Drang nach Westen_ ("thrust toward the West"). World War I had ended with the Treaty of Versailles , by which most or parts of the Imperial German provinces of Posen , West Prussia , and Upper Silesia were given to reconstituted Poland ; the West Prussian city of Danzig became the Free City of Danzig . The Polish paper Wprost used both "Drang nach Osten" and "Drang nach Westen" in August 2002 to title stories about German RWE company taking over Polish STOEN and Polish migration into eastern Germany, respectively.

"Drang nach Westen" is also the ironic title of a chapter in Eric Joseph Goldberg 's book _Struggle for Empire_, used to point out the "missing" eastward ambitions of Louis the German who instead expanded his kingdom to the West. German colonists near Kamianets-Podilskyi , Poland (Russian Partition) in the end of the 19th century

With the development of romantic nationalism in the 19th century, Polish and Russian intellectuals began referring to the German _ Ostsiedlung _ as _Drang nach Osten_. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary attempted to expand their power eastward; Germany by gaining influence in the declining Ottoman Empire (the Eastern Question ) and Austria-Hungary through the acquisition of territory in the Balkans (such as Bosnia and Herzegovina ).

LEBENSRAUM CONCEPT OF NAZI GERMANY

Main articles: Lebensraum , Generalplan Ost , Germanization , and Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany

Adolf Hitler , dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933–1945, called for a _Drang nach Osten_ to acquire territory for German colonists at the expense of central and eastern European nations (_ Lebensraum _). The term by then had gained enough currency to appear in foreign newspapers without explanation. His eastern campaigns during World War II were initially successful with the conquests of Poland, the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine and much of European Russia by the Wehrmacht ; Generalplan Ost was designed to eliminate the native Slavic peoples from these lands and replace them with Germans. The Wehrbauer , or soldier-peasants, would settle in a fortified line to prevent civilization arising beyond and threatening Germany.

This was greatly hindered by the lack of German people who actually desired to settle in the east, let alone act as Teutonic Knights there. Settlements actually established during the war did not receive colonists from the Altreich , but in the main part East European Germans resettled from Soviet "spheres of interest" according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact , and such Poles as deemed Germanizable by Nazis. However, the Soviet Union began to reverse the German conquests by 1943, and Nazi Germany was defeated by the Allies in 1945.

EXPULSION OF GERMANS FROM THE EAST AFTER WORLD WAR II

Main articles: Former eastern territories of Germany and Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

Most of the demographic and cultural outcome of the _ Ostsiedlung _ was terminated after World War II . The expulsion of Germans after World War II east of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945-48 on the basis of decisions of the Potsdam Conference were later justified by their beneficiaries as a rollback of the _Drang nach Osten_. "Historical Eastern Germany ", which historically was the land of the Baltic people called Old Prussians who had been colonised and assimilated by German Drang Nach Osten, was split between Poland , Russia , and Lithuania (a Baltic country) and repopulated with settlers of the respective ethnicities. The Oder-Neisse line has been gradually accepted to be the eastern German boundary by all post-war German states (East and West Germany as well as reunited Germany ), dropping all plans of (re-)expansion into or (re-)settlement of territories beyond this line. The Old Prussians were conquered by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century, and gradually assimilated over the following centuries; the Old Prussian language was extinct by the 17th or early 18th century. Henry Cord Meyer , in his book "Drang nach Osten: Fortunes of a Slogan-Concept in German-Slavic Relations, 1849-1990" claims that the slogan "Drang nach Osten" originated in the Slavic world, and it also was more widely used than in Germany.

SEE ALSO

* Lebensraum * Ostsiedlung * Ostforschung * Generalplan Ost * Expulsion of Germans after World War II * Expulsion of Poles by Germany * Kulturkampf * Germanization * Wehrbauer * Manifest destiny * Westernization

REFERENCES

Inline

* ^ Pim den Boer, Peter Bugge, Ole Wæver, Kevin Wilson, W. J. van der Dussen, Ole Waever, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, _The history of the idea of Europe_, 1995, p. 93, ISBN 0-415-12415-8 , ISBN 978-0-415-12415-7 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Ulrich Best, _Transgression as a Rule: German-Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement_, 2008, p. 58, ISBN 3-8258-0654-5 , ISBN 978-3-8258-0654-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, _Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945_, 1996, p. 118, ISBN 0-313-26007-9 , ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, _Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements_, 2003, p. 579, ISBN 0-415-93921-6 , ISBN 978-0-415-93921-8 * ^ Marcin Zaborowski, _Germany, Poland and Europe_, p. 32 * ^ W. Wippermann, Der "deutsche Drang nach Osten": Ideologie und Wirklichkeit eines politischen Schlagwortes, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1981, p. 87 * ^ Drang nach Osten on Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Ingo Haar , _Historiker im Nationalsozialismus_, p. 17 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bascom Barry Hayes, _Bismarck and Mitteleuropa, 1994, p.17, ISBN 0838635121 , 9780838635124_ * ^ _Hitler, a chronology of his life and time_. Milan Hauner, Macmillan, 1983, p. 197 * ^ _A_ _B_ Andreas Lawaty, Hubert Orłowski, _Deutsche und Polen: Geschichte, Kultur, Politik_, 2003, p. 34, ISBN 3-406-49436-6 , ISBN 978-3-406-49436-9 * ^ Wippermann, 1981, p. 87 * ^ Paul Reuber, Anke Strüver, Günter Wolkersdorfer, _Politische Geographien Europas - Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt: Annäherungen an ein umstrittenes Konstrukt_, 2005, ISBN 3-8258-6523-1 , ISBN 978-3-8258-6523-8 * ^ Eric Joseph Goldberg, _Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict Under Louis the German, 817-876_, pp. 233ff, 2006, ISBN 0-8014-3890-X , 9780801438905 * ^ Carlson, p. 233. * ^ "HITLER\'S PLANS FOR EASTERN EUROPE" * ^ Robert Cecil, _The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology_ p. 190 ISBN 0-396-06577-5 * ^ Robert Cecil, _The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology_ p. 191 ISBN 0-396-06577-5 * ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , _Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web_ pp. 206–9, ISBN 0-679-77663-X * ^ Richard Overy , _The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia_, p. 543 ISBN 0-393-02030-4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Hnet Review of Henry Cord Meyer. _Drang nach Osten: Fortunes of a Slogan-Concept in German-Slavic Relations, 1849–1990_. Bern: Peter Lang, 1996. 142 pp. Notes and index. $29.95 (paper), ISBN 978-3-906755-93-9 . Reviewed by Douglas Selvage , Yale University.

General

* Carlson, Harold G.; John Richie Schultz (October 1937). "Loan-Words from German". _American Speech_. American Speech, Vol. 12, No. 3. 12 (3): 232–234. JSTOR 452436 . doi :10.2307/452436 .

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