DRACULA is an 1897
Gothic horror novel by Irish author
Bram Stoker .
Count Dracula , and established many conventions of
subsequent vampire fantasy. The novel tells the story of Dracula's
attempt to move from
Transylvania to England so that he may find new
blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula
and a small group of men and women led by Professor Abraham Van
Dracula has been assigned to many literary genres including vampire
literature , horror fiction , the gothic novel , and invasion
literature . The novel has spawned numerous theatrical, film, and
* 1 Plot summary
* 1.1 "Dracula\'s Guest"
* 1.2 Deleted ending
* 2 Characters
* 3 Background
* 4 Publication
* 5 Reaction and scholarly criticism
* 5.1 Scholarly criticism
* 6 Historical and geographical references
* 7 Adaptations
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes and references
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
Stoker's handwritten notes on the characters in the novel
The story is told in epistolary format, as a series of letters, diary
entries, newspaper articles, and ships' log entries, whose narrators
are the novel's protagonists, and occasionally supplemented with
newspaper clippings relating events not directly witnessed. The events
portrayed in the novel take place chronologically and largely in
Transylvania during the 1890s and all transpire within the
same year between the 3rd of May and the 6th of November. A short note
is located at the end of the final chapter written 7 years after the
events outlined in the novel.
The tale begins with
Jonathan Harker , a newly qualified English
solicitor , visiting
Count Dracula in the
Carpathian Mountains on the
Bukovina , and
Moldavia , to provide legal
support for a real estate transaction overseen by Harker's employer,
Mr Peter Hawkins of Exeter. At first enticed by Dracula's gracious
manners, Harker soon realizes that he is Dracula's prisoner. Wandering
the Count's castle against Dracula's admonition, Harker encounters
three female vampires, called "the sisters ", from whom he is rescued
by Dracula. After the preparations are made,
Transylvania and abandons Harker to the sisters. Harker barely escapes
from the castle with his life.
Dracula boards a Russian ship, the Demeter, taking along with him
boxes of Transylvanian soil, which he required in order to regain his
strength. Not long afterward, the ship having weighed anchor at Varna
, runs aground on the shores of
Whitby in the east coast of England.
The captain's log narrates the gradual disappearance of the entire
crew, until the captain alone remained, himself bound to the helm to
maintain course. An animal resembling "a large dog" is seen leaping
ashore. The ship's cargo is described as silver sand and 50 boxes of
"mould", or earth, from Transylvania. It is later learned that Dracula
successfully purchased multiple estates under the alias 'Count De
Ville' throughout London and devised to distribute the 50 boxes to
each of them utilizing transportation services as well as moving them
himself. He does this to secure for himself "lairs" and the 50 boxes
of earth would be used as his graves which would grant safety and rest
during times of feeding and replenishing his strength.
Dracula is indirectly shown to be stalking
Lucy Westenra , who
is holidaying in Whitby. As time passes she begins to suffer from
episodes of sleepwalking and dementia, as witnessed by her friend Mina
Murray , the fiancée of Jonathan Harker. Lucy receives three marriage
proposals from Dr.
John Seward ,
Quincey Morris , and Arthur Holmwood
(the son of Lord Godalming who later obtains the title himself ). Lucy
accepts Holmwood's proposal while turning down Seward and Morris, but
all remain friends.
Dracula communicates with Seward's patient,
Renfield , an insane man who wishes to consume insects, spiders,
birds, and rats to absorb their "life force".
Renfield is able to
detect Dracula's presence and supplies clues accordingly.
When Lucy begins to waste away suspiciously, Seward invites his old
Abraham Van Helsing , who immediately determines the true
cause of Lucy's condition. He refuses to disclose it but diagnoses her
with acute blood-loss. Helsing prescribes numerous blood transfusions
to which Dr. Seward, Helsing, Quincey and Arthur all contribute over
time. Helsing also prescribes flowers to be placed throughout her room
and weaves a necklace of withered Garlic Blossoms for her to wear.
However she continues to waste away - appearing to lose blood every
night. While both doctors are absent, Lucy and her mother are attacked
by a wolf and Mrs. Westenra, who has a heart condition, dies of
Van Helsing attempts to protect her with garlic but fate
thwarts him each night, whether Lucy's mother removes the garlic from
her room, or Lucy herself does so in her restless sleep. The doctors
have found two small puncture marks about her neck, which Dr. Seward
is at a loss to understand. After Lucy dies, Helsing places a golden
crucifix over her mouth, ostensibly to delay or prevent Lucy's
vampiric conversion. Fate conspires against him again when Helsing
finds the crucifix in the possession of one of the servants who stole
it off Lucy's corpse.
Following Lucy's death and burial, the newspapers report children
being stalked in the night by a "bloofer lady" (i.e., "beautiful
lady"). Van Helsing, knowing Lucy has become a vampire, confides in
Seward, Lord Godalming, and Morris. The suitors and
Van Helsing track
her down and, after a confrontation with her, stake her heart, behead
her, and fill her mouth with garlic. Around the same time, Jonathan
Harker arrives from
Budapest , where Mina marries him after his
escape, and he and Mina join the campaign against Dracula.
The vampire hunters stay at Dr. Seward's residence, holding nightly
meetings and providing reports based on each of their various tasks.
Mina discovers that each of their journals and letters collectively
contain clues to which they can track him down. She tasks herself with
collecting them, researching newspaper clippings, fitting the most
relevant entries into chronological order and typing out copies to
distribute to each of the party which they are to study. Jonathan
Harker tracks down the shipments of boxed graves and the estates which
Dracula has purchased in order to store them.
Van Helsing conducts
research along with Dr. Seward to analyze the behaviour of their
Renfield who they learn is directly influenced by Dracula.
They also research historical events, folklore, and superstitions from
various cultures to understand Dracula's powers and weaknesses. Van
Helsing also establishes a criminal profile on
Dracula in order to
better understand his actions and predict his movements. Arthur
Holmwood's fortune assists in funding the entire operation and
expenses. As they discover the various properties
purchased, the male protagonists team up to raid each property and are
several times confronted by Dracula. As they discover each of the
boxed graves scattered throughout London, they pry them open to place
and seal wafers of sacramental bread within. This act renders the
boxes of earth completely useless to
Dracula as he is unable to open,
enter or further transport them.
Dracula learns of the group's plot against him, he attacks Mina
on three occasions, and feeds Mina his own blood to control her. This
curses Mina with vampirism and changes her but does not completely
turn her into a vampire.
Van Helsing attempts to bless Mina through
prayer and by placing a wafer of sacrament against her forehead, but
it burns her upon contact leaving a wretched scar. Under this curse,
Mina oscillates from consciousness to a semi-trance during which she
perceives Dracula's surroundings and actions.
Van Helsing is able to
use hypnotism at the hour of dawn and put her into this trance to
further track his movements. Mina, afraid of Dracula's link with her,
urges the team not to tell her their plans out of fear that Dracula
will be listening. After the protagonists discover and sterilize 49
boxes found throughout his lairs in London, they learn that Dracula
has fled with the missing 50th box back to his castle in Transylvania.
They pursue him under the guidance of Mina. They split up into teams
once they reach Europe;
Van Helsing and Mina team up to locate the
Dracula while the others attempt to ambush the boat Dracula
is using to reach his home.
Van Helsing raids the castle and destroys
the vampire "sisters". Upon discovering
Dracula being transported by
Gypsies , the trio attack the caravan carrying
Dracula in the 50th box
of Earth. After dispatching many Gypsies who were sworn to protect the
Count, Harker shears
Dracula through the throat with a kukri , while
the mortally wounded Quincey stabs the Count in the heart with a Bowie
Dracula crumbles to dust, and Mina is freed from her curse of
vampirism, as the scar on her forehead disappears. Soon after, Quincey
dies from his wounds.
The book closes with a note left by
Jonathan Harker seven years after
the events of the novel, detailing his married life with Mina and the
birth of their son, whom they name after all four members of the
party, but address as "Quincey". Quincey is depicted sitting on the
Van Helsing as they recount their adventure.
Main article: Dracula\'s Guest Cover of Dracula\'s Guest and
Other Weird Stories , a collection of short stories authored by Bram
The short story "Dracula's Guest" was posthumously published in 1914,
two years after Stoker's death. It was, according to most contemporary
critics, the deleted first (or second) chapter from the original
manuscript and the one which gave the volume its name, :325 but which
the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story.
"Dracula's Guest" follows an unnamed Englishman traveller as he
Munich before leaving for Transylvania. It is Walpurgis
Night and the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel, in spite of
the coachman's warnings, and wanders through a dense forest alone.
Along the way, he feels that he is being watched by a tall and thin
stranger (possibly Count Dracula).
The short story climaxes in an old graveyard, where the Englishman,
caught in a blizzard takes refuge in the marble tomb of "Countess
Dolingen of Gratz". Within the tomb he sees the Countess - apparently
asleep and healthy - but before he can investigate further, a
mysterious force throws him clear of the tomb. A lightning bolt then
strikes the tomb, destroying it and incinerating the undead screaming
countess. The Englishman then loses consciousness. He awakens to find
a "gigantic" wolf lying on his chest and licking at his throat;
however, the wolf merely keeps him warm and protects him until help
When the Englishman is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram
awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about
"dangers from snow and wolves and night".
A small section was removed from a draft of the final chapter, in
which Dracula's castle falls apart as he dies, hiding the fact that
vampires were ever there.
As we looked there came a terrible convulsion of the earth so that we
seemed to rock to and fro and fell to our knees. At the same moment
with a roar which seemed to shake the very heavens the whole castle
and the rock and even the hill on which it stood seemed to rise into
the air and scatter in fragments while a mighty cloud of black and
yellow smoke volume on volume in rolling grandeur was shot upwards
with inconceivable rapidity.
Then there was a stillness in nature as the echoes of that thunderous
report seemed to come as with the hollow boom of a thunder-clap - the
long reverberating roll which seems as though the floors of heaven
shook. Then down in a mighty ruin falling whence they rose came the
fragments that had been tossed skywards in the cataclysm. From where
we stood it seemed as though the one fierce volcano burst had
satisfied the need of nature and that the castle and the structure of
the hill had sunk again into the void. We were so appalled with the
suddenness and the grandeur that we forgot to think of ourselves.
— Deleted excerpt from the original
Jonathan Harker : A solicitor sent to do business with Count
Dracula; Mina's fiancé and prisoner in Dracula's castle.
Count Dracula : A Transylvanian noble who has purchased a house in
* Wilhelmina "Mina" Harker (née Murray): A schoolteacher and
Jonathan Harker's fiancée (later his wife).
Lucy Westenra : A 19-year-old aristocrat; Mina's best friend;
Arthur's fiancée and Dracula's first victim.
Arthur Holmwood : Lucy's suitor and later fiancé. He inherits the
title of Lord Godalming upon his father's death.
John Seward : A doctor; one of Lucy's suitors and a former student
of Van Helsing.
Abraham Van Helsing : A Dutch doctor, lawyer and professor; John
Quincey Morris : An American cowboy and explorer; and one of
Renfield : A patient at Seward's insane asylum who has come under
the influence of Dracula.
* "Weird Sisters": Three siren-like vampire women who serve Dracula.
In some of the later adaptations to stage and screen, they are
referred to as the
Brides of Dracula .
Between 1879 and 1898, Stoker was a business manager for the Lyceum
Theatre in London, where he supplemented his income by writing a large
number of sensational novels, his most successful being the vampire
Dracula published on 26 May 1897. :269 Parts of it are set around
the town of
Whitby , where he spent summer holidays.
Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, authors such as H. Rider Haggard ,
Rudyard Kipling ,
Robert Louis Stevenson ,
Arthur Conan Doyle , and H.
G. Wells wrote many tales in which fantastic creatures threatened the
Invasion literature was at a peak, and Stoker's
formula was very familiar by 1897 to readers of fantastic adventure
stories, of an invasion of England by continental European influences.
Victorian readers enjoyed
Dracula as a good adventure story like many
others, but it did not reach its legendary status until later in the
20th century when film versions began to appear. Shakespearean
actor and friend of Stoker's Sir
Henry Irving was a possible real-life
inspiration for the character of Dracula. The role was tailor-made to
his dramatic presence, gentlemanly mannerisms, and affinity for
playing villain roles. Irving, however, never agreed to play the part
Before writing Dracula, Stoker spent seven years researching European
folklore and stories of vampires, being most influenced by Emily
Gerard 's 1885 essay "
Transylvania Superstitions" which includes
content about a vampire myth. Some historians are convinced that a
historic figure, Vlad III Dracula, often called
Vlad the Impaler , was
the model for Stoker's Count although there is no supporting evidence.
Stoker borrowed only "scraps of miscellaneous information", according
to one expert, about this bloodthirsty tyrant of
Wallachia and there
are no comments about him in Stoker's working notes.
Elizabeth Miller has remarked that aside from the name and some
mention of Romanian history, the background of Stoker's Count bears no
resemblance to that of Vlad III Dracula.
Later he also claimed that he had a nightmare, caused by eating too
much crab meat, about a "vampire king" rising from his grave.
Although a widely known vampire novel,
Dracula was not the first. It
was preceded and partly inspired by
Sheridan Le Fanu 's 1871 Carmilla
, about a lesbian vampire who preys on a lonely young woman, and by
Vampire , a lengthy penny dreadful serial from the
mid-Victorian period by
James Malcolm Rymer .
John Polidori created
the image of a vampire portrayed as an aristocratic man, like the
character of Dracula, in his tale "
The Vampyre " (1819). (He wrote
Vampyre during a summer which he spent with
Frankenstein creator Mary
Shelley , her husband poet
Percy Bysshe Shelley , and
Lord Byron in
The Lyceum Theatre where Stoker worked between 1878 and 1898 was
headed by actor-manager
Henry Irving , who was Stoker's real-life
inspiration for Dracula's mannerisms and who Stoker hoped would play
Dracula in a stage version. Irving never did agree to do a stage
version, but Dracula's dramatic sweeping gestures and gentlemanly
mannerisms drew their living embodiment from Irving.
The Dead Un-Dead was one of Stoker's original titles for Dracula, and
the manuscript was entitled simply The Un-Dead up until a few weeks
before publication. Stoker's notes for
Dracula show that the name of
the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but Stoker became intrigued
by the name "Dracula" while doing research, after reading William
Wilkinson 's book An Account of the Principalities of
Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them (London 1820),
which he found in the
Whitby Library and consulted a number of times
during visits to
Whitby in the 1890s. The name
Dracula was the
patronym (Drăculea) of the descendants of Vlad II of
Wallachia , who
took the name "Dracul" after being invested in the Order of the Dragon
in 1431. In the Old Romanian language, the word dracul (Romanian drac
"dragon" + -ul "the") meant "the dragon" and
Dracula meant "son of the
dragon". In the present day however, dracul means "the devil".
Dracula was published in London in May 1897 by Archibald Constable
and Company. Costing six shillings, the novel was bound yellow cloth
and titled in red letters. It was copyrighted in the United States in
1899 with the publication by Doubleday "> 1899 first American
edition, Doubleday ">
Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation,
touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where
Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention and, after the American
1931 movie version was released, the book has never been out of print.
However, some Victorian fans were ahead of the time, describing it as
"the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of
the paralysed century".
Sherlock Holmes author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
wrote to Stoker in a letter, "I write to tell you how very much I have
enjoyed reading Dracula. I think it is the very best story of
diablerie which I have read for many years." The
Daily Mail review of
1 June 1897 proclaimed it a classic of
Gothic horror , "In seeking a
parallel to this weird, powerful, and horrorful story our mind reverts
to such tales as
The Mysteries of Udolpho ,
Frankenstein , The Fall of
the House of Usher ... but
Dracula is even more appalling in its
gloomy fascination than any one of these."
Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the
U.S. in 1899. The first American edition was published by Doubleday ">
In the last several decades, literary and cultural scholars have
offered diverse analyses of Stoker's novel and the character of Count
Dracula. C.F. Bentley reads
Dracula as an embodiment of the Freudian
id . Carol A. Senf reads the novel as a response to the powerful New
Woman, while Christopher Craft sees
Dracula as embodying latent
homosexuality and sees the text as an example of a 'characteristic, if
hyperbolic instance of Victorian anxiety over the potential fluidity
of gender roles'. Stephen D. Arata interprets the events of the novel
as anxiety over colonialism and racial mixing , and Talia Schaffer
construes the novel as an indictment of
Oscar Wilde . Franco Moretti
Dracula as a figure of monopoly capitalism , though Hollis
Robbins suggests that Dracula's inability to participate in social
conventions and to forge business partnerships undermines his power.
Richard Noll reads
Dracula within the context of 19th century alienism
(psychiatry ) and asylum medicine. D. Bruno Starrs understands the
novel to be a pro-
Catholic pamphlet promoting proselytization .
HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
Dracula is a work of fiction, but it does contain some historical
references—though it is a matter of conjecture and debate as to how
much historical connection was deliberate on Stoker's part.
Attention was drawn to the supposed connections between the
historical Transylvanian -born Vlad III
Dracula (also known as Vlad
Wallachia and Bram Stoker's fictional Dracula, following the
publication of In Search of
Radu Florescu and Raymond
McNally in 1972.
During his main reign (1456–1462), "Vlad the Impaler" is said to
have killed from 40,000 to 100,000 European civilians (political
rivals, criminals, and anyone that he considered "useless to
humanity"), mainly by impaling. The sources depicting these events are
records by Saxon settlers in neighbouring
Transylvania who had
frequent clashes with Vlad III. Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by
Romanians for driving off the invading
Ottoman Turks , of whom his
impaled victims are said to have included as many as 100,000. There
is no evidence that the Count in the novel was modelled on that
bloodthirsty tyrant of Wallachia. At most, Stoker borrowed only the
Dracula and "scraps of miscellaneous information" about Romanian
history, according to one expert, Elizabeth Miller ; as well, and
there are no comments about him in the author's working notes.
Vlad the Impaler .
Historically, the name "Dracula" is derived from a Chivalric order
Order of the Dragon
Order of the Dragon , founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg
(then king of
Hungary ) to uphold
Christianity and defend the Empire
Ottoman Turks .
Vlad II Dracul , father of Vlad III, was
admitted to the order around 1431, after which Vlad II wore the emblem
of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the
dragon symbol, from which the name "Dracula" is derived since "dracul"
in Romanian means "the dragon". People of
Wallachia only knew voievod
(king) Vlad III as Vlad Țepeș (the Impaler). The name "Dracula"
became popular in Romania after publication of Stoker's book. Contrary
to popular belief, the name
Dracula does not translate to "son of the
devil" in Romanian , which would be "pui de drac".
Stoker came across the name
Dracula in his reading on Romanian
history , and chose this to replace the name (Count Wampyr) originally
intended for his villain. Some
Dracula scholars led by Elizabeth
Miller argue that Stoker knew little of the historic Vlad III except
for the name "Dracula" in addition to a few bits of Romanian history.
Stoker mentions that his
Dracula fought against the Turks and was
later betrayed by his brother, historical facts in the novel which
point to Vlad III:
Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube
and beat the Turk on his own ground? This was a
Dracula indeed! Woe
was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his
people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them! Was it
not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a
later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into
Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again,
though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops
were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately
triumph! (Chapter 3, pp. 19)
The Count's identity is later speculated on by Professor Van Helsing:
He must, indeed, have been that Voivode
Dracula who won his name
against the Turk, over the great river on the very frontier of
Turkey-land. (Chapter 18, p. 145)
Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong
similarities to the earlier Irish writer
Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic
of the vampire genre
Carmilla . In writing Dracula, Stoker may also
have drawn on stories about the sídhe , some of which feature
blood-drinking women. The folkloric figure of
Abhartach has also been
suggested as a source.
In 1983, McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by
the history of Hungarian Countess
Elizabeth Bathory , who tortured and
killed between 36 and 700 young women. It was later commonly believed
that she committed these crimes to bathe in their blood, believing
that this preserved her youth.
In her book The Essential Dracula, Clare Haword-Maden suggested that
the castle of
Count Dracula was inspired by Slains Castle , at which
Bram Stoker was a guest of the 19th
Earl of Erroll . According to
Miller, he first visited Cruden Bay in 1893, three years after work
had begun on Dracula. Haining and Tremaine maintain that, during this
visit, Stoker was especially impressed by Slains Castle's interior and
the surrounding landscape. Miller and Leatherdale question the
stringency of this connection.
Possibly, Stoker was not inspired by a real edifice at all, but by
Jules Verne 's novel
The Carpathian Castle
The Carpathian Castle (1892) or
Anne Radcliffe 's
The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794). A third possibility is that he
copied information about a castle at Vécs from one of his sources on
Transylvania, the book by Major E.C. Johnson. A further option is
that Stoker saw an illustration of Castle Bran (Törzburg) in the book
Charles Boner , or read about it in the books by
Mazuchelli or Crosse.
Many of the scenes in
Whitby and London are based on real places that
Stoker frequently visited, although he distorts the geography for the
sake of the story in some cases. One scholar has suggested that Stoker
Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England
because of the Synod of
Whitby , given the novel's preoccupation with
timekeeping and calendar disputes.
Daniel Farson, Leonard Wolf, and Peter Haining have suggested that
Stoker received much historical information from
Ármin Vámbéry , a
Hungarian professor whom he met at least twice. Miller argues, "there
is nothing to indicate that the conversation included Vlad, vampires,
or even Transylvania", and "furthermore, there is no record of any
other correspondence between Stoker and Vámbéry, nor is Vámbéry
mentioned in Stoker's notes for Dracula."
For more details on this topic, see
Dracula in popular culture .
Bela Lugosi as
Count Dracula in the 1931 film .
The story of
Dracula has been the basis for numerous films and plays.
Stoker himself wrote the first theatrical adaptation, which was
presented at the Lyceum Theatre on 18 May 1897 under the title
Dracula, or The Undead shortly before the novel's publication and
performed only once, in order to establish his own copyright for such
adaptations. This adaption was first published only a century later in
Oct 1997. The first motion picture to feature
Dracula was Dracula\'s
Death , produced in
Hungary in 1921. The now-lost film, however, was
not an adaptation of Stoker's novel, but featured an original story.
F. W. Murnau 's unauthorised film adaptation
Nosferatu was released
in 1922, and the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing
to an attempt by Stoker's widow, who tried to have the film removed
from public circulation. Prana Film, the production company, had been
unable to obtain permission to adapt the story from Bram's widow
Florence Stoker , so screenwriter
Henrik Galeen was told to alter
numerous details to avoid legal trouble. Galeen transplanted the
action of the story from 1890s England to 1830s Germany and reworked
several characters, dropping some (such as Lucy and all three of her
suitors), and renaming others (
Dracula became Orlok , Jonathan Harker
became Thomas Hutter, Mina became Ellen, and so on). This attempt
failed to avoid a court case, however; Florence Stoker sued Prana
Film, and all copies of the film were ordered to be destroyed.
However, the company was bankrupt, and Stoker only recovered her legal
fees in damages. Some copies survived and found their way into
theatres. Eventually, Florence Stoker gave up the fight against public
displays of the film. Subsequent rereleases of the film have
typically undone some of the changes, such as restoring the original
character names (a practice also followed by
Werner Herzog in his 1979
remake of Murnau's film
Nosferatu the Vampyre ).
Florence Stoker licensed the story to playwright
Hamilton Deane ,
whose 1924 stage play adaptation toured England for several years
before settling down in London. In 1927, American stage producer
Horace Liveright hired
John L. Balderston to revise Deane's script in
advance of its American premiere. Balderston significantly compressed
the story, most notably consolidating or removing several characters.
The Deane play and its Balderston revisions introduced an expanded
role and history for Renfield, who now replaced
Jonathan Harker as
Dracula's solicitor in the first part of the story; combined Mina
Lucy Westenra into a single character (named Lucy); and
Arthur Holmwood and
Quincey Morris entirely. When the
play premiered in New York, it was with
Bela Lugosi in the title role,
Edward van Sloan as
Abraham Van Helsing , roles which both
actors (as well as
Herbert Bunston as Dr. Seward ) reprised for the
English-language version of the 1931
Universal Studios film production
. The 1931 film was one of the most commercially successful
adaptations of the story to date; it and the Deane/Balderston play
that preceded it set the standard for film and television adaptations
of the story, with the alterations to the novel becoming standard for
later adaptations for decades to come.
Universal Studios continued to
feature the character of
Dracula in many of their horror films from
the 1930s and 1940s.
Christopher Lee as the title character in
In 1958, British film company
Hammer Film Productions followed the
success of its The Curse of
Frankenstein from the previous year with
Dracula , released in the US as The Horror of Dracula, directed by
Terence Fisher . Fisher's production featured
Christopher Lee as
Peter Cushing as Van Helsing, but it diverged considerably
from both the original novel and from the Deane/Balderston adaptation.
It was an international hit for Hammer Film, however, and both Lee and
Cushing reprised their roles multiple times over the next decade and a
half, concluding with
The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires (with
Cushing but not Lee) in 1974.
Christopher Lee also took on the role of
Count Dracula , a 1970 Spanish-Italian-German coproduction
notable for its adherence to the plot of the original novel. (For
instance, it was the first film version of the story to include the
character of Quincey Morris.) Playing the part of
Renfield in that
Klaus Kinski , who later played
Dracula himself in 1979's
Nosferatu the Vampyre.
In 1977, the
Count Dracula , a 155-minute adaptation for
Louis Jourdan . Later film adaptations include
John Badham 's 1979
Dracula , starring
Frank Langella and inspired by
the 1977 Broadway revival of the Deane/Hamilton play, and Francis Ford
Coppola 's 1992 Bram Stoker\'s
Dracula , starring
Gary Oldman . The
Count Dracula has remained popular over the years, and
many films have used the character as a villain, while others have
named him in their titles, including Dracula\'s Daughter and The
Brides of Dracula . As of 2009, an estimated 217 films feature Dracula
in a major role, a number second only to
Sherlock Holmes (223 films).
A large number of these appearances are not adaptations of Stoker's
novel, but merely feature the character in an unrelated story.
* Church of Saint Mary,
List of contemporary epistolary novels
Bloodline (Cary novel)
* The Book of Renfield#The Book of Renfield: A Gospel of
diary written by Renfield
Dracula sequence Stories from Dracula's point of view
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ First published as a hardcover in 1897 by Archibald Constable
and Co. http://www.bramstoker.org/novels.html Bibliography of Stoker's
Bram Stoker Online
* ^ Stoker, Bram.
Dracula (PDF). Chapter 6, Mina Murray's Journal,
26 July. p. 105. Mr. Holmwood, he is the Hon. Arthur Holmwood, only
son of Lord Godalming
* ^ Leonard
Wolf (2004). The Essential Dracula, Chapter 13, Note
31. "Bloofer lady" is explained as baby-talk for "beautiful lady".
* ^ James Craig Holte (1997).
Dracula Film Adaptations. p. 27. ISBN
9780313292156 . Retrieved 4 June 2010.
* ^ A B Barbara Belford (2002).
Bram Stoker and the Man Who Was
Dracula. ISBN 0-306-81098-0 . Retrieved 4 June 2010.
* ^ Symon, Evan V. (14 January 2013). "10 Deleted Chapters that
Transformed Famous Books". listverse.com.
* ^ Miller, Elizabeth. "Original (deleted) ending of Bram Stoker\'s
Dracula". dracula.cc. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
Nina Auerbach and
David Skal , editors. Dracula. Norton
Critical Edition. 1997. ISBN 0-393-97012-4 . Preface, first paragraph.
* ^ Davison 1997 , p. 142.
* ^ A B
* ^ A B C
* ^ http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Bram_Stoker
* ^ http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/romania/miller.html
* ^ A B C
* ^ Davison 1997 , p. 24.
* ^ A B Lewis S Warren, Buffalo Bill Meets Dracula: William F.
Cody, Bram Stoker, and the Frontiers of Racial Decay Archived 6 May
2013 at the
Wayback Machine .,
American Historical Review , Vol. 107,
No. 4, October 2002, paragraph 18
* ^ An account of the principalities of
William Wilkinson, Longman, 1820 (Google Free eBook)
Radu R. Florescu and
Raymond T. McNally Dracula, Prince of Many
Faces. Little Brown. 1989. ISBN 0316286567 . pp. 229–31.
Raymond T. McNally and
Radu R. Florescu In Search of Dracula,
The History of
Dracula and Vampires (Completely Revised). Houghton
Mifflin. 1994. ISBN 0-395-65783-0 . pp. 8-9.
* ^ Davison 1997 , p. 19.
* ^ Wood, Margaret. "Copyright and Dracula". Library of Congress.
Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
* ^ A B Dacre Stoker; Ian Holt (13 October 2009).
Un-Dead. Penguin Publishing Group. pp. 312–313. ISBN
* ^ Lugosi v. Universal Pictures, 70 Cal.App.3d 552 (1977), note 4.
* ^ Cited in Paul Murray's "From the Shadow of Dracula: A Life of
Bram Stoker" 2004. pp. 363-4.
Nina Auerbach and David Skal, editors. Dracula. Norton Critical
Edition. 1997. ISBN 0-393-97012-4 . Preface, first paragraph.
* ^ Jøn, A. Asbjørn (2003). "
Vampire Evolution". mETAphor (3):
19–23. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
* ^ Jøn, A. Asbjørn (2001). "From Nosteratu to Von Carstein:
shifts in the portrayal of vampires". Australian Folklore: A Yearly
Journal of Folklore Studies. University of New England (16): 97–106.
Retrieved 26 November 2015.
* ^ "
Bram Stoker - Stoker, Irving & Count Vlad". Today in
Literature. 20 April 1912. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
* ^ "Bram Stoker\'s "Dracula" by Gothic Candlelight".
Irishphiladelphia.com. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
* ^ Stoker, Bram. "Cult Vampires - Extract from
Dracula by Bram
Stoker". BBC. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
* ^ Richard Dalby "Bram Stoker", in Jack Sullivan (ed) The Penguin
Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural, 1986, Viking, pp. 404-6,
* ^ Klinger, page xxxii
* ^ Cited in
Nina Auerbach and David Skal, editors, Dracula, Norton
Critical Edition, 1997, pp. 363-4.
* ^ C.F. Bentley's. The Monster in the Bedroom: Sexual Symbolism in
Bram Stoker's Dracula
* ^ Senf, Carol A. The
Vampire in Nineteenth-Century English
Literature. Bowling Green: Popular Press,
* ^ Christopher Craft (1984). "Kiss Me with Those Red Lips": Gender
and Inversion in Bram Stoker's Dracula
* ^ Arata, Stephen D. The Occidental Tourist:
Dracula and the
Anxiety of Reverse Colonization, Victorian Studies 33.4 (1990).
* ^ Schaffer, Talia (1994). A Wilde Desire Took Me: the Homoerotic
History of Dracula
* ^ Franco Moretti, "The Dialectic of Fear," New Left Review 136
* ^ A B "Killing Time:
Dracula and Social Discoordination" in
Economics of the Undead Eds. Glen Whitman and James Dow (Rowman &
Littlefield, 2014), chapter 23
* ^ Bram Stoker's Notes for Dracula: A Facsimile Edition by Robert
Eighteen-Bisang & Elizabeth Miller (McFarland, 2008)
* ^ Noll, Richard. "Vampires Werewolves and Demons: Twentieth
Century Case Reports in the Psychiatric Literature (1991) Richard
Noll". Academia.edu. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
* ^ Starrs, D. Bruno. "Keeping the faith: Catholicism in Dracula
and its adaptations," Journal of
Dracula Studies 6 (2004).
* ^ Andreescu, Stefan (1999).
Vlad the Impaler (Dracula). The
Romanian Cultural Foundation Publishing House. ISBN 973-577-197-7 .
* ^ Curran, Bob (Summer 2000). "Was
Dracula an Irishman?". History
Ireland. 8 (2).
* ^ McNally, Raymund.
Dracula was a Woman. New York: McGraw-Hill,
* ^ Dennis Bathory-Kitsz. "Báthory Erzsébet - Elizabeth Bathory:
Bram Stoker, Elizabeth Bathory, and
Dracula (Elizabeth Miller)".
Bathory.org. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
* ^ Haword-Maden, Clare. The Essential Dracula. London: Bison
* ^ Haining, Peter and Tremayne, Peter. The Un-Dead: The Legend of
Bram Stoker and Dracila. London: Constable 1997, quoted by Miller,
Dracula - Sense & Nonsense, 2nd ed. Westcliff-on-Sea, UK:
Desert Island Books, 2006, p. 19. See also Leatherdale, Clive. Dracula
Unearthed. Westcliff-on-Sea, UK: Desert Island Books, 1998, p. 13
* ^ Elizabeth Miller, Dracula: Sense also referred to by Miller,
2006, p. 141
Charles Boner , Transylvania: Its Products and Its People.
London: Longmans, 1865. Referred to by Marius Crișan, The Models for
Dracula in Stoker's Sources on Transylvania, Journal of Dracula
Studies Nr 10 (2008). As indicated by Crişan, Crosse's book . Round
About the Carpathians and Mazuchelli's Magyarland describe Törzburg
* ^ Elizabeth Miller, Filing for Divorce
Count Dracula vs Vlad
Tepes Dracula: The Shade and the Shadow, ed. Elizabeth Miller
(Westcliff-on-Sea: Desert Island Books, 1998; cf. Miller, Elizabeth.
Dracula - Sense & Nonsense, 2nd ed. Westcliff-on-Sea, UK: Desert
Island Books, 2006, p. 25-27)
* ^ Stoker, Bram, (1997). Dracula: or The Undead – A Play in
Prologue and Five Acts, Ed. Sylvia Starshine, Pumpkin Books,
Nottingham. ISBN 1901914046
* ^ Stoker, Bram. "—Article at the
BBC Cult website". BBC.
Retrieved 17 May 2014.
Count Dracula on
Sherlock Holmes on
* Davison, Carol Margaret (1997). Bram Stoker's Dracula: Sucking
Through the Century, 1897-1997. Toronto, Ontario: Dundurn. ISBN
* Dalby, Richard and Hughes, William. Bram Stoker: A Bibliography
(Westcliff-on-Sea: Desert Island Books, 2005)
* Frayling, Christopher . Vampyres:
Lord Byron to Count Dracula
(1992) ISBN 0-571-16792-6
* Eighteen-Bisang, Robert and Miller, Elizabeth. Bram Stoker's Notes
for Dracula: A Facsimile Edition Toronto: McFarland, 2008, ISBN
* Hughes, William. Beyond Dracula: Bram Stoker's Fiction and its
Cultural Contexts (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000)
* McNally, Raymond T. & Florescu, Radu. In Search of Dracula.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994. ISBN 0-395-65783-0
* Miller, Elizabeth. Dracula: Sense & Nonsense. 2nd ed. Desert
Island Books, 2006. ISBN 1-905328-15-X
* Schaffer, Talia. A Wilde Desire Took Me: the Homoerotic History of
Dracula, in: ELH - Volume 61, Number 2 (1994), pp. 381–425.
* Senf, Carol. Science and Social Science in Bram Stoker's Fiction
* Senf, Carol. Dracula: Between Tradition and Modernism (Twayne,
* Spencer, Kathleen. Purity and Danger: Dracula, the Urban Gothic,
and the Late Victorian Degeneracy Crisis, in: ELH - Volume 59, Number
1 (1992), pp. 197–225.
* Wolf, Leonard . The Essential Dracula. ibooks, inc., 2004. ISBN
* Klinger, Leslie S. The New Annotated Dracula. W.W. Norton
Project Gutenberg , text version of 1897 edition.
Dracula from the CELT Project, HTML version of 1897 edition.
* Dracula, New York: Grosset ;background:none
Bram Stoker 's
Abraham Van Helsing
* Count Alucard
Count von Count
* Hamilton Slade
Vlad the Impaler
Vlad II Dracul
Dracula (1931 English-language)
* Drácula (1931 Spanish-language)
* Dracula\'s Daughter (1936)
* Son of
* House of
House of Dracula
House of Dracula (1945)
* Abbott and Costello Meet
Brides of Dracula (1960)
* Dracula: Prince of Darkness (1966)
Dracula Has Risen from the Grave (1968)
* Taste the Blood of
* Scars of
Dracula A.D. 1972 (1972)
* The Satanic Rites of
The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires (1974)
Dracula 2000 (2000)
Dracula II: Ascension (2003)
Dracula III: Legacy (2005)
Mad Monster Party? (1967)
* Batman Fights
Mad Mad Mad Monsters (1972)
* Blood for
* Vampira (1974)
* Son of
Dracula in the Provinces (1975)
Dracula and Son (1976)
Love at First Bite (1979)
* The Halloween That Almost Wasn\'t (1979)
* Fracchia contro
The Monster Squad (1987)
Scooby-Doo! and the Reluctant Werewolf (1988)
* Dracula: Dead and Loving It (1995)
* Monster Mash (1995)
* Monster Mash (2000)
* Zora the
Transylvania 2 (2015)
* Dracula\'s Death (1921)
* The Return of the
* Drakula İstanbul\'da (1953)
* Blood of
* The Return of
* Billy the Kid Versus
* Blood of Dracula\'s Castle (1969)
Count Dracula (1970)
Los Monstruos del Terror (1970)
Cuadecuc, vampir (1971)
Vampyros Lesbos (1971)
* Bram Stoker\'s
* Count Dracula\'s Great Love (1974)
Count Dracula (1977)
* Dracula\'s Dog (1978)
Nosferatu the Vampyre (1979)
* Nocturna: Granddaughter of
* Dracula\'s Widow (1988)
* To Die For (1989)
* Sundown: The
Vampire in Retreat (1989)
* Bram Stoker\'s
* Nadja (1994)
* Shadow of the
* Dark Prince: The True Story of
* Dracula: Pages from a Virgin\'s
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003)
Van Helsing (2004)
* Van Helsing: The London Assignment (2004)
Dracula 3000 (2004)
* The Vulture\'s Eye (2004)
* Blade: Trinity (2004)
* The Batman vs.
* Bram Stoker\'s Dracula\'s Curse (2006)
* Bram Stoker\'s Dracula\'s Guest (2008)
* The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice (2008)
* House of the
Wolf Man (2009)
Dracula Reborn (2012)
Dracula 3D (2012)
Dracula 3D (2012)
Dracula 2012 (2013)
* Dracula: The
Dark Prince (2013)
Dracula Untold (2014)
Draculas ring (1978)
* Cliffhangers (1979)
Drak Pack (1980)
Count Duckula (1988–1993)
* Dracula: The Series (1990–1991)
Ace Kilroy (2011–2012)
* Penny Dreadful (2014–2016)
Treehouse of Horror IV " (1993)
Treehouse of Horror XXI " (2010)
* "Buffy vs.
Dracula " (2000)
Dracula Tape and sequels (1975–2002)
Dracula series (1992–present)
The Bloody Red Baron
Dracula Cha Cha Cha
* Dracula\'s Guest and Other Weird Stories (1914)
* The Revenge of
Dracula the Undead (1997)
The Historian (2005)
* The Book of
* Bloodline (2005)
Dracula and Young Monsters (2006)
Dracula the Un-dead (2009)
Dracula (Czech musical) (1995)
* Dracula: A Chamber Musical (1997)
Dracula, the Musical
Dracula, the Musical (2004)
Dracula – Entre l\'amour et la mort (2006)
* Dracula: the Musical (2010)
Dracula – L\'amour plus fort que la mort (2011)
* The Tomb of
Dracula (Marvel Comics)
Dracula (Dell Comics)
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
* Sword of
* Batman text-align:left">Video
* The Count (1981)
Ghost Manor (1983)
Dracula the Undead (1991)
Dracula Hakushaku (1992)
* Bram Stoker\'s
* Bram Stoker\'s
Dracula (handheld) (1993)
Dracula Unleashed (1993)
* Dracula: Resurrection (2000)
Dracula 2: The Last Sanctuary (2000)
Van Helsing (2004)
Dracula 3: The Path of the Dragon (2008)
* Dracula: Origin (2008)
Vampire Season Monster Defense (2012)
Dracula 4: The Shadow of the Dragon (2013)
Dracula 5: The Blood Legacy (2013)
* The Incredible Adventures of
Van Helsing (2013)
* Drac\'s Night Out (unreleased)
* Bram Stoker\'s
* Monster Bash (1998)
* The Fury of
* Iubilaeum Anno
* Perfect Selection:
* "Love Song for a