$ 48.158 billion (FY 2016)
$ 3.520 billion (FY 2016)
$ 4.404 billion (FY 2016)
$ 79.511 billion (FY 2016)
$ 27.229 billion (FY 2016)
Dow AgroSciences, LLC.
Union Carbide Corp.
Rohm and Haas
ANGUS Chemical Company
Dow Roofing Systems
THE DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY, commonly referred to as DOW, was an
American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland,
Michigan , United States, and the predecessor of the merged company
DowDuPont . In 2007, it was the second-largest chemical manufacturer
in the world by revenue (after
BASF ) and as of February 2009, the
third-largest chemical company in the world by market capitalization
DuPont ). It ranked second in the world by chemical
production in 2014.
Dow manufactures plastics , chemicals , and agricultural products.
With a presence in about 160 countries, it employs about 54,000 people
worldwide. The company has seven different major operating segments,
with a wide variety of products made by each one. Dow's 2012 sales
totaled approximately $57 billion. Dow has been called the "chemical
companies' chemical company" in that most of its sales are to other
industries rather than end-users. Dow sells directly to end-users
primarily in the human and animal health and consumer products
Dow is a member of the
American Chemistry Council . The company
tagline is "Solutionism".
On September 1, 2017 it merged with
DuPont to create
DowDuPont Inc. ,
the world's largest chemical company in terms of sales.
* 1 Products
* 1.1 Performance plastics
* 1.2 Performance chemicals
* 1.5 Basic plastics
* 1.6 Basic chemicals
* 1.7 Hydrocarbons and energy
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Diversification and expansion
* 2.3 Nuclear weapons
* 2.4 Vietnam War: napalm and
Dow Corning breast implants
* 2.8 Tax evasion
* 2.9 Recent mergers, acquisitions and reorganization
* 2.9.1 1990s – transition from geographic alignment to global
Union Carbide merger
* 2.9.3 2006–2008 restructuring
* 220.127.116.11 Rohm & Haas Co. purchase
* 18.104.22.168 Accelerated implementation
* 22.214.171.124 Strategy interruption
* 2.9.4 2007 dismissal of senior executives
* 2.9.5 2014 – New operating segments
* 2.9.6 U.S. Gulf Coast investments
* 2.9.8 Merger with
* 2.10 Focus on higher margin business
* 2.11 Dioxin contamination
* 2.12 Sale of herbicide business
* 3 Environmental record
Board of directors
* 5 Major sponsorships
* 6 Major collaborations
* 6.1 Lab Safety Academy
* 7 Outlook
* 8 Subsidiaries and joint ventures
* 8.1 Subsidiaries
* 8.2 Current joint ventures
* 9 Notable employees
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Dow is a large producer of plastics, including polystyrene ,
polyurethane , polyethylene , polypropylene , and synthetic rubber .
It is also a major producer of ethylene oxide , various acrylates ,
surfactants , and cellulose resins. It produces agricultural chemicals
including the pesticide
Lorsban and consumer products including
Styrofoam . Some Dow consumer products including Saran wrap, Ziploc
Scrubbing Bubbles were sold to
S. C. Johnson & Son
S. C. Johnson & Son in 1997.
Performance plastics make up 25 percent of Dow's sales, with many
products designed for the automotive and construction industries . The
plastics include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene ,
as well as polystyrene used to produce
Styrofoam insulating material.
Dow manufactures epoxy resin intermediates including bisphenol A and
epichlorohydrin . Saran resins and films are based on polyvinylidene
Chemicals (17 percent of sales) segment produces
chemicals and materials for water purification , pharmaceuticals ,
paper coatings , paints and advanced electronics . Major product lines
include nitroparaffins, such as nitromethane , used in the
pharmaceutical industry and manufactured by ANGUS Chemical Company, a
wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Co. Important polymers
include Dowex ion exchange resins , acrylic and polystyrene latex , as
Carbowax polyethylene glycols .
Specialty chemicals are used
as starting materials for production of agrochemicals and
Dow Water and Process Solutions (DW"> Dow Chemical Corporate
headquarters in Midland
Dow was founded in 1897 by chemist
Herbert Henry Dow , who invented a
new method of extracting the bromine that was trapped underground in
brine at Midland, Michigan. Dow originally sold only bleach and
potassium bromide , achieving a bleach output of 72 tons a day in
1902. Early in the company's history, a group of British manufacturers
tried to drive Dow out of the bleach business by cutting prices. Dow
survived by also cutting its prices and, although losing about $90,000
in income, began to diversify its product line . In 1905, German
bromide producers began dumping bromides at low cost in the U.S. in an
effort to prevent Dow from expanding its sales of bromides in Europe.
Instead of competing directly for market share with the German
producers, Dow bought the cheap German-made bromides and shipped them
back to Europe. This undercut his German competitors. Even in its
early history, Dow set a tradition of rapidly diversifying its product
line . Within twenty years, Dow had become a major producer of
agricultural chemicals, elemental chlorine , phenol and other
dyestuffs , and magnesium metal.
World War I
World War I , Dow Chemical supplied many war materials the
United States had previously imported from Germany. Dow produced
magnesium for incendiary flares, monochlorobenzene and phenol for
explosives, and bromine for medicines and tear gas. By 1918, 90
percent of Dow Chemical production was geared towards the war effort.
At this time, Dow created the diamond logo that is still used by the
company. After the war, Dow continued research in magnesium, and
developed refined automobile pistons that produced more speed and
better fuel efficiency. The Dowmetal pistons were used heavily in
racing vehicles, and the 1921 winner of the
Indianapolis 500 used the
Dowmetal pistons in his vehicle.
In the 1930s, Dow began producing plastic resins, which would grow to
become one of the corporation's major businesses. Its first plastic
products were ethylcellulose , made in 1935, and polystyrene , made in
DIVERSIFICATION AND EXPANSION
From 1940 to 1941, Dow built its first plant at
Freeport, Texas , in
order to produce magnesium extracted from seawater rather than
underground brine . The Freeport plant is now home to Dow's largest
site – and one of the largest integrated chemical manufacturing
sites in the world. The site grew quickly – with power, chlorine,
caustic soda and ethylene also soon in production. Growth of this
business made Dow a strategically important business during World War
II, as magnesium became important in fabricating lightweight parts for
aircraft . Based on 2002–2003 data, the Freeport plants (known as
Texas Operations internally) produced 27 billion pounds of product –
or 21 percent of Dow's global production. In 1942 Dow began its
foreign expansion with the formation of Dow Chemical of Canada in
Sarnia, Ontario to produce styrene for use in styrene-butadiene
synthetic rubber . Also during the war, Dow and Corning began their
Dow Corning , to produce silicones for military and,
later, civilian use.
The "Ethyl-Dow Chemical Co." plant at "Kure\'s Beach" NC , the only
plant on the East Coast producing bromine from seawater, was attacked
by a German U-boat in 1942.
In the post-war era, Dow began expanding outside of North America,
founding its first overseas subsidiary in Japan in 1952, and in
several other nations soon thereafter. Based largely on its growing
plastics business, Dow opened a consumer products division beginning
with Saran wrap in 1953. Based on its growing chemicals and plastics
businesses, Dow's sales exceeded $1 billion in 1964, $2 billion in
1971, and $10 billion in 1980.
From 1951 to 1975, Dow managed the
Rocky Flats Plant
Rocky Flats Plant near Denver,
Colorado . Rocky Flats was a nuclear weapons production facility that
produced plutonium triggers for hydrogen bombs . Main article: Rocky
Contamination from fires and radioactive waste leakage plagued the
facility under Dow's management. In 1957 a fire burned plutonium dust
in the facility and sent radioactive particles into the atmosphere.
The Department of Energy transferred management of the facility to
Rockwell International in 1975. In 1990, nearby residents filed a
class action lawsuit against Dow and Rockwell for environmental
contamination of the area; the case was litigated in federal court. In
2008 a federal judge ordered Dow and Rockwell to pay a combined $925
million in damages to the plaintiffs. However, in September 2010, the
Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision. According to
the Appellate Court, the owners of the 12,000 properties in the
class-action area had not proved that their properties were damaged or
they had suffered bodily injury.
VIETNAM WAR: NAPALM AND AGENT ORANGE
United States military dropped napalm bombs on North Vietnam
Vietnam War . Dow was one of several manufacturers who
began producing the napalm B compound under government contract from
1965. After experiencing protests and negative publicity, the other
suppliers discontinued manufacturing the product, leaving Dow as the
sole provider. The company said that it carefully considered its
position, and decided, as a matter of principle, "its first obligation
was to the government". Despite a boycott of its products by anti-war
groups and harassment of recruiters on some college campuses, Dow
continued to manufacture napalm B until 1969. The USA continued to
drop napalm bombs on North Vietnam until 1973. Main article: Agent
Agent Orange , a chemical defoliant containing dioxin , was also
manufactured by Dow in
New Plymouth , New Zealand, and in the United
States for use by the
British military during the Malayan Emergency
and the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. In 2005, a lawsuit was
filed by Vietnamese victims of
Agent Orange against Dow and Monsanto
Co. , which also supplied
Agent Orange to the military. The lawsuit
DOW CORNING BREAST IMPLANTS
Dow Corning breast implants controversy
A major manufacturer of silicone breast implants ,
Dow Corning (Dow
Chemical's Joint Venture with
Corning Inc. ) was sued for personal
damages caused by ruptured implants. On October 6, 2005, all such
cases pending in the District Court against the company were
dismissed. A number of large, independent reviews of the scientific
literature, including the
Institute of Medicine in the
United States ,
have subsequently found that silicone breast implants do not cause
breast cancers or any identifiable systemic disease.
Union Carbide became a subsidiary of Dow Chemical in 2001. The Bhopal
disaster of 1984 occurred at a pesticide plant owned by Union Carbide
India Ltd., a subsidiary of Union Carbide, 17 years before Dow
Chemical Co.'s acquisition. A gas cloud containing methyl isocyanate
and other chemicals spread to the neighborhoods near the plant where
more than half a million people were exposed to it. More than 27 years
after the event, the actual number of fatalities is still unknown.
The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of
Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the
gas release. Others estimate 3,000 died within weeks and another 8,000
have since died from gas-related diseases. There are wide variations
in the estimated number of individuals permanently disabled by the
event. By one independent estimate, 40,000 individuals were left
permanently disabled, maimed, or suffering from serious illness as a
result of the disaster. A government affidavit in 2006 stated that the
leak caused 558,125 injuries, including 38,478 temporary partial
injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling
Union Carbide was sued by the
Government of India and
agreed to an out-of-court settlement of US$470 million in 1989. In
2010 eight former executives of
Union Carbide India Ltd. were found
guilty of death by negligence . Activists sought to have Dow Chemical
held responsible for the ongoing cleanup of the site, now under the
control of the state government of Madhya Pradesh.
Until the late 1970s, Dow produced DBCP
(1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), a soil fumigant, and nematicide , sold
under the names the Nemagon and Fumazone. Plantation workers who
alleged that they became sterile or were stricken with other maladies
subsequently sued both Dow and Dole in Latin American courts. The
cases were marred by extensive fraud, including the falsification of
test results and the recruitment of plaintiffs who had never worked at
Dole plantations. While Nicaraguan courts awarded the plaintiffs over
$600 million in damages, they have been unable to collect any payment
from the companies. A group of plaintiffs then sued in the United
States, and, on November 5, 2007, a Los Angeles jury awarded them $3.2
million. Dole and Dow vowed to appeal the decision. On April 23, 2009
a Los Angeles judge threw out two cases against Dole and Dow due to
fraud and extortion by lawyers in Nicaragua recruiting fraudulent
plaintiffs to make claims against the company. The ruling casts doubt
on $2 billion in judgments in similar lawsuits.
In February 2013 a federal court rejected two tax shelter
transactions entered into by Dow that created approximately $1 billion
in tax deductions between 1993–2003. In the stated opinion, the
Court termed the transactions "schemes that were designed to exploit
perceived weaknesses in the tax code and not designed for legitimate
business reasons." The schemes were created by
Goldman Sachs and the
law firm of
King & Spalding
King & Spalding , and involved creating a partnership that
Dow operated out of its European headquarters in Switzerland. Dow
stated that it had paid all tax assessments with interest. The case
was a lawsuit against the Internal Revenue Service seeking a refund of
the taxes paid. The case was appealed to the 5th Circuit court, where
Dow's claims were again rejected. Dow has petitioned for an en banc
hearing by the 5th Circuit, arguing that the decision was contrary to
established case law.
RECENT MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND REORGANIZATION
1990s – Transition From Geographic Alignment To Global Business
In the early 1990s, Dow embarked on a major structural
reorganization. The former reporting hierarchy was geographically
based, with the regional president reporting directly to the overall
company president and CEO. The new organization combines the same
businesses from different sites, irrespective of which region they
belong (i.e. the vice president for
Polystyrene is now in charge of
these plants all over the world).
Union Carbide Merger
At the beginning of August 1999, Dow agreed to purchase Union Carbide
Corp. (UCC) for $9.3 billion in stock. At the time, the combined
company was the second largest chemical company, behind DuPont. This
led to protests from some stockholders , who feared that Dow did not
disclose potential liabilities related to the Bhopal disaster.
William S. Stavropoulos served as president and chief executive
officer of Dow from 1995 to 2000, then again from 2002 to 2004. He
relinquished his board seat on April 1, 2006, having been a director
since 1990 and chairman since 2000. During his first tenure, he led
the purchase of UCC which proved controversial, as it was blamed for
poor results under his successor as CEO Mike Parker. Parker was
dismissed and Stavropoulos returned from retirement to lead Dow.
On August 31, 2006, Dow announced that it planned to close facilities
at five locations:
Sarnia, Ontario was Dow's first manufacturing site in Canada,
located in the Chemical Valley area alongside other petrochemical
companies. In 1942, the Canadian government invited Dow to build a
plant there to produce styrene (an essential raw material used to make
synthetic rubber for World War II). Dow then built a polystyrene plant
in 1947. In August 1985, the site accidentally discharged 11,000
litres of perchloroethylene (a carcinogenic dry cleaning chemical)
St. Clair River , which gained infamy in the media as "The
Blob", and Dow Canada was charged by the Ministry of the Environment.
Up to the early 1990s, Dow Canada's headquarters was located at the
Modeland Centre, and a new three-story complex called the River Centre
was opened up on the Sarnia site in 1993 to house Research and
Development. Since then, several plants (Dow terminology for a
production unit) on the site have been dismantled, particularly the
Chemicals including Chlor Alkali unit whose closure was
announced in 1991 and carried out in 1994 which affected nearly half
of the site's employees. The Dow Canada headquarters were moved to
Calgary, Alberta in 1996, and the Modeland Centre was sold to Lambton
County and the City of Sarnia with Dow leasing some office space. The
Dow Fitness Centre was donated to the
YMCA of Sarnia-Lambton in 2003.
The Sarnia Site's workforce declined from a peak of 1600 personnel in
the early 1990s to about 400 by 2002. In the late 1990s, land on the
site was sold to
TransAlta which built a natural gas power plant that
begun operations in 2002 to supply electricity to the remaining Sarnia
site plants and facilities, so that Dow could close its older less
efficient steam plant (originally coal fired and later burning natural
gas). On August 31, 2006, Dow announced that the entire Sarnia site
would cease operations at the end of 2008. The Sarnia site had been
supplied with ethylene through a pipeline from western Canada but BP
officials warned Dow that shipments from the pipeline had to be
suspended for safety reasons, and the loss of an affordable supply for
the low density polyethylene plant rendered all the other operations
at the site non-competitive. The Low-Density
Polystyrene units closed in 2006, followed by the
Latex Unit in 2008,
and finally the
Propylene Oxide Derivatives Unit on April 2009. Dow
afterward focused its efforts on the environmental remediation of the
vacant site, which was sold to TransAlta. The former site has since
been renamed the Bluewater Energy Park, with the River Centre
remaining available for lease.
* One plant at its site in Barry (South Wales) , a triple string STR
styrene polymer production unit. Integral in the company's development
of the super high melt foam specific polymers & Styron A-Tech high
gloss, high impact polymers.
* One plant at its site in
Porto Marghera (Venice), Italy.
* Two plants at its site in
Fort Saskatchewan , Alberta, Canada.
On November 2, 2006, Dow and Izolan , the leading Russian producer of
polyurethane systems, formed the joint venture Dow-Izolan iand built a
manufacturing facility in the city of Vladimir . Also in 2006, Dow
formed the Business Process Service Center (BPSC).
In December 2007, Dow announced a series of moves to revamp the
company. A December 4 announcement revealed that Dow planned to exit
the automotive sealers business in 2008 or 2009. Within several
weeks, Dow also announced the formation of a joint venture, later
named K-Dow, with Petrochemical Industries Co. (PIC), a subsidiary of
Kuwait Petroleum Corporation
Kuwait Petroleum Corporation . In exchange for $9.5 billion, the
agreement included Dow selling 50-percent of its interest in five
global businesses: polyethylene, polypropylene and polycarbonate
plastics, and ethylenamines and ethanolamines . The agreement was
terminated by PIC on December 28, 2008.
Rohm "> The purchase has been criticized by many on
Wall Street who
believe Dow Chemical overpaid (about a 75 percent premium on the
previous day's market capital) to acquire the company; however, the
high bid was needed to ward off competing bids from BASF. The
transaction to purchase the outstanding interest of Rohm and Haas
closed on April 1, 2009.
On December 8, 2008, Dow announced that due to the 2008 economic
crisis , it would accelerate job cuts resulting from its
reorganization. The announced plan included closing 20 facilities,
temporarily idling 180 plants, and eliminating 5,000 full-time jobs
(about 11 percent of its work-force) and 6,000 contractor positions.
Citing the global recession that began in the latter half of 2008,
the Kuwaiti government scuttled the K-Dow partnership on December 28,
2008. The collapse of the deal dealt a blow to Dow CEO Andrew Liveris
' vision of restructuring the company to make it less cyclical .
However, on January 6, 2009 Dow Chemical announced they were in talks
with other parties who could be interested in a major joint venture
with the company. Dow also announced they that it would be seeking to
recover damages related to the failed joint venture from PIC.
After the K-Dow deal collapsed, some speculated that the company
would not complete the Rohm at the same time, a story surfaced in
Sunday Express regarding a possible leveraged buyout of Dow.
The two executives have since filed lawsuits claiming they were fired
for being a threat to CEO Liveris, and that the allegations were
concocted as a pretext. However, in June 2008 Dow Chemical and the
litigants announced a settlement in which Kreinberg and Reinhard
dropped their lawsuits and admitted taking part in discussions "which
were not authorized by, nor disclosed to, Dow's board concerning a
potential LBO" and acknowledged that it would have been appropriate to
have informed the CEO and board of the talks.
2014 – New Operating Segments
In the fourth quarter of 2014, Dow announced new operating segments
in response to its previously announced leadership changes. The
company stated it would give further support to its end-market
orientation and increase its alignment to Dow’s key value chains –
ethylene and propylene.
U.S. Gulf Coast Investments
Several plants on the Gulf Coast of the US have been in development
since 2013, as part of Dow's transition away from naphtha. Dow
estimates the facilities will employ about 3000 people, and 5000
people during construction. The plants will manufacture materials for
several of its growing segments, including hygiene and medical,
transportation, electrical and telecommunications, packaging, consumer
durables and sports and leisure.
Dow’s new propane dehydrogenation (PDH) facility in Freeport,
Texas, is expected to come online in 2015, with a first 750000 metric
tonne per year unit, while other units could become available in the
future. An ethylene production facility is expected to start up in
the first half of 2017.
On March 27, 2015, Dow and
Olin Corporation announced that the boards
of directors of both companies unanimously approved a definitive
agreement under which Dow will separate a significant portion of its
chlorine business and merge that new entity with Olin in a transaction
that will create an industry leader, with revenues approaching $7
billion. Olin, the new partnership, became the largest chlorine
producer in the world.
Merger With DuPont
On December 11, 2015, Dow announced that it would merge with
in an all-stock deal. The combined company, which will be known as
DowDuPont , will have an estimated value of $130 billion, be equally
held by the shareholders of both companies, and maintain their
Michigan and Delaware respectively. Within two years
of the merger's closure,
DowDuPont would be split into three separate
public companies, focusing on the agriculture, chemical, and specialty
product industries. Estimates are it would take up to two years for
the tax-free split. Shareholders of each company will hold 50% of the
combined company. Dow Chemical CEO
Andrew N. Liveris would become
executive chairman of the new entity, while
DuPont CEO Edward D. Breen
would become CEO. In January 2017, the merger was pushed back a
second time pending regulatory approvals.
The same day, Dow also announced that it had reached a deal to
Corning Incorporated 's stake in their joint venture Dow
Corning for $4.8 billion in cash and a roughly 40% stake in Hemlock
Corporation . The sale is expected to close in early
2016. Commentators have noted that the deal is likely to face
antitrust scrutiny in several countries.
FOCUS ON HIGHER MARGIN BUSINESS
Dow Chemical has begun to shed commodity chemical businesses, such as
those making the basic ingredients for grocery bags and plastic pipes,
because their profit margins only average 5–10%. Dow is, as of 2015,
focusing resources on specialty chemicals that earn margins of at
least 20%. This is in line with its restructuring, together with
reducing debt, and expecting to raise more than $11 billion from asset
sales by mid-2016. Dow Chemical works in
Kings Lynn .
Areas along Michigan's
Tittabawassee River , which runs within yards
of Dow's main plant in Midland , were found to contain elevated levels
of the cancer-causing chemical dioxin in November 2006. The dioxin was
located in sediments two to ten feet below the surface of the river,
and, according to the
New York Times , "there is no indication that
residents or workers in the area are directly exposed to the sites".
However, people who often eat fish from the river had slightly
elevated levels of dioxin in their blood. In July 2007, Dow reached
an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency to remove 50,000
cubic yards (38,000 m3) of sediment from three areas of the riverbed
and levees of the river that had been found to be contaminated. In
November 2008, Dow Chemical along with the
United States Environmental
Protection Agency and
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
agreed to establish a
Superfund to address dioxin cleanup of the
Saginaw River and
Saginaw Bay .
SALE OF HERBICIDE BUSINESS
In December 2015, Dow
Chemicals agreed to sell its global herbicide
business as low crop prices prompted consolidation in the agricultural
In 2003, Dow agreed to pay $2 million, the largest penalty ever in a
pesticide case, to the state of New York for making illegal safety
claims related to its pesticides. The New York Attorney General's
Office stated that
Dow AgroSciences had violated a 1994 agreement with
the State of New York to stop advertisements making safety claims
about its pesticide products. Dow stated that it was not admitting to
any wrongdoing, and that it was agreeing to the settlement to avoid a
costly court battle.
According to the
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
Dow has some responsibility for 96 of the United States' Superfund
toxic waste sites, placing it in 10th place by number of sites. One of
these, a former UCC uranium and vanadium processing facility near
Uravan, Colorado , is listed as the sole responsibility of Dow. The
rest are shared with numerous other companies. Fifteen sites have been
listed by the EPA as finalized (cleaned up) and 69 are listed as
"construction complete", meaning that all required plans and equipment
for cleanup are in place.
In 2007, the chemical industry trade association – the American
Chemical Council – gave Dow an award of 'Exceptional Merit' in
recognition of longstanding energy efficiency and conservation
efforts. Between 1995 and 2005, Dow reduced energy intensity (BTU per
pound produced) by 22 percent. This is equivalent to saving enough
electricity to power eight million US homes for a year. The same
year, Dow subsidiary, Dow Agrosciences, won a United Nations Montreal
Protocol Innovators Award for its efforts in helping replace methyl
bromide – a compound identified as contributing to the depletion of
the ozone layer. In addition, Dow Agrosciences won an EPA "Best of the
Best" Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award. The United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named Dow as a 2008 Energy Star
Partner of the Year for excellence in energy management and reductions
in greenhouse gas emissions.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
The members of the board of directors of The Dow Chemical Co. were,
prior to the closing of the merger with
DuPont on September 1, 2017:
Ajay Banga –
President the center is now called the Dow Event
Center . The
Saginaw Spirit (of the
Ontario Hockey League ) plays at
the Center, which also hosts events such as professional wrestling and
In October 2006, Dow bought the naming rights to the stadium used by
Great Lakes Loons , a Single-A minor league baseball team located
in its hometown of
Midland, Michigan . The stadium is called Dow
Diamond . The Dow Foundation played a key role in bringing the Loons
to the city.
In 2010, Dow signed a $100m (£63m) 10-year deal with the
International Olympic Committee and agreed to sponsor the £7m Olympic
Stadium wrap. Dow also sponsors
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series driver
Austin Dillon's #3 Chevrolet.
LAB SAFETY ACADEMY
On May 20, 2013, Dow launched the Dow Lab Safety Academy, a website
that includes a large collection of informational videos and resources
that demonstrate best practices in laboratory safety. The goal of the
website is to improve awareness of safety practices in academic
research laboratories and to help the future chemical workforce
develop a safety mindset. As such, the Dow Lab Safety Academy is
primarily geared toward university students. However, Dow has made the
content open to all, including those already employed in the chemical
industry. The Dow Lab Safety Academy is also available through the
Safety and Chemical Engineering Education program, an affiliate of
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); and The Campbell
Institute , an organization focusing on environment, health and safety
The Dow Lab Safety Academy is one component of Dow’s larger
laboratory safety initiative launched in early 2012, following a
report from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board that highlighted the
potential hazards associated with conducting research at chemical
laboratories in academic institutions. Seeking to share industry best
practices with academia, Dow partnered with several U.S. research
universities to improve safety awareness and practices in the
departments of chemistry, chemical engineering, engineering and
materials. Through the pilot programs with
U.C. Santa Barbara
U.C. Santa Barbara (UCSB),
University of Minnesota , and
Pennsylvania State University , Dow
worked with graduate students and faculty to identify areas of
improvement and develop a culture of laboratory safety.
In January 2011, The
Nature Conservancy and The Dow Chemical Co.
announced a collaboration to integrate the value of nature into
business decision-making. Scientists, engineers, and economists from
Nature Conservancy and Dow are working together at three pilot
sites (North America, Latin America, and TBD ) to implement and refine
models that support corporate decision-making related to the value and
resources nature provides. Those ecosystem services include water,
land, air, oceans and a variety of plant and animal life. These sites
will serve as a “living laboratories”, to validate and test
methods and models so they can be used to inform more sustainable
business decisions at Dow and hopefully influence the decision-making
and business practices of other companies.
Andrew N. Liveris called 2005 the company's "best year ever"
with operating profits of $5.4 billion, a jump of 56.5 percent
compared with the previous year.
Net income rose more than 60 percent
to $4.5 billion, on sales of $46.3 billion. 2006 looks as if it could
be even better, with first-quarter net earnings of $1.2 billion. All
this is occurring in the context of adverse operating conditions,
caused by high energy and raw material costs, and the effects of two
Liveris supports the vertically integrated approach used at Dow,
which produces everything from basic chemical feedstocks to high value
products such as pesticides and reverse osmosis membranes. These
value-adding product chains, along with Dow's wide product range, help
the company to weather the storms of the global economy. Despite this,
high energy and feedstock costs may begin to take their toll,
particularly if global demand begins to fall just as supply is rising.
Like many chemical companies, Dow is facing pressures of regulation
in the US and Europe , particularly as the EU introduces its new REACH
policy. Litigation costs in the US taken over by Dow as a result of
its 2001 takeover of
Union Carbide also remain a concern.
For these reasons, Dow is looking to the Middle East and Asia for new
Kuwait , Dow is constructing (with PIC of
Kuwait ) a new
world-scale ethane cracker for production of ethylene , along with an
ethylene oxide /ethylene glycol plant and (for 2008) a facility for
production of aromatic hydrocarbons . In
Oman , the company is working
Oman government to build a new world-scale polyethylene
plant. In China, the company is collaborating with
Shenhua Group (the
country's largest coal mining company) to improve catalyst efficiency
to allow viable conversion of coal to olefins . Dow is also seeking to
expand its R&D presence in Asia, adding 600 jobs in
Shanghai by the
end of 2007, and the company may open up a large R
-webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">
* Arabian Chemical Company (Latex) Ltd.
* Arabian Chemical Company (Polystyrene) Limited
* Battleground Water Company
* Biotechnology Research and Development Corporation
* Blue Cube Holding LLC (and affiliates)
* Buildscape, Inc.
* Buildscape, LLC
* CanStates Holdings Inc. (and affiliate)
* CD Polymers Inc.
* Centen Ag Inc. (and affiliates)
* Chemars III LLC
* Chemtech II L.P.
* Clean Filtration Technologies LLC
* DC Partnership Management Inc. (and affiliate)
* DCOMCO, Inc.
* Denmerco Inc.
* Diamond Capital Management Inc.
* Dofinco, Inc.
* Dow Business Services LLC
* Dow Capital International LLC
* Dow Chemical (China) Investment Company Limited (and affiliates)
* Dow Chemical (Singapore) Private Limited (and affiliates)
* Dow Chemical China Holdings Pte. Ltd.
* Dow Chemical Delaware Corp. (and affiliates)
* Dow Chemical International Ltd. (and affiliates)
* Dow Chemical
* Dow Chemical Singapore Holdings Pte. Ltd.
* Dow Chemical Taiwan Limited
Dow AgroSciences , LLC.
Union Carbide Corporation
Rohm and Haas
* ANGUS Chemical Co.
CURRENT JOINT VENTURES
* EQUATE Petrochemical Co. K.S.C.
Kuwait Olefins Company K.S.C.
Styrene Company K.S.C.
* TKOC – JV between Dow and Petrochemical Industries Company
* Map Ta Phut Olefins Company Limited
* SCG-DOW Group
* Sadara Chemical Company – JV between Saudi Aramco and Dow
* Dow-Mitsui Chlor-Alkali LLC – JV between Mitsui worked at a
Dow's aluminum rolling mill in
Madison, Illinois , where he was a shop
Buddy Burris , professional football player with the Green Bay
Packers ; worked for Dow following his football career.
Norman F. Carnahan , chemical engineer; worked at Dow's
Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana
Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana division from 1965 to 1968.
Sven Trygve Falck , Norwegian engineer, businessperson and
politician; Dow engineer in Texas from 1967 to 1970.
Larry Garner , Louisiana blues musician; worked at Dow's Baton
Rouge, Louisiana facility.
Bettye Washington Greene , first African-American female chemist
employed at Dow; began working in 1965 at the E.C. Britton Lab.
Alexandre Hohagen , vice president for Latin America and US
Facebook ; former public relations manager for Dow
Zdravko Ježić , Olympic silver medalist; worked for Dow in Texas
on the development of urethane and oxide polymers.
Claude-André Lachance , youngest person elected to the Canadian
House of Commons (prior to 2011); director of public affairs for Dow
Ray McIntire , inventor of styrofoam ; began working for Dow in
1940 and became a research director.
Fred McLafferty , chemist who pioneered the technique of gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry ; began working at Dow's organic
chemistry research laboratory in
Midland, Michigan in the 1950s.
John Moolenaar , member of the
Michigan Senate and
of Representatives ; worked as a chemist for Dow.
George Andrew Olah , recipient of 1994
Nobel Prize in Chemistry ;
employed at Dow's Sarnia, Canada plant in the late 1950s.
Forrest Parry , inventor of the magnetic stripe card ; worked for
Dow in the 1950s.
Roy A. Periana , American organometallic chemist ; worked for Dow
at Midland, Michigan.
Abu Ammaar Yasir Qadhi , conservative American Islamic cleric;
worked for Dow after obtaining a chemical engineering degree from the
University of Houston
University of Houston .
Abraham Quintanilla, Jr. , singer-songwriter; former shipping
clerk at Dow's
Freeport, Texas facility.
Sheldon Roberts , semiconductor pioneer who helped found Silicon
Valley ; former technical researcher at Dow.
Alexander Shulgin , chemist and pharmacologist credited with
introducing the drug
MDMA ("ecstasy") to psychologists in the late
1970s; worked for Dow in the 1960s, where he invented Zectran , the
first biodegradable insecticide.
Mary P. Sinclair , environmental activist; former technical
researcher at Dow.
Huimin Zhao , Centennial Endowed Chair of Chemical and
Bio-Molecular Engineering at the University of Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign ; project leader at Dow's Industrial Biotechnology
* ^ A B "Dow Chemical 2016 Total Revenue". Retrieved May 4, 2017.
* ^ A B C D "Dow Chemical Co. 2016 Annual Report". Retrieved May 4,
* ^ The Dow Chemical Co. information and related industry
information from Hoover\'s United Kingdom (UK)
* ^ Tullo, Alexander H. (27 July 2015). "Global Top 50 Chemical
Companies". Chemical & Engineering News.
American Chemical Society .
Retrieved 27 October 2015.
* ^ A B "Corporate Profile" (PDF). The Dow Chemical Co. Retrieved
* ^ "Annual Report" (PDF). The Dow Chemical Co. Retrieved
* ^ "Quote from John Tysse, Dow vice-president of sales and
marketing". Retrieved 2007-11-28.
* ^ "Dow sells consumer unit". CNN Money. October 28, 1997.
Retrieved December 13, 2010.
* ^ A B Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29,
2006), pp 10–15
* ^ "ANGUS Chemical Co.". The Dow Chemical Co. Retrieved
* ^ "Dow\'s Filmtec to help manage ME water needs". Trade Arabia.
* ^ Tomson, Bill (May 24, 2017). "US-China agreement spurs cautious
optimism from seed companies". Agri Pulse. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
* ^ "Hall of Fame Inventor Profile". National Inventors Hall of
Fame. Archived from the original on 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2006-06-24.
* ^ "Dow Chemical". University of
Michigan Department of Geography.
Archived from the original on 2006-05-13. Retrieved 2006-06-24.
* ^ Brandt, E.N. (1997). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First
Century. East Lansing, Michigan:
Michigan State University Press. ISBN
* ^ A B "
Herbert Henry Dow 1866–1930". Chemical Heritage
Foundation. 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-03-27. Retrieved
* ^ "Herbert Henry Dow".
Michigan Walk of Fame. Archived from the
original on November 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
* ^ A B History of Texas Operations
* ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced
Victory in World War II, pp. 118, 219, 312, 324–5, Random House, New
York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4 .
* ^ Dow Texas Operations Fast Facts
* ^ Morton, Jr, Wilbur D. The Journey Continues: The World War II
Home Front. p. xxiv,64.
* ^ "Rocky Flats: Dow Chemical And
Rockwell International Billed
Contamination At Nuclear Site". huffingtonpost.com.
2008-06-03. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
* ^ "Appeals court tosses jury award in Rocky Flats case". The
Denver Post . September 4, 2010.
* ^ Cook, et al. v.
Rockwell International Corp., et al., Nos.
08–1224, 08–1226 and 08-1239 (U.S. Court of Appeals, 10th Circuit
Sept. 3, 2010)
* ^ A B "
Napalm History" Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
. Virginia Center for Digital History
* ^ "US won\'t compensate Vietnam\'s
Agent Orange victims:
official". AFP. 2006-06-06. Archived from the original on 2007-08-16.
Gina Kolata (June 21, 1999). "Panel Confirms No Major Illness
Tied to Implants".
New York Times . Retrieved 2015-02-10. An
independent panel of 13 scientists convened by the Institute of
Medicine at the request of Congress has concluded that silicone breast
implants do not cause any major diseases.
* ^ Colas, André; Curtis, Jim (2004). Biomaterials Science, Second
Edition: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine (PDF). Elsevier,
Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-582463-7 .
* ^ "Bhopal gas tragedy: 27 years on, death toll still unknown".
The Times of India.
* ^ AK Dubey (21 June 2010). "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: 92% injuries
termed "minor"". First14 News. Archived from the original on 26 June
2010. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
* ^ "8 Former Executives Guilty in ’84 Bhopal Chemical Leak". New
York Times . 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012.
* ^ "Fraud by Trial Lawyers Taints Wave of
Pesticide Lawsuits –
* ^ "Dole must pay farmworkers $3.2 million", John Spano, Los
Angeles Times, November 6, 2007.
* ^ Hallman, Ben. – "Finding Plaintiffs Lawyers Committed Fraud,
Judge Dismisses Tort Cases Against Dole and Dow Chemical". – The
American Lawyer . – April 27, 2009.
* ^ Keating, Gina. – "Judge throws out Dole "bananeros" cases,
citing fraud". –
Forbes . – April 24, 2009.
* ^ Wood, Robert W. (27 February 2013). "Dow Chemical\'s $1 Billion
Tax Shelter Stinks, Says Court". Forbes. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
* ^ "JUSTICE DEPARTMENT PREVAILS IN TAX SHELTER CASE INVOLVING $1
BILLION IN TAX DEDUCTIONS". The
Dow Chemical Company Had Engaged in
Tax Transactions Designed by
Goldman Sachs and Lawyers at King &
Spalding. Department of Justice. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 23 March
* ^ "U.S. Justice Dept says wins $1 bln Dow Chemical tax shelter
* ^ "Dow Urges 5th Circ. To Rehear $1B Tax Shelter Case –
* ^ Charles R. Geisst (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of American
Business History. Infobase Publishing. pp. 121–. ISBN
* ^ CIO. 1 November 1998.
* ^ Smith, Richard. "Creative destruction: capitalist development
and China's environment." New Left Review (1997): 3–42.
* ^ Nordqvist, Joseph. "The Dow Chemical Co. – Company
Information". MBN. MBN. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
* ^ "Business this week". The Economist. The Economist. Retrieved 6
* ^ "Dow buying Union Carbide". CNN Money. CNN Money. Retrieved 6
* ^ Kripalani, Manjeet. "Dow Chemical: Liable for Bhopal?".
Bloomberg. Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
* ^ "What is the history of William S Stavropoulos and the latest
information about William S Stavropoulos?". Los Angeles Times. Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
* ^ Warren, Susan. "Dow Chemical Replaces CEO, Citing Poor
Financial Results". WSJ. WSJ. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
* ^ "Dow Corporate News: William Stavropoulos to Retire as Chairman
Andrew Liveris Elected
Chairman Effective April 1, 2006".
Archived from the original on 18 February 2006.
* ^ E. J. Salmon (28 September 2010). The Rise and Fall of
Corporate America. Trafford Publishing. pp. 275–. ISBN
* ^ "Dow Announces Plant Closures To Strengthen Competitive
Position". The Dow Chemical Co. 2006-08-31. Archived from the original
on 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2006-09-13.
* ^ A B "Dow closing operations in Sarnia, Fort Saskatchewan".
CBCNews. CBCNews. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Matthew J. Bellamy (13 January 2005). Profiting the Crown:
Polymer Corporation, 1942–1990. McGill-Queen's Press –
MQUP. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-0-7735-7238-6 .
* ^ Marc R. Roussel (5 April 2012). A Life Scientist\'s Guide to
Physical Chemistry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN
* ^ "The
Dow Chemical Company Plans to Close
Polystyrene Plant at
Barry, UK". ChemEurope. ChemEurope. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Sinclair, Neil. "Dow rules out Eni purchase of Porto Marghera
TDI". ICIS News. ICIS News. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ ICIS Chemical Business. Reed Business Information. 2008.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Job Cuts". The New York Times. December 5, 2007.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Gets Kuwaiti Partner". The New York Times.
December 14, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
* ^ Mohamed A. Ramady (19 October 2013). Political, Economic and
Financial Country Risk: Analysis of the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-3-319-02177-5
* ^ "Dow signs agreement to acquire Rohm and Haas". Canadian
Plastics. Canadian Plastics. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Gupta, Raj. "How I Did It: Rohm and Haas’s Former CEO on
Pulling Off a Sweet Deal in a Down Market". Harvard Business Review.
Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Nocera, Joe. "Dow Imperiled by Its Deal for Rohm & Haas". NYT.
NYT. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Verbraeken, Hans. "Dow Chemical beticht Turkse branchegenoot
van spionage". Het Financieele Dagblad. Het Financieele Dagblad.
Retrieved 12 November 2015.
* ^ "Dow Accelerates Implementation of its Transformational
* ^ Diana Elias (December 28, 2008). "
Kuwait scraps$17.4 billion
venture with Dow Chemical". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved December 28,
* ^ A B "Dow Chemical Confirms Commitment to Transformational
Corporate Strategy". 2009-01-06. Archived from the original on
* ^ "Rohm and Dow shares fall on investor concern over deal".
Reuters. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
* ^ "Dow Chemical agrees to buy Rohm & Haas". Chicago Tribune.
2008-07-11. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
* ^ Dow Chemical to Buy Rohm and Haas,
Wall Street Journal, July
11, 2008, p.B1
* ^ Campoy, Ana. "Dow Chemical to Buy Rohm & Haas". WSJ. WSJ.
Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Confirms
Rohm and Haas Acquisition Will Not Close
On or Before January 27, 2009". 2009-01-26.
* ^ "Against the Grain: Buy Dow Chemical!". The Street. The Street.
Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October
* ^ Marvin, Chuck. "Dow Chemical Likely Glad Week\'s Over". The
Street. The Street. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ James, Steve; Thomasch, Paul. "Dow Chem buys Rohm and Haas".
Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Christopher Hinton (2008-07-10). "Dow Chemical to buy Rohm &
Haas for $15 billion – MarketWatch". MarketWatch. Archived from the
original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
* ^ "Former Dow executives fight back". Chemical and Engineering
News . May 14, 2007. p. 12.
* ^ "Case Closed".
Chemical and Engineering News . June 19, 2008.
* ^ "Dow Chemical (DOW) Announces Realignment of External Reporting
Segments". Street Insider. Street Insider. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Pinch, Lauren. "Boom Days Ahead for Natural Gas Sector".
Construction Executive. Construction Executive. Retrieved 13 November
* ^ "DOW CHEMICAL TO BUILD SEVERAL PLANTS ON US GULF COAST". Global
Processing. Global Processing. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
* ^ "EPCA ’14: Half of US PDH projects to be delayed or shelved
– exec". ICIS News. ICIS News. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ Protti-Alvarez, Francinia; Boswell, Clay. "Ascend plans
$1.2-billion PDH plant at Chocolate Bayou". IHS Chemical Week. IHS
Chemical Week. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ "Dow Chemical\'s
Ethylene Production Plant, Freeport, Texas,
United States of America". ChemicalsTechnology. ChemicalsTechnology.
Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ "Dow Chemical to expand polyethylene and propylene production
in Argentina". ChemicalsTechnology. ChemicalsTechnology. Retrieved 7
* ^ Chatsko, Maxx. "5 Things
Dow Chemical Company Management Wants
You to Know". The Motley Fool. The Motley Fool. Retrieved 7 October
* ^ Gelles, David. "Dow Chemical to Merge Unit With Olin". NYT.
NYT. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ A B Fisher, Daniel. "Will $5B Sale Of Dow Chemical\'s Chlorine
Business Silence Its Critics?". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 6 October
* ^ "Dow and DuPont, two of America’s oldest giants, to merge in
jaw-dropping megadeal". Washington Post. December 11, 2015. Retrieved
11 December 2015.
* ^ "Dow Chemical,
DuPont reach deal on merger". USA TODAY. 11
* ^ "
DuPont expects Dow merger to close later than expected".
Reuters. 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
* ^ "Corning to Swap Stake In
Dow Corning For $4.8 Billion,
Semiconductor Stake". wsj.com. wsj.com. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 11
* ^ "Dow Chemical to Take Full Control of
Dow Corning Venture".
Bloomberg News. Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
* ^ Lydia Mulvany, Sara Forden, and Patrick Gower, "Dow-DuPont
Merger Likely to Face
Antitrust Scrutiny Worldwide", Bloomberg
Business (December 11, 2015).
* ^ Cameron, Doug. "Dow Chemical Launches Makeover". WSJ. WSJ.
Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Starts Exchange Offer for
Zacks. Zacks. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
* ^ A B Barringer, Felicity (July 4, 2007). "E.P.A. and Dow in
Talks on Dioxin Cleanup at Main Factory". The New York Times.
* ^ Barringer, Felicity (July 18, 2007). "Michigan: Dioxin Deal".
The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
* ^ "
Superfund Alternative Site possible on Tittabawassee".
November 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012.
* ^ "Dow sells portfolio of herbicides amid consolidation drive".
Reuters. 2 December 2015.
* ^ "Dow AgroSiences agrees to pay $2M to state over pesticide
ads". Albany Business Review. 2003-12-15. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
* ^ "COMPANY NEWS; DOW CHEMICAL UNIT TO PAY $2 MILLION PENALTY FOR
ADS". New York Times. December 16, 2003. Retrieved 2015-03-06.
* ^ "Dow
Subsidiary To Pay $2 Million For Making False Safety
Pesticide Ads". New York State Attorney General Office 2015.
15 December 2003. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
* ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org.
2004-09-08. Archived from the original on 2004-09-08. Retrieved
* ^ "
Union Carbide ad". Uravan.com. 2000-02-20. Retrieved
* ^ Center for Public Integrity Archived October 22, 2007, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Dow Wins 2006 ACC Responsible Care Energy Efficiency Award –
Press Releases on CSRwire.com".
* ^ "Dow Agrosciences Wins UN Award for Methyl Bromide
Alternative". Seed Today. 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
* ^ "EPA Names The Dow Chemical Co. 2008 ENERGY STAR Partner of the
Year". MSN Money. 2008-03-14PM ET. Retrieved 2008-03-18. Check date
values in: date= (help )
* ^ "Board of Directors". DOW. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Board of Directors. Dow.com. Retrieved on
* ^ "Richard K. Davis". DOW. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
* ^ "Mark Loughridge". DOW. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
* ^ "Raymond J. Milchovich". DOW. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
* ^ "Robert S. (Steve) Miller". DOW. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
* ^ "Dow signs as top-tier Olympics sponsor".
ESPN . Associated
Press . 16 July 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
International Olympic Committee (16 July 2010). "Dow Chemical
Company joins the top Programme". Olympic.org. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
The agreement positions Dow as an official Worldwide Olympic Partner
and the official Chemistry company for the Olympic Movement through to
* ^ "The Dow Event Center". The Dow Chemical Co. Archived from the
original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2006-06-27.
* ^ "Welcome to the Dow Event Center". Dow Event Center. Retrieved
* ^ Magnay, Jacquelin (2012-03-12). "Dow Chemical Co.". The Daily
Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Unveils Safety Website". The Daily Telegraph.
* ^ "Experimenting With Danger". U.S Chemical Safety Board.
* ^ "
Nature Conservancy and Dow announce collaboration". Retrieved
* ^ "
Nature Conservancy and Dow announce collaboration pilot sites
in Brazil". Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved
* ^ "The Economics of Ecosystems". Retrieved 2013-06-27.
* ^ "Top 50 Chemical Producers", Chemical and Engineering News,
Vol. 84, Issue 20 (May 15, 2006), pp 10–15
* ^ "Liveris Tells It Like It Is", Chemical and Engineering News,
Vol. 84, Issue 22 (May 29, 2006), pp 10–15
* ^ "2010 Form 10-K, The Dow Chemical Company". United States
Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
* ^ "Former Steelworker
President George Becker Dies". United
Steelworkers. February 5, 2007.
* ^ "Paul \'Buddy\' Burris". Norman Transcript. Retrieved December
2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ "Norman Carnahan". Acadian Museum. Retrieved December 2014.
Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ "Falck, Sven Trygve ( 1943– )". Stortinget. Retrieved
December 2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ Dahl, Bill. "Artist Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved December
2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ "Othmeralia". Othmeralia. March 1, 2014.
* ^ "
Alexandre Hohagen – Regional Managing Director for Latin
America". Google.com. Retrieved December 2014. Check date values in:
access-date= (help )
* ^ Trinajsti, Nenad (January 2005). "Zdravko Pusko Ježić".
Croatica Chemica Acta.
* ^ "Dow Chemical Canada Inc / Claude-Andre Lachance, Director,
Public Affair". Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying of Canada.
September 5, 2014. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015.
* ^ "Ray Mcintire, 77, Chemist Who Invented
Styrofoam By Accident".
Chicago Tribune. February 4, 1996.
* ^ Yu, Kate (Feb 1, 2013). "Man of the Masses".
* ^ Tower, Mark (August 6, 2014). "Sen.
John Moolenaar Defeats Paul
Mitchell in 4th District Congressional Republican Primary Race".
* ^ "George A. Olah – Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved
December 2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ Sherratt, Gerald R. (October 6, 2011). "Cedar City Native
Invented the Credit Card". Iron County Today.
* ^ "Roy A. Periana". Scripps Research Institute. Retrieved
December 2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ Munahid, Ahmad (April 23, 2012). "Abu Ammaar Yasir Qadhi: The
Sign of Inspiration for Muslim Youth". Islamic Scholars Worldwide.
* ^ Roy, Ann See (2010). Pain, Pain, Pain...Still So Much Pain.
Xlibris. p. 62.
* ^ "C.
Sheldon Roberts ’48". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Retrieved December 2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ Brown, Ethan (June 4, 2014). "Chemist Alexander Shulgin, Who
Inspired ‘Psychonauts’ Movement, Dead at 88". Al Jazeera America.
* ^ "Mary P. Sinclair". Midland Daily News. January 15, 2011.
* ^ "Huimin Zhao". John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.
Archived from the original on 2015-02-05. Retrieved December 2014.
Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* Ray H. Boundy, J. Lawrence Amos. (1990). A History of the Dow
Chemical Physics Lab: The Freedom to be Creative. M. Dekker. ISBN
* E. Ned Brandt. (2003). Growth Company: Dow Chemical's First
Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-426-4
* Don Whiteh