President of the United States
Supreme Court candidates
World Economic Forum, Switzerland
Sexual misconduct allegations
Business projects in Russia
Classified information disclosure
Links of associates with Russian officials
Trump campaign–Russian meetings
Special Counsel investigation
Business and personal
The Apprentice franchise
Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current
President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television
Trump was born and raised in the
New York City
New York City borough of Queens, and
earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University
of Pennsylvania. He took over his family's real estate business in
1971, renamed it The
Trump Organization, and expanded it to involve
the construction and renovation of skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and
Trump also started various side ventures, including
branding and licensing his name for real estate and luxury consumer
products. He managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. Trump
also gained prominence in media and entertainment. He co-authored
several books, including The Art of the Deal, and from 2003 to 2015 he
was a producer and the host of The Apprentice, a reality television
Trump owned the
Miss Universe and
Miss USA beauty pageants
from 1996 to 2015. According to March 2018 figures by Forbes, he is
the world's 766th richest person, with an estimated net worth of
Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated
sixteen opponents in the primaries. Commentators described his
political positions as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. His
campaign received extensive free media coverage; many of his public
statements were controversial or false.
Trump was elected president
against Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton; his victory upset the
expectations of polls and analysts. He became the oldest and
wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without
prior military or government service, and the fifth to have won the
election despite losing the popular vote. His election and policies
sparked numerous protests.
In domestic policy,
Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court.
Citing security concerns, he ordered a travel ban on citizens from
several Muslim-majority countries; a revised version of the ban was
implemented after legal challenges. In December 2017, he signed tax
reform legislation that cut rates and eliminated the Affordable Care
Act insurance mandate. In foreign policy,
Trump withdrew the United
States from the
Trans-Pacific Partnership trade pact and the Paris
Agreement on climate change, partially reversed the Cuban thaw,
pressured North Korea over the acceleration of their missile tests and
nuclear weapons program, and recognized
Jerusalem as the capital of
Trump dismissed FBI Director
James Comey in 2017, the Justice
Robert Mueller as special counsel in an
investigation into coordination or links between the
and Russian government in connection with Russian interference in the
2016 elections and related matters.
1 Family and personal life
1.1 Ancestry and parents
1.2 Early life and education
2 Business career
2.1 Real estate
2.1.1 Manhattan developments
2.1.2 Palm Beach estate
Atlantic City casinos
2.1.4 Golf courses
2.1.5 Hotels outside New York
2.2 Branding and licensing
2.3 Legal affairs and bankruptcies
2.4 Side ventures
2.4.1 Sports events
2.4.2 Miss Universe
2.6 Conflicts of interest
3 Media career
3.2 Professional wrestling
3.3 The Apprentice
4 Public profile
4.1 Political image
4.1.1 False statements
4.2 Racial views
4.3 Popular culture
4.4 Social media
5 Political career and affiliations up to 2015
5.1 Campaign contributions
6 2016 presidential campaign
6.1 Republican primaries
6.2 General election campaign
6.3 Political positions
6.4 Campaign rhetoric
White supremacist support
6.6 Financial disclosures
6.7 Sexual misconduct allegations
6.8 Election to the presidency
7.1 Early actions
7.2 Domestic policy
7.2.1 Economy and trade
7.2.2 Energy and climate
7.2.3 Government size and deregulation
7.2.4 Health care
188.8.131.52 Travel ban
7.2.6 Social issues
7.3 Foreign policy
7.3.3 North Korea
7.3.5 War in Afghanistan
White House staff
7.4.3 Second-tier officials
7.5.1 Russian interference
7.5.2 Dismissal of James Comey
7.5.4 Impeachment efforts
7.6 2020 presidential campaign
8 See also
12 External links
Family and personal life
Ancestry and parents
Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of
the Palatinate on his father's side, and from the
Outer Hebrides in
Scotland on his mother's side. All of his grandparents and his mother
were born in Europe.
Trump's paternal grandfather, Friedrich Trump, first emigrated to the
United States in 1885 at the age of 16 and became a citizen in 1892.
He amassed a fortune operating boom-town restaurants and boarding
houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of Canada during
its gold rush. On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and
married her in 1902. The couple permanently settled in New York in
1905. Frederick died from influenza during the 1918 pandemic.
Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in The Bronx. Fred started
working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after
his father's death. Their company, Elizabeth
Trump & Son, was
primarily active in the New York boroughs of
Queens and Brooklyn. Fred
eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks, and
apartments. The company was later renamed The Trump
Organization, after Donald
Trump took charge in 1971.
Trump's mother Mary Anne was born in Tong, Lewis, Scotland. At age 18
in 1930, she emigrated to New York, where she worked as a maid.
Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in
Trump's uncle John was an electrical engineer, physicist, and
inventor. He worked as a professor at MIT from 1936 to 1973. During
World War II, he was involved in radar research for the Allies and
helped design X-ray machines that were used to treat cancer.
Early life and education
Senior yearbook photo of
Trump in 1964 wearing the uniform of his
private boarding school, New York Military Academy
Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital
Medical Center, Queens, New York City, the fourth of five
Trump grew up in Jamaica, Queens, and attended the
Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13,
he enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding
school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips
into Manhattan without their permission.
Trump began his higher education at Fordham
University. After two years, he transferred to the Wharton
School of the University of Pennsylvania, because it offered one of
the few real-estate studies departments in United States academia at
Trump was inspired by his father and Manhattan
developer William Zeckendorf, vowing to be "even bigger and
better". While at Wharton, he worked at the family business,
Trump & Son, and graduated in May 1968 with a
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science in economics.
Trump did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. While
in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student deferments.
In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical
examination, and in 1968 was briefly classified as eligible to serve
by a local draft board. In September of that year, he was given a
medical deferment, which he later attributed to heel spurs. In
1969, he received a high number in the draft lottery, which gave him a
low probability to be called to military service.
Main article: Family of Donald Trump
Trump is sworn in as president on January 20, 2017. From left
to right in foreground: Trump, wife Melania, son Donald Jr., son
Barron, daughter Ivanka, son Eric, and daughter Tiffany
Trump grew up with three elder siblings—Maryanne, Fred Jr., and
Elizabeth—as well as a younger brother named Robert. Maryanne is an
Federal Appeals Court
Federal Appeals Court judge on the Third Circuit.
Trump has five children by three marriages, as well as nine
grandchildren. His first two marriages ended in widely
Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková at the Marble
Collegiate Church in Manhattan, in a ceremony performed by the
Reverend Norman Vincent Peale. They had three children: Donald
Jr. (b. 1977), Ivanka (b. 1981), and Eric (b. 1984). Ivana became a
naturalized United States citizen in 1988. The couple divorced in
1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples.
In October 1993, Maples gave birth to Trump's daughter, who was named
Tiffany after high-end retailer Tiffany & Company. Maples and
Trump were married two months later in December 1993. They
divorced in 1999, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in
Trump and his wife Melania at the Liberty Ball on Inauguration Day
Trump married his third wife, Slovenian model Melania Knauss,
Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Palm Beach, Florida. The
ceremony was followed by a reception at Trump's
In 2006, Melania became a United States citizen and gave birth to
a son, Barron. Melania became First Lady upon Trump's
inauguration as president in January 2017.
Upon his inauguration as president,
Trump delegated the management of
his real estate business to his two adult sons, Eric and Don Jr.
His daughter Ivanka resigned from
The Trump Organization
The Trump Organization and moved to
Washington, D.C. with her husband Jared Kushner. She serves as an
assistant to the president, and he is a Senior Advisor in the
Trump's ancestors were
Lutheran on his father's side in Germany
and Presbyterian on his mother's side in Scotland. His parents
married in a Manhattan Presbyterian church in 1936. As a child, he
attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, and had his
Confirmation there. In the 1970s, his family joined the Marble
Collegiate Church (an affiliate of the Reformed Church in America) in
Manhattan. The pastor at that church, Norman Vincent Peale, author
The Power of Positive Thinking and The Art of Living, ministered to
Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993.
Trump, who is Presbyterian, has cited Peale and his works
during interviews when asked about the role of religion in his
Trump says he receives Holy Communion, but that he does not ask God
for forgiveness. While campaigning,
Trump referred to The Art of
the Deal as his second favorite book after the Bible, saying, "Nothing
beats the Bible."
The New York Times
The New York Times reported that evangelical
Christians nationwide thought "that his heart was in the right place,
that his intentions for the country were pure".
Trump has had associations with a number of Christian spiritual
Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called his
"closest spiritual confidant". In 2015, he received a blessing
from Greek Orthodox priest Emmanuel Lemelson and in 2016, he
released a list of his religious advisers, including James Dobson,
Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, and others. Referring to his
daughter Ivanka's conversion to Judaism before her marriage to
Trump said: "I have a Jewish daughter; and I am very honored
Trump does not drink alcohol; this decision arose in part from
watching his older brother Fred Jr. suffer from alcoholism that
contributed to his early death in 1981. He also said that he
has never smoked cigarettes or consumed drugs, including
In 2016, Trump's personal physician, Harold Bornstein, issued a
medical report that showed Trump's blood pressure as well as liver and
thyroid function to be in normal ranges. It also showed that
he is overweight and takes statins to lower his cholesterol level.
In January 2018,
Trump was examined by
White House physician Ronny
Jackson, who stated that he is in excellent health, although his
weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended. A cardiac
assessment revealed no medical issues. Several prominent
physicians who have not examined
Trump have commented that his weight,
lifestyle, and LDL cholesterol level of 143 do not indicate excellent
Trump requested to undergo a cognition test, and passed
Montreal Cognitive Assessment
Montreal Cognitive Assessment with a score of 30/30. Jackson
stated, "I’ve found no reason whatsoever to think that the President
has any issues whatsoever with his thought process".
Trump International Hotel Las Vegas, with gold-infused glass
Trump said that he began his career with "a small loan of one million
dollars" from his father. He appeared on the initial
list of wealthy individuals in 1982 with an estimated
$200 million fortune, including an "undefined" share of his
parents' estate. During the late 1980s he became a
billionaire, and he made the
Forbes World's Billionaires list for
the first time in 1989, but he was absent from the
Forbes 400 list
following business losses from 1990 to 1995; he reportedly borrowed
from his siblings' trusts in 1993. His father's estate, valued at
more than $20 million, was divided in 1999 among Trump, his three
surviving siblings, and their children.
Trump announced his candidacy for the presidency on June 16,
2015, he released a one-page financial summary that stated a net worth
of $8,737,540,000. The following month, he filed a 92-page Federal
Election Commission (FEC) financial disclosure form and declared
his net worth was "in excess of ten billion dollars". In his
presidential announcement speech, he said his wealth would make him
less indebted to large campaign donors.
Forbes called his net
worth estimate "a whopper", setting their own estimate at
$4.1 billion in 2015. Trump's 2015 FEC disclosure
reported $362 million in total income for the year 2014.
Trump made controversial remarks about illegal immigrants in
2015, he lost business contracts with several companies; this reduced
Forbes estimate by $125 million. Consumer boycotts and
reduced bookings may have further affected his brand value during the
presidential campaign. Trump's 104-page FEC disclosure in
May 2016 still claimed a total wealth over $10 billion,
unchanged from 2015. The release of the
Access Hollywood tapes in
October 2016 put further pressure on his brand, but real estate
experts predicted a positive rebound from becoming president.
In its 2018 billionaires ranking,
Forbes estimated Trump's net worth
at $3.1 billion (766th in the world, 248th in the U.S.)
making him one of the richest politicians in American history. These
estimates fluctuate from year to year, and among various analysts. In
Bloomberg News had pegged his wealth at $3 billion,
calling it an increase thanks to his presidential nomination,
Forbes had ranked him 324th in the world (113th in the U.S.)
with $4.5 billion just a few months earlier. The
discrepancies among these estimates and with Trump's own figures stem
mainly from the uncertain values of appraised property and of his
Main article: Business career of Donald Trump
The distinctive façade of
Trump Tower, the headquarters of The Trump
Organization, in Midtown Manhattan
Trump began his career at his father's real estate
development company, Elizabeth
Trump & Son, which, among other
interests, owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer
boroughs. During his undergraduate studies,
Trump joined his
father Fred in revitalizing the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment
complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, boosting the occupancy rate from 66% to
When his father became chairman of the board in 1971,
promoted to president of the company and renamed it The Trump
Organization. In 1973, he and his father drew wider attention
when the Justice Department contended that the organization
systematically discriminated against African Americans who wished to
rent apartments. The Department alleged that the
had screened out people based on race and not low income as the Trumps
had stated. Under an agreement reached in 1975, the Trumps made no
admission of wrongdoing and made the
Urban League an intermediary for
qualified minority applicants. His adviser and attorney
during (and after) that period was Roy Cohn, who responded to attacks
by counterattacking with maximum force, who valued both positive and
negative publicity, and who
Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by
purchasing a 50% stake in the financially troubled Commodore Hotel.
The purchase was largely funded by a $70 million construction
loan that was jointly guaranteed by
Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel
chain. When the remodeling was finished, the hotel reopened as
the Grand Hyatt Hotel, located next to Grand Central
Also in 1978,
Trump finished negotiations to develop
Trump Tower, a
58-story, 202-meter (663-foot) skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, which
The New York Times
The New York Times attributed to his "persistence" and "skills as a
negotiator". To make way for the new building, a crew of
undocumented Polish workers demolished an old
Bonwit Teller store,
including art deco features that had initially been marked for
preservation. The building was completed in 1983 and houses both
the primary penthouse condominium residence of
Trump and the
headquarters of The
Trump Organization. Architectural critic
Paul Goldberger said in 1983 that he was surprised to find the tower's
atrium was "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in
New York in some years".
Trump Tower was the setting of the
NBC television show The Apprentice and includes a fully functional
television studio set.
Wollman Rink after the
In 1980, a general contractor who was unconnected to
repairs on Central Park's Wollman Rink. Despite an anticipated
two-and-a-half year construction timeframe, the repairs remained
incomplete in 1986.
Trump took over the project and completed it in
three months for $1.95 million, which was $775,000 less than the
initial budget. He operated the rink for a year and gave most of the
profits to charity and public works projects in exchange for the
rink's concession rights.
Trump acquired the
Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for a
record-setting $407 million and appointed his wife Ivana to
manage its operation.
Trump invested $50 million to restore
the building, which he called "the Mona Lisa". According to hotel
expert Thomas McConnell, the Trumps boosted it from a three-star to a
four-star ranking and sold it in 1995, by which time Ivana was no
longer involved in the hotel's day-to-day operations.
Trump got involved with the refurbishing of the Gulf and
Western Building on Columbus Circle. The former office building was
remodeled with design and structural enhancements to become a luxury
residential and hotel property. When the job was finished,
Trump owned commercial space in a 44-story mixed-use tower (hotel and
condominium) that he named
Trump International Hotel and Tower.
Trump acquired the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, which
was a vacant seventy-one story skyscraper on Wall Street that had
briefly been the tallest building in the world when it was completed
in 1930. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the
Trump Building at 40 Wall Street.
In 1997, he began construction on Riverside South, which he dubbed
Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. The
project encountered delays the following year because a subcontractor
had to replace defective concrete. He and the other
investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for
$1.8 billion in 2005 in what was then the biggest residential
sale in the history of New York City.
From 1994 to 2002,
Trump owned a 50% share of the Empire State
Building. He would have renamed it "
Empire State Building
Empire State Building Tower
Apartments" if he had been able to boost his share.
Trump World Tower, which was across from the
headquarters of the United Nations. For a while, the structure was the
tallest all-residential tower in the world. In 2002, Trump
acquired the former Hotel Delmonico, which was renovated and reopened
in 2004 as the
Trump Park Avenue; the building consisted of 35 stories
of luxury condominiums.
Palm Beach estate
Main article: Mar-a-Lago
Mar-a-Lago in June 2009
Trump acquired the
Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida
for under $8 million. The home was built in the 1920s by
heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post, who envisioned the
house as a future winter retreat for American presidents.
Trump's initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he
was able to get the property at the much lower price by purchasing
Jack C. Massey's beachfront property for $2 million and
threatening to build a house on it that would block Mar-a-Lago's ocean
view. In addition to using the estate as a home,
Trump also turned it
into a private club open to everyone who could afford the initiation
fee of $100,000 plus annual dues.
Trump acquired a foreclosed 33-story, twin-tower condominium
complex in nearby West Palm Beach for $40 million. Auto CEO Lee
Iacocca invested in three of the condos.
Trump spruced up the
complex's public areas and heavily promoted the property for years,
but selling the units proved difficult, and the deal turned out to be
Atlantic City casinos
New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, and
Trump went to
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City, New Jersey the following year in order to explore how
he might get involved in a new business venture. Seven years later,
Harrah's at Trump Plaza
Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino opened there; the project was
Trump with financing from the Holiday Corporation, which also
managed the operation. Renamed "
Trump Plaza" soon after it
opened, it was at the time the tallest building in Atlantic City.
The casino's poor financial results exacerbated disagreements between
Trump and Holiday Corp., which led to Trump's paying $70 million
in May 1986 to buy out their interest in the property. Trump
also acquired a partially completed building in
Atlantic City from the
Hilton Corporation for $320 million; when completed in 1985, that
hotel and casino became
Trump Castle, and Trump's wife Ivana managed
that property until 1988.
Entrance of the
Trump Taj Mahal
Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Also in 1988,
Trump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the
Taj Mahal, then halfway through construction, through a complex
transaction with television host and entertainer
Merv Griffin as well
as the resort and casino company Resorts International. The Taj
opened in April 1990 and was built at a total cost of
$1.1 billion, which at the time made it the most expensive casino
ever. The project was financed with $675 million in
junk bonds and was a major gamble by Trump. The project
underwent debt restructuring the following year, leaving Trump
with 50% ownership. He also sold his 282-foot (86 m)
Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in
Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy
Trump Hotels &
Casino Resorts (THCR), which
assumed ownership of
Trump Castle, and the
in Gary, Indiana. THCR purchased Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent
bankruptcy restructuring in 2004 and 2009, leaving
Trump with 10%
ownership in the
Trump Taj Mahal
Trump Taj Mahal and other
properties. From mid 1995 until early 2009, he served as chairman
of the publicly-traded THCR organization—which was renamed Trump
Entertainment Resorts—and served as CEO from mid 2000 to mid
During the 1990s, Trump's casino ventures faced competition from
Native American gaming
Native American gaming at the Foxwoods casino located on an Indian
reservation in Connecticut, where it was exempt from the state's
Trump stated in 1993 that the casino owners did
not look like real Indians to him or to other Indians. Subsequent
to that well-publicized remark about the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe,
Trump became a key investor backing the Paucatuck Eastern Pequots, who
were also seeking state recognition.
The Trump Organization
The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and resorts in the
United States and around the world. According to Golfweek,
or manages about 18 golf courses. His personal financial
disclosure with the FEC stated that his golf and resort revenue for
the year 2015 was roughly $382 million, while his three
European golf courses did not show a profit.
Turnberry Hotel and golf course in Ayrshire, Scotland
Trump bought 1,400 acres (570 ha), including the
Menie Estate in Balmedie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and created a golf
resort there. Scottish supporters emphasized potential economic
benefits, and opponents emphasized potential environmental harm to a
Site of Special Scientific Interest
Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). A
spokesperson for the golf course has said 95% of the SSSI is
untouched. A 2011 independent documentary, You've Been Trumped,
chronicled the golf resort's construction and struggles. In 2015,
an offshore windfarm being built within sight of the golf course
prompted a legal challenge by Trump, which was dismissed by the U.K.
Supreme Court. In the wake of the 2008 recession,
scaled back development of this property, and as of
December 2016[update] Scottish officials were pushing for
completion of the far larger development as originally approved.
In April 2014,
Trump purchased the Turnberry hotel and golf resort in
Ayrshire, Scotland, which hosted the
British Open four times between
1977 and 2009. After extensive renovations and a remodeling
of the course by golf architect Martin Ebert, Turnberry was re-opened
in June 2016.
Hotels outside New York
Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago
In the late 2000s and early 2010s,
The Trump Organization
The Trump Organization expanded its
footprint beyond New York with the co-development and management of
hotel towers in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City,
Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-branded buildings in
Dubai, Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.
Branding and licensing
Main article: List of things named after Donald Trump
Trump has marketed his name on a large number of building projects
that are owned and operated by other people and companies. He has also
licensed his name for various commercial products and services. In
doing so, he achieved mixed success for himself, his partners, and
investors in the projects. In 2011, Forbes' financial experts
estimated the value of the
Trump brand at $200 million. Trump
disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about
$3 billion. According to an analysis by The Washington Post,
there are more than 50 licensing or management deals involving Trump's
name, which have generated at least $59 million in revenue for
Legal affairs and bankruptcies
Main article: Legal affairs of Donald Trump
As of 2016[update],
Trump and his businesses had been involved in more
than 3,500 state and federal legal actions. He or one of his companies
was the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With
Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been
against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts.
Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case
involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was
a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.
Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but his hotel and
casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991
and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock
and bonds. Because the businesses used Chapter 11
bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded.
Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the
bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for
The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and
casino businesses in
Atlantic City and New York:
Trump Taj Mahal
Plaza Hotel and
Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump
Castle Hotel and
Trump Hotels and
Trump Entertainment Resorts
Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).
"I've used the laws of this country to pare debt ... We'll have
the company. We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the
banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, it's like on The
Apprentice. It's not personal. It's just business."
A 2016 analysis of Trump's business career by
The Economist concluded
that his "... performance [from 1985 to 2016] has been mediocre
compared with the stock market and property in New York", noting both
his successes and bankruptcies. A subsequent analysis by The
Washington Post concluded that "
Trump is a mix of braggadocio,
business failures, and real success", calling his casino bankruptcies
the "most infamous flop" of his business career.
Adult film actress
Stormy Daniels has alleged that she and
an extramarital affair in 2006, months after the birth of his youngest
child. Just before the 2016 presidential election Daniels, whose
real name is Stephanie Clifford, was paid $130,000 by Trump's attorney
Michael Cohen as part of a non-disclosure agreement, through an LLC
set up by Cohen; he says he used his own personal money for the
payment. In February 2018, Daniels filed suit against the LLC
asking to be released from the agreement so that she can tell her
story. Cohen filed a private arbitration proceeding and obtained a
restraining order to keep her from discussing the case. According
White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders,
denied the allegations. On March 16 Cohen, with Trump's approval,
asked for Daniels' suit to be moved from state to federal court, based
on the criteria that the parties live in different places and the
amount at stake is more than $75,000; Cohen asserted that Daniels
could owe $20 million in liquidated damages for breaching the
agreement. The filing marked the first time that
through his personal attorney, has taken part in the Daniels
Trump took over the family real estate firm in 1971 and renamed
Trump Organization, he greatly expanded its real estate
operations and ventured into numerous other business activities. The
company eventually became the umbrella organization for several
hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.
Trump watching a baseball game in Citi Field, July 2009
In September 1983,
Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals—an
American football team that played in the United States Football
League (USFL)—from oil magnate J. Walter Duncan. The USFL
played three seasons during the spring and summer. After the 1985
season, the organization folded due to continuous financial
difficulties, despite winning an antitrust lawsuit against the
After the Generals folded,
Trump remained involved with other sports;
he operated golf courses in several countries. At the
in Atlantic City, he hosted several boxing matches, which included
Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael
Spinks. He also acted as a financial advisor to Mike Tyson.
In 1989 and 1990,
Trump lent his name to the
Tour de Trump
Tour de Trump cycling
stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of
European races such as the
Tour de France
Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia.
Main articles: Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA
From 1996 to 2015,
Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe
pageants. The pageants include
Miss USA and Miss Teen USA.
His management of this business involved his family members—daughter
Ivanka once hosted Miss Teen USA.
Trump hired the first female
president of the
Miss Universe business in 1997. He became
dissatisfied with how
CBS scheduled the pageants, and took both Miss
Miss USA to NBC in 2002.
In his 2015 U.S. presidential campaign kickoff speech,
controversial statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the
border from Mexico. NBC then decided to end its business relationship
with him and stated that it would no longer air the
Miss Universe or
Miss USA pageants on its networks. In September 2015, Trump
bought NBC's share of the
Miss Universe Organization and became its
sole owner for three days. He then sold the entire company to the
WME/IMG talent agency.
Trump University was a for-profit education company that was founded
Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny. The
company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500
and $35,000 per course. In 2005, New York State
authorities notified the operation that its use of the word
"university" was misleading and violated state law. After a second
such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the
Trump Entrepreneurial Institute".
Trump was also found
personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the
Ronald Schneckenberg, a sales manager for
Trump University, said in a
testimony that he was reprimanded for not trying harder to sell a
$35,000 real estate class to a couple who could not afford it.
Schneckenberg said that he believed "
Trump University was a fraudulent
scheme" which "preyed upon the elderly and uneducated to separate them
from their money."
In 2013, New York State filed a $40 million civil suit against
Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false
statements and defrauded consumers. In addition, two
class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to
Trump University; they named
Trump personally as well as his
companies. During the presidential campaign,
presiding Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel, alleging bias in his rulings
because of his Mexican heritage. Shortly after
Trump won the
presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending
Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any
Main article: Donald J.
Donald J. Trump Foundation
Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation
that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away
proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal. The
foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump,
who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.
The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and
sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. In
2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups,
with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center
Foundation ($100,000), the New York–Presbyterian Hospital
Police Athletic League
Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton
Foundation ($100,000). From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to
the foundation were Vince and
Linda McMahon of WWE, who donated
$5 million to the foundation after
Trump appeared at WrestleMania
Linda McMahon later became Administrator of the Small
The Washington Post
The Washington Post conducted investigations that revealed
how the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical
violations; those violations included alleged self-dealing and
possible tax evasion. After beginning an investigation into the
foundation, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the
Trump Foundation that it was allegedly in violation of New York laws
regarding charities and ordered it to immediately cease its
fundraising activities in New York. A
called the investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to
mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that
Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance
of any conflict with [his] role as President." According to an
IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intends to shut down and
distribute its assets (about $970,000) to other charities. However, a
spokesperson for the New York Attorney General's office said the
foundation cannot legally shut down until an ongoing investigation of
the charity is completed.
Conflicts of interest
There were questions about how
Trump would avoid conflicts of interest
between his work in the
White House and his business activities. At a
press conference on January 10, 2017,
Trump said that he and his
daughter Ivanka would resign all roles with The
while his two adult sons Don Jr. and Eric would run the business with
chief financial officer Allen Weisselberg.
Trump retained his financial stake in the business. His attorney
Sheri Dillon said that before the January 20 inauguration, Trump
would put those business assets into a trust, which would hire an
ethics advisor and a compliance counsel. She added that The Trump
Organization would not enter any new foreign business deals, while
continuing to pursue domestic opportunities. As of
Trump companies owned more than 400 condo
units and home lots in the United States, valued at over
$250 million in total ($200,000 to $35 million each).
Main article: Bibliography of Donald Trump
Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987
was Trump: The Art of the Deal, co-written by Tony
Schwartz, who is sometimes called a ghostwriter of that
book. It reached number 1 on
The New York Times
The New York Times Best Seller list,
stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list
for 48 weeks. According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded
Trump's renown far beyond New York City, making him an emblem of the
successful tycoon." Trump's published writings shifted post-2000,
from generally memoirs about himself, to books giving advice about
Trump is a
World Wrestling Entertainment
World Wrestling Entertainment fan and a friend of WWE
chairman Vince McMahon. In 1988 and 1989, he hosted
and V at
Boardwalk Hall and has been an active participant in several
of the shows. He appeared at
WrestleMania VII in 1991 and
WrestleMania XX in 2004. He cornered
Bobby Lashley at 2007's
WrestleMania 23, who pinned McMahon's Umaga in a match called "The
Battle of the Billionaires", with each mogul's hair on the line.
In 2013, he was inducted into the celebrity wing of the
WWE Hall of
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden for his contributions to the promotion.
He made his sixth
WrestleMania appearance the following night at
WrestleMania 29. As president,
WWE CEO Linda
McMahon to his Cabinet as Administrator of the Small Business
Trump was awarded a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007, during
the height of the popularity of The Apprentice.
Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC
reality show The Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a
high-level management job in one of Trump's businesses, and were
successively "fired" and eliminated from the game. During the first
year of the show,
Trump earned $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000
for the first season), but following the show's initial success, he
was paid $1 million per episode. The Apprentice was
nominated for an
Emmy Award in 2004 and 2005. In 2007, Trump
received a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to
television on The Apprentice.
Trump with former NBA basketball player
Dennis Rodman during the
Celebrity Apprentice, March 2009
Along with British TV producer Mark Burnett,
Trump was hired as host
of The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money
for their charities. While
Trump and Burnett co-produced the show,
Trump stayed in the forefront, deciding winners and "firing" losers.
International versions of The Apprentice franchise were co-produced by
Burnett and Trump.
On February 16, 2015, NBC announced that they would be renewing The
Apprentice for a 15th season. On February 27,
Trump stated that
he was "not ready" to sign on for another season because of the
possibility of a presidential run. Despite this, on March 18, NBC
announced they were going ahead with production. On June 29,
after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign
announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, "Due to the
recent derogatory statements by Donald
Trump regarding immigrants,
NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."
Actor and former California Governor
Arnold Schwarzenegger replaced
Trump as host for the fifteenth season.
Trump is still credited
as an executive producer for the show.
Main article: Donald
Trump has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television
series. He played an oil tycoon in The Little Rascals, and
had a singing role at the
58th Primetime Emmy Awards
58th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2006.
Trump is a member of the
Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild and receives an annual
pension of more than $110,000.
Presidential approval polls that were taken during the first ten
months of Trump's term have shown him to be the least popular U.S.
president in the history of modern opinion polls. A Pew
Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a median of
just 22% has confidence in
Trump to do the right thing when it comes
to international affairs". This compares to a median of 64% rate of
confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama.
Trump received a higher
rating in only two countries: Russia and Israel. An August 2017
POLITICO/Morning consult poll found on some measures "that majorities
of voters have low opinions of his character and competence".
Trump has frequently made false statements in public
speeches and remarks.
Trump uttered "at least one false
or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office
according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263
days in office according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis
column of The Washington Post, which also wrote, "President Trump
is the most fact-challenged politician that The Fact Checker has ever
encountered ... the pace and volume of the president's
misstatements means that we cannot possibly keep up."
Main article: Racial views of Donald Trump
Trump has a history of making racially-charged statements and taking
actions that are perceived as racially motivated.
In 1975, he settled a 1973 lawsuit brought by the United States
Department of Justice that alleged housing discrimination against
black renters. He was accused of racism for insisting
that a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a
white woman in the 1989
Central Park jogger attack even after they
were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. He continued to maintain this
position as late as 2016.
Trump played a leading role in "birther" conspiracy theories that had
been circulating since President Obama's 2008 presidential
campaign. Beginning in March 2011, he publicly questioned
Obama's citizenship and eligibility to serve as
president. Although the Obama campaign had released a
copy of the short-form birth certificate in 2008,
to see the original "long-form" certificate. He mentioned having
sent investigators to Hawaii to research the question, but he did not
follow up with any findings. He also repeated a debunked
allegation that Obama's grandmother said she had witnessed his birth
in Kenya. When the
White House later released Obama's
long-form birth certificate,
Trump took credit for obtaining the
document, saying "I hope it checks out." His official biography
mentions his purported role in forcing Obama's hand, and he has
defended his pursuit of the issue when prompted, later saying that his
promotion of the conspiracy made him "very popular". In 2011, he
had called for Obama to release his student records, questioning
whether his grades warranted entry into an
Ivy League school. He
also claimed in his 2011 CPAC speech that Obama's classmates "don't
know who he is". When asked in 2015 whether he believed Obama was
born in the United States, he said he did not want to discuss the
matter further. In September 2016, he publicly acknowledged
Obama's birthplace, and claimed, falsely, that the rumors had been
Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign.
Trump launched his 2016 presidential campaign with a speech in which
he described Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists.
Later, his comments about a Mexican-American judge were criticized as
racist. During his first year as president, comments he made
following a Charlottesville, Virginia rally were seen as implying a
moral equivalence between the white supremacist marchers and those who
protested them. In the aftermath of widespread condemnation of
Trump stated in prepared remarks that "racism is
evil". In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss
immigration legislation with Congressional leaders,
referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African countries as
"shitholes". His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide as
well as by Democratic and several Republican members of Congress in
Trump has denied multiple times that he is
racist; he has said that he is the "least racist person there
Trump's racially insensitive statements have been condemned by
many observers in the U.S. and around the world, but
accepted by his supporters either as a rejection of political
correctness or because they harbor similar racial
sentiments. Numerous studies and surveys have shown that
since his ascendance in the Republican Party, racist attitudes and
racial resentment have become more significant than economic factors
in determining voters' party allegiance. According to an
October 2017 POLITICO/Morning Consult poll, a plurality of 45% of
Trump is racist.
Main articles: Donald
Trump in popular culture and Donald
Trump has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and
online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on Saturday
Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in
South Park as Mr. Garrison.
The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future",
written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a
Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called The
President Show debuted in April 2017.
Starting in the 1990s,
Trump was a guest about 24 times on the
nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show on talk radio.
had his own daily talk radio program called Trumped!, from 2004 to
2008. Since the 1980s, Trump's wealth and lifestyle
have been a fixture of hip hop lyrics, his name quoted by more
than 50 artists.
Main article: Donald
Trump on social media
Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide
since he joined
Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily on
Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use
this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's Twitter
activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as
president. Many of the assertions tweeted by
Trump have been proven to
be false. Two-thirds of Americans dislike his "use of
Twitter", according to a July 2017 ABC News/
Washington Post poll.
In December 2016, Time named
Trump as its "Person of the Year".
In an interview on The Today Show, he said he was honored by the
award, but he took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the
"President of the Divided States of America." In the same
month, he was named
Financial Times Person of the Year. In
Trump the second most powerful person in
the world, after
Vladimir Putin and before Angela Merkel.
Political career and affiliations up to 2015
See also: Donald
Trump presidential campaign, 2000
Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over
Trump was a Democrat prior to 1987;
as a Republican in Manhattan. In 1987
Trump vaguely expressed
interest in running for the presidency when he spent almost $100,000
to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers. In his
view at that time, "America should stop paying to defend countries
that can afford to defend themselves". The advertisements had
also advocated for "reducing the budget deficit, working for peace in
Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with
the Soviet Union." After rumors of a presidential run, he was
then invited by Democratic senators Jim Wright and John Kerry, and
Arkansas congressman Beryl Anthony Jr., to host a fundraising dinner
for Democratic Congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony
The New York Times
The New York Times that "the message
Trump has been preaching is
a Democratic message". Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump
denied he was a candidate and said, "I believe that if I did run for
President, I'd win." According to a Gallup poll in December 1988,
Trump was the tenth most admired person in America.
Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination
of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election. A
July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George
W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee
Al Gore showed
Trump with seven
Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but
still went on to win the Reform Party primaries in California and
Michigan. After his run,
Trump left the party due to the
involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani.
Trump also considered running for president in 2004. From 2001 to
Trump identified himself as a Democrat, but, in 2008, he
John McCain for president. In 2009, he officially
changed his party registration to Republican.
Trump speaking at the
Conservative Political Action Conference
Conservative Political Action Conference in 2011
Trump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012
election, and made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative
Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is
credited for helping kick-start his political career within the
A Wall Street Journal /
NBC News poll released in March 2011 found
Trump leading among potential contenders; he was one point ahead of
former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney. A Newsweek poll
conducted in February 2011 showed
Trump within a few points of
incumbent president Barack Obama, with many voters undecided in the
November 2012 general election for president. In the 2012
Trump generally had polled at or below 17
percent among the crowded field of possible candidates; an exception
was a PPP poll in April 2011 that put him at 26%; however his support
dropped in a few weeks after that to 8%.
Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional
tools for his reality show The Apprentice. On May 16,
Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012
election, while also saying he would have become the president of the
United States, had he run. In December 2011,
Trump became an
independent for five months before returning to the Republican
Party. In February 2012,
Trump endorsed Romney for
Trump was a featured speaker at the Conservative Political
Action Conference (CPAC), where he spoke out against illegal
immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe,
bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", and advised against
harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security.
Trump spent over $1 million in 2013 to research a possible run
for president. In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a
Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014
against Andrew Cuomo. In response to the memo,
Trump said that while
New York had problems and that its taxes were too high, running for
governor was not of great interest to him. A February 2014
Quinnipiac poll had shown
Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37
points in a hypothetical election. In February 2015,
NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The
Apprentice, as he mulled his political future. When asked in 2015
which of the last four presidents he prefers,
Trump picked Democrat
Bill Clinton over the Republican Bushes.
According to a New York state report,
Trump circumvented corporate and
personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s—although no laws were
broken—by donating money to candidates from 18 different business
subsidiaries, rather than donating primarily in his own
Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of
his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to gain favor
with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from
Trump has made contributions to campaigns of both Republican Party and
Democratic Party candidates, with the top ten recipients of his
political contributions being six Democrats and four Republicans.
After 2011, his campaign contributions were more favorable to
Republicans than to Democrats.
2016 presidential campaign
Main article: Donald
Trump presidential campaign, 2016
Trump campaigning in Laconia, New Hampshire, on July 16, 2015
On June 16, 2015,
Trump announced his candidacy for President of the
United States at
Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech,
attention to illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the
U.S. national debt, and Islamic terrorism, which all remained large
priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan,
"Make America Great Again".
In the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries,
Trump entered a
field of 17 major candidates who were vying for the 2016 Republican
nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American
Trump participated in eleven of the twelve Republican debates,
skipping only the January 28 seventh debate, which was the last debate
before primary voting began on the first of February. The debates
received historically high television ratings, which increased the
visibility of Trump's campaign. Republican leaders were hesitant
to support him. They doubted his chances of winning the general
election and feared that he could harm the image of the Republican
By early 2016, the race had focused on
U.S. Senator Ted
Cruz. On Super Tuesday,
Trump won the plurality of the vote, and
he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the
primaries. By March 2016,
Trump became poised to win the Republican
nomination. After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3,
2016—which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and
John Kasich to
suspend their presidential campaigns—RNC Chairman Reince Priebus
Trump the presumptive Republican nominee. With
Trump broke the all-time record in the history of
the Republican Party for winning the most primary votes. He also set
the record for the largest number of votes cast against the front
runner. He won a total of 1441 delegates (58.3% of the total) and
44.9% of the vote versus 25.1% for the runner-up, Cruz.
General election campaign
After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee,
Trump shifted his
focus to the general election.
Trump began campaigning against Hillary
Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6,
Clinton had established a significant lead over
Trump in national
polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed
in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its
investigation into her ongoing email controversy.
Trump gives the thumbs up as his running mate
Mike Pence approves at
the Republican National Convention, July 20, 2016
On July 15, 2016,
Trump announced his selection of Indiana Governor
Mike Pence as his running mate. Four days later on July 19, Trump
and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the
Republican National Convention. The list of convention speakers
and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the
other prior nominees did not attend.
Two days later,
Trump officially accepted the nomination in a
76-minute speech that was inspired by Richard Nixon's 1968 acceptance
speech. The historically long speech was watched by nearly
35 million people and received mixed reviews, with net negative
viewer reactions according to
CNN and Gallup polls.
On September 26, 2016,
Trump and Clinton faced off in their first
presidential debate, which was held at
Hofstra University in
Hempstead, New York
Hempstead, New York and moderated by
NBC News anchor Lester Holt.
The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential debate in United
States history. The second presidential debate was held at
Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The beginning of that
debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of Trump
making sexually explicit comments, which
Trump countered by referring
to alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the
Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of
impropriety to a press conference. The final presidential debate was
held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Trump's
refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election,
regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying
it undermined democracy.
Main article: Political positions of Donald Trump
Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China
relations and free trade agreements such as
NAFTA and the
Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and
building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign
positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate
change regulations such as the
Clean Power Plan
Clean Power Plan and the Paris
Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing
and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core
education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax
code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing
tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the
campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to
foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or
banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt
domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS or IS).
The media has described Trump's political positions as
populist, and some of his views cross party lines. For
example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in
income taxes and deregulation, consistent with Republican Party
policies, along with significant infrastructure investment,
usually considered a Democratic Party policy. According to
political writer Jack Shafer,
Trump may be a "fairly conventional
American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts
free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous
Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over
Politico has described his positions as
"eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC
News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his
Trump rally in the U.S. Bank Arena, Cincinnati, Ohio, on October 13,
In his campaign,
Trump said that he disdained political correctness;
he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his
words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias.
In part due to his fame, and due to his willingness to say things
other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is gaining
ground automatically provides a compelling news story,
an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the
presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican
Fact-checking organizations have denounced
Trump for making a record
number of false statements compared to other
candidates. At least four major
publications—Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and
the Los Angeles Times—have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his
NPR said that Trump's campaign statements
were often opaque or suggestive. Lucas Graves, an assistant
professor of journalism and mass communication at the University of
Wisconsin–Madison, opined that
Trump "often speaks in a
suggestive way that makes it unclear what exactly he meant, so that
fact-checkers have to be really careful to pick things that reflect
what the speaker was clearly trying to communicate."
Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New
York real estate scene, where
Trump established his wealth and where
Trump has called his public speaking style
"truthful hyperbole", an effective political tactic that may, however,
backfire for overpromising. Martin Medhurst, a Baylor University
professor of communication and political science, analyzed Trump's
frequently used rhetorical devices, such as catchy slogans, hyperbole,
insinuations, and preterition.
White supremacist support
The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy, due in
part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration.[not
in citation given]
Trump personally condemned the alt-right in an
interview after the election.
During the campaign,
Trump was accused of pandering to white
supremacists. He retweeted open racists, and
repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan or white
supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying that
he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about
Duke or white supremacists. In a subsequent interview he
said that he had been given a "bad earpiece", and that he had
disavowed Duke the day before. In August 2016, he appointed
Steve Bannon—the executive chairman of Breitbart News—as his
campaign CEO; the website was described by Bannon as "the platform for
the alt-right." According to Michael Barkun, the
was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations
into the mainstream.
Further information: Donald
Trump presidential campaign, 2016
§ Refusal to release tax returns
In compliance with FEC regulations of all presidential candidates,
Trump published a 92-page financial disclosure form in 2015. He
did not release his tax returns, which was contrary to usual
practice by every presidential candidate since
Gerald Ford in
1976. Although it is tradition to do so, presidential candidates
are not required by law to release their returns, and Trump's
refusal to do so led to speculation that he was hiding something.
Trump said that his tax returns were being audited, and his lawyers
had advised him against releasing the returns. However, no
law prohibits release of tax returns during an audit. Tax
attorneys differ about whether such a release is wise legal
Trump has told the news media that his tax rate was
none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as
In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings as part of Trump's
1995 tax return were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times.
They show that, using allowed deductions for losses,
Trump claimed a
loss of $916 million that year. During the second presidential
Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to
provide details such as the specific years it was applied. He
said that he did use the tax code to avoid paying
On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income
tax returns were leaked to MSNBC's Rachel Maddow. The two pages showed
Trump paid $38 million in federal taxes and had a gross
adjusted income of $150 million. The White House
confirmed the authenticity of these documents and stated: "Despite
this substantial income figure and tax paid, it is totally illegal to
steal and publish tax returns."
Sexual misconduct allegations
Main articles: Donald
Access Hollywood tape and Donald Trump
sexual misconduct allegations
A total of 19 women have accused
Trump of sexual misconduct as of
Trump and his campaign have denied as
of October 2016[update] all of the sexual misconduct accusations,
Trump has called "false smears", and alleged a conspiracy
Two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording
surfaced in which
Trump was heard bragging about forcibly kissing and
groping women. The hot mic recording was captured on a
studio bus in which
Billy Bush were preparing to film an
episode of Access Hollywood. "I just start kissing them,"
"I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you
can do anything ... grab them by the pussy." During the
Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman,
saying he "moved on her very heavily." These statements were
recorded several months after
Trump married his third and current
wife, Melania, who was pregnant at the time.
Trump's language on the tape was described by the media as "vulgar",
"sexist", and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident prompted him
to make his first public apology during the campaign, and
caused outrage across the political spectrum, with many
Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some
urging him to quit the race. Subsequently, at least 15 women
came forward with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including
unwanted kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media
coverage. In his two public statements in response to the
Trump responded by alleging that Bill Clinton, former
president of the United States and husband of Trump's Democratic rival
Hillary Clinton, had "abused women" and that Hillary had bullied her
Election to the presidency
Main article: United States presidential election, 2016
2016 electoral vote results
On November 8, 2016,
Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus
232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively,
after defections on both sides. Clinton conceded the election in
the early hours of November 9.
Trump then delivered his victory
speech, which was conciliatory in contrast with some of his previous
Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which
made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the
popular vote.[nb 1] Clinton finished ahead by 2.1 percentage
points, with 48.04% of the vote and 65,844,954 votes to 46.09% of the
vote and 62,979,879 votes, with neither candidate reaching a majority
Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset, as polls
Hillary Clinton leading nationwide and in most
battleground states, while Trump's support had been underestimated
throughout his campaign. The errors in some state polls were
later partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's
support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating
Trump's support among white working-class voters.
Trump won 30 states including the perennial swing states of Florida
and Iowa. He also won
Ohio and Clinton's "blue wall" states of
Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been Democratic
strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and the
District of Columbia. Trump's victory marked the return of a
White House combined with control of both chambers of
Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after
adjusting for inflation. He is also the first president without
prior government or military service. Of the 43[nb 2]
previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not
held elective office but had served in the Cabinet, and three had
never held public office but had been commanding generals.
Main article: Protests against Donald Trump
Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017, a day after the
Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or
violence, including attacks on
Trump supporters and vice-versa both
inside and outside the venues. Trump's election victory
sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his
policies and his inflammatory statements.
Trump initially said on
Twitter that these were "professional protesters, incited by the
media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that
the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great
In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump
demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which gathered
2,600,000 people worldwide, including 500,000 in Washington
Main article: Presidency of Donald Trump
For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the
presidency of Donald Trump.
Presidential transition of Donald Trump
Presidential transition of Donald Trump and First 100 days
of Donald Trump's presidency
John Roberts administers the oath of office to Donald
Trump as his family looks on.
Trump was inaugurated as the nation's 45th president on Friday,
January 20, 2017. During his first week in office, he signed six
executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the
Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act
Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), withdrawal
from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, re-instatement of the Mexico City
Policy, unlocking the
Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline
construction projects, reinforcing border security and beginning the
planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border
On January 31,
Trump nominated U.S. Appeals Court judge Neil Gorsuch,
described as a solid conservative, to fill the vacancy left on the
Supreme Court by the death of Justice
Antonin Scalia eleven months
earlier. The Senate confirmed the nomination on April 7 with a
54–45 vote, after Republicans invoked the "nuclear option" which
allowed confirmation by a simple majority.
Economy and trade
Main article: Economic policy of Donald Trump
Trump speaking to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017
Trump has been described as a protectionist because of
his steel and aluminum tariffs, criticism of
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), and his
proposal to significantly raise tariffs on Chinese and Mexican exports
to the United States. He has also been critical of the World
Trade Organization, threatening to leave unless his proposed tariffs
are accepted. He said he would support a "fair" post-Brexit
trade deal with the United Kingdom, which
Trump says would be
"good for both sides". On January 23, 2017 - three days after his
inauguration - he signed an order withdrawing the United States from
the Trans-Pacific Partnership. On March 8, 2018, he signed an
order imposing import tariffs of 25 percent on steel and 10 percent on
aluminum, with exemptions for Canada, Mexico, and possibly other
In December 2017,
Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017,
which cut the corporate tax rate to 21%, lowered personal tax
brackets, increased child tax credit, doubled the estate tax threshold
to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction
to $10,000. The reduction in individual tax rates ends in 2025.
While people would generally get a tax cut, those with higher incomes
would see the most benefit. Households in the lower or
middle class would also see a small tax increase after the tax cuts
expire. The bill is estimated to increase deficits by
$1.5 trillion over 10 years. In February 2018, Trump
praised the bill for increasing pay for millions, after announcements
of bonuses from many companies. These bonuses have been criticized by
the bill's opponents as publicity stunts, and economists have
said many of them would have happened anyway due to low
Energy and climate
Main article: Environmental policy under the
Trump's energy policy advocates domestic industrial support for both
fossil and renewable energy sources in order to curb reliance on
Middle-Eastern oil and possibly turn the U.S. into a net energy
exporter. His appointed advisers favor a less regulated energy
market and, because they do not consider climate change a threat, see
no need for immediate action.
Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change. In
2012, he said that global warming was a hoax invented by the Chinese,
but later said that he was joking. He has called the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a "disgrace" and has threatened
to cut its budget.
Trump pledged to eliminate the Clean Power
Plan and withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement, which calls
for reductions in carbon emissions in more than 170 countries. On
June 1, 2017, he announced the withdrawal, making the United States
the only large nation to opt out.
Government size and deregulation
Trump's early policies have favored deregulation and a smaller federal
government. He signed a
Congressional Review Act disapproval
resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall. During his
first six weeks in office, he abolished ninety federal
On January 23, 2017,
Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring
freeze, which allows for exceptions, primarily for jobs deemed vital
for national security or public safety reasons. The
Comptroller General of the
Government Accountability Office
Government Accountability Office told a
House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in
reducing costs. Unlike some past freezes, the current freeze bars
agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees
leaving. A week later
Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which
directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations
for every new regulation they issue. Harvard Law professor
Jody Freeman said that the order would do no more than slow the
regulatory process, because it did not block rules required by
statute. On February 24, 2017,
Trump ordered the agencies to
create task forces to determine which regulations are deemed
burdensome to the U.S. economy. Agency defenders expressed
opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying that the bureaucracy exists
to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest
Larry King Live
Larry King Live that "I believe in universal
healthcare." Trump's 2000 book, The America We Deserve, argued
strongly for a single-payer healthcare system based on the Canadian
model, and has voiced admiration for the Scottish National Health
Trump says he aims to streamline the
Department of Veterans Affairs, get rid of backlogs and waitlists, and
upgrade relevant facilities. On his first Monday in office, Trump
issued a federal hiring freeze on the VA.
During his campaign,
Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace
Obamacare. Shortly after taking office, he urged Congress to
repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the United States House of
Representatives voted to repeal the ACA. Over the course of
several months' effort, however, the Senate was unable to pass any
version of a repeal bill.
Trump has expressed a desire to "let
Obamacare fail", and the
Trump administration has cut the ACA
enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for
advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment. The
Trump signed into law at the end of his first year in
office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate
that was a major element of the Obamacare health insurance system;
this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.
Main article: Immigration policy of Donald Trump
Trump conferring with Vice President
Mike Pence and Secretary of
Homeland Security John F. Kelly, January 25, 2017
Trump's immigration policies were a topic of intense discussion during
the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the
Mexico–United States border
Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed
that Mexico would pay for it. He pledged to massively deport
illegal immigrants residing in the United States, and criticized
birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies". He said that
deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security
Following the November 2015 Paris attacks,
Trump had made a
controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the
United States until stronger vetting systems could be
implemented. He later restrained the proposed ban to
countries with a "proven history of terrorism".
Executive Order 13769
Executive Order 13769 at the Pentagon as Vice President
Mike Pence and Secretary of Defense
James Mattis look on, January 27,
On January 27, 2017,
Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which
suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to
citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and
Yemen for 90
days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning
and took effect immediately. Confusion and protests caused chaos
at airports. The administration then clarified that visitors
with a green card were exempt from the ban.
On January 30, Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed
Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, that she
deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional;
dismissed her. Multiple legal challenges were filed against
the order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its
implementation. On March 6,
Trump issued a revised order,
which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents,
and removed priorities for Christian minorities. Again
federal judges in Hawaii, Maryland, and Virginia blocked its
implementation. On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that
the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a
bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United
On September 24, 2017, the temporary order was replaced by
Presidential Proclamation 9645, which permanently restricts travel
from the originally targeted countries except
Iraq and Sudan, and
further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, and certain
Venezuelan officials. On October 17, a federal judge in Hawaii
blocked the new restrictions, except for North Korea and
Venezuela. On October 24, the Supreme Court dismissed a March
appeal as moot, while expressing "no views on the merits" of the
case. On December 4, the Supreme Court allowed the September
version to go into full effect, while legal challenges continued in
lower courts. On January 19, the Supreme Court announced that it
would hear a challenge to the travel ban; the ruling would probably be
issued in late June 2018.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program (DACA) had been
introduced in 2012 by President Obama to handle the cases of people
who had either entered or remained in the United States illegally as
minors. Those individuals, nicknamed "Dreamers", could receive a
renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and were
eligible for a work permit. While running for president,
that he intended to repeal DACA on "day one" of his presidency.
On September 5, 2017, Attorney General
Jeff Sessions announced that
the DACA program would be repealed after six months.
that "top legal experts" believed that DACA was unconstitutional, and
called on Congress to use the six-month delay to pass legislation
solving the "Dreamers" issue permanently. As of
March 2018[update], when the delay expired, no such legislation
had been agreed.
Several states immediately challenged the DACA rescission in
court, and some "Dreamers" filed suit against
Trump in San
Francisco. On January 9, 2018, the United States District Court
for the Northern District of California temporarily blocked the
rescission, ordering the government to renew DACA until further order
of the court. Consequently, the government resumed approving DACA
renewal applications. On February 13, the U.S. District Court for
the Eastern District of New York further ordered the federal
government to accept brand new applicants as well as renewals.
Nicholas Garaufis said that DACA was neither unconstitutional
nor in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) nor the
Immigration and Naturalization Act
Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA).
Main article: Social policy of Donald Trump
Trump is conservative, describes himself as pro-life, and opposes
abortion except for cases of rape, incest, and circumstances
endangering the health of the mother. He has said that he is
committed to appointing justices who would try to overturn the ruling
in Roe v. Wade. He personally supports "traditional
marriage" but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex
marriage a "settled" issue.
Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says
he is opposed to gun control in general, although his views
have shifted over time.
Trump opposes legalizing recreational
marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana. He favors
capital punishment, as well as the use of waterboarding and
"a hell of a lot worse" methods of torture.
Foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration
Foreign policy of the Donald Trump administration and
Foreign policy of Donald Trump
Trump together with other leaders at the
43rd G7 summit
43rd G7 summit in
Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian President Abdel
Fattah el-Sisi at the
2017 Riyadh summit
2017 Riyadh summit in Saudi Arabia
Trump has been described as non-interventionist and
nationalist. He has repeatedly stated that he supports his
foreign policy "America First". He supports increasing United
States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United
States spending on
NATO and in the Pacific region. He says
America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its
resources toward domestic needs. As a candidate he questioned
whether he, as president, would automatically extend security
NATO members, and suggested that he might leave
NATO unless changes are made to the alliance. As president he has
reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO.
In order to confront the Islamic State of
Syria (ISIS), Trump
in 2015 called for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S.
air power and ground troops. In 2016,
Trump advocated sending
20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region, a position he later
During his campaign and as president,
Trump repeatedly said that he
wants a good relationship with Russia.
Trump has pledged to
hold a summit meeting with Vladimir Putin. He added that Russia
could help the U.S. in fighting ISIS militants. He has also
praised China's President Xi Jinping,
Rodrigo Duterte, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi,
Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and King Salman of
Saudi Arabia. On April 7, 2017,
Trump ordered a missile strike
against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun
On June 16, 2017,
Trump announced that he was canceling the Obama
administration's deals with Cuba, while also expressing hope that a
new deal could be negotiated between
Cuba and the United
States. On November 8, 2017, the
tightened the rules on trade with Cuba, thus undoing Obama
administration's loosening of restrictions. These changes are
"intended to steer economic activities away from the Cuban military,
intelligence and security services"; they limited individual visits to
Trump and Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu at Yad Vashem, May
Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict,
Trump has stated the
importance of being a neutral party during potential negotiations,
while also having stated that he is "a big fan of Israel". During
the campaign he said he would relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel to
Jerusalem from its current location, Tel Aviv. On May 22, 2017,
Trump was the first U.S. president to visit the
Western Wall in
Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip, visiting Israel, Italy, the
Vatican, and Belgium.
Trump officially recognized
the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and
warnings from world leaders.
Trump added that he would initiate the
process of establishing a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem. The
United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly condemned the move by adopting a
resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the
establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem" in
an emergency session on December 21, 2017.
North Korea became a major issue in mid-2017. During the campaign and
the early months of his presidency,
Trump had hoped that
help to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions and missile
tests. However, North Korea accelerated their missile and nuclear
tests, leading to increased tension. In July, the country tested
two long-range missiles identified by Western observers as
intercontinental ballistic missiles, potentially capable of reaching
Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland. In August, Trump
dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that
further provocation against the U.S. will be met with "fire and fury
like the world has never seen." North Korean leader Kim Jong-un
then threatened to direct the country's next missile test toward Guam.
Trump warned Kim of strong retaliation if North Korea attacked
U.S. allies. In January 2018, South Korean president Moon Jae-in
praised Trump's tough stance toward the North, stating that Trump
deserved "big" credit for his efforts in facilitating talks between
North and South Korea.
In March 2018, the
White House confirmed that President
accept a meeting invitation from Kim Jong Un. The two will meet by
May. Press secretary Sarah Sanders said that "in the meantime, all
sanctions and maximum pressure must remain."
Main articles: Russian interference in the 2016 United States
elections and Links between
Trump associates and Russian officials
Trump at the G20 Hamburg summit, July 7, 2017
Trump's connections to Russia have been intensely scrutinized by the
media. During the campaign,
Trump repeatedly praised Russian
Vladimir Putin as a strong leader and called for better
relations with Moscow. Within days of Trump's inauguration,
State Department staffers were ordered to develop plans for
immediately revoking the sanctions against Russia, although the plans
were never carried out. When Congress passed a bipartisan bill in
August 2017 to impose new sanctions against Russia,
Trump signed the
bill but so far refused to implement it. Former intelligence
officials Michael Hayden and
Michael Morell have expressed their
Trump is a "useful fool...manipulated by Moscow" and an
"unwitting agent of the Russian Federation".
War in Afghanistan
Further information: War in
Trump administration, U.S. troop numbers in
increased from 8,500 to 14,000, as of January 2017[update].
Trump announced this troop increase in August 2017; this was a change
from his pre-election position which was critical of further
involvement in Afghanistan. U.S. officials said then that they
aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in
January 2018, however,
Trump spoke against talks with the
White House staff
Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover,
White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year
in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired,
or been reassigned. As of early March 2018[update], 43
percent of senior
White House positions had turned over. Both figures
set a record for recent presidents – more change in the first 13
months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two
years. Notable early departures included National Security
Mike Flynn (after just 25 days in office), Chief of Staff
Reince Priebus, replaced by retired Marine General
John F. Kelly
John F. Kelly on
July 28, 2017, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close
personal aides to
Trump such as Steven Bannon, Hope Hicks, Keith
Schiller, and John McEntee have quit or been forced out.
Main articles: Cabinet of Donald Trump, Formation of Donald Trump's
Cabinet, and Political appointments of Donald Trump
Trump's cabinet nominations included Alabama Senator
Jeff Sessions as
Attorney General, financier
Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the
Treasury, retired Marine Corps General
James Mattis as Secretary
of Defense, and
Rex Tillerson as Secretary of
Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed
him during the presidential campaign, for example neurosurgeon Ben
Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and South
Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United
While most of Trump's nominees were approved by the GOP majority in
the Senate, the confirmation of education reform activist Betsy DeVos
as Secretary of Education required Vice President Pence to cast a
rare tie-breaking vote, the first in a Cabinet nominee's Senate
Most cabinet members were unable to take office on Inauguration Day
because of delays in the formal confirmation process. Part of the
lateness was ascribed to delays in submitting background-check
paperwork, and part to obstructionism by Senate Democrats. The
last Cabinet member, Robert Lighthizer, took office as U.S. Trade
Representative on May 11, 2017, more than four months after his
Turnover has been "historically" high in his cabinet. Out of his 15
original cabinet secretaries, two were gone within 15 months: Health
and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in
September 2017, and
Trump fired Secretary of State
Rex Tillerson in
Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive
branch, saying that many of the positions are unnecessary. As of
October 2017[update], there were hundreds of sub-cabinet
positions vacant. More than half of State Department slots requiring
Senate confirmation were vacant, and the same was true for the
departments of the Treasury, Labor, Interior, and Education.
Two-thirds of the top positions at the Department of Energy were
unfilled. At the end of his first year in office, "Of the roughly
600 key executive branch positions, just 241 have been filled, 135
nominated candidates await confirmation while 244 slots have no
nominee at all." Positions for which no candidate has been
nominated include key ambassadorships, Commissioner of the Internal
Revenue Service, Director of the Census Bureau, and Director of the
National Counterterrorism Center.
In January 2017, American intelligence agencies—the CIA, the FBI,
and the NSA, represented by the Director of National
Intelligence—jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian
government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the
election of Trump. In March 2017, then FBI Director James
Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence
mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to
interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes
investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated
Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there
was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."
Later, in testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee on June 8, he
affirmed he has "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016
election, adding "they did it with purpose and sophistication".
One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for
several years to help pro-Russian politician
Viktor Yanukovich win the
Ukrainian presidency. Other
Trump associates, including former
National Security Advisor
Michael T. Flynn
Michael T. Flynn and political consultant
Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials.
Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could
use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump. Members of Trump's
campaign and later his
White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in
contact with Russian officials both before and after the November
election. In a December 29, 2016, conversation, Flynn and Kislyak
discussed the recently imposed sanctions against Russia;
fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the
Dismissal of James Comey
Main article: Dismissal of James Comey
On May 9, 2017,
Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey. He
attributed the action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff
Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein, which criticized Comey's
conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails. On
Trump stated that he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia
thing" and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier.
According to a
Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14,
Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into
Michael Flynn. In March and April,
Trump had told Comey that the
ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency, and
asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under
investigation. He also asked DNI
Dan Coats and NSA Director
Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that
his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election. Both
refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not
illegal. Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was
director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump
himself. In a statement on
Trump implied that he had
"tapes" of conversations with Comey, before later stating that he did
not in fact have such tapes.
Special Counsel investigation (2017–present)
On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General
Rod Rosenstein appointed
Robert Mueller, a former Director of the FBI, to serve as special
counsel for the
United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice (DOJ). In this
capacity, Mueller oversees the investigation into "any links and/or
coordination between Russian government and individuals associated
with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that
arose or may arise directly from the investigation".
Special Counsel investigation "the single greatest witch hunt of a
politician in American history!"
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that days after Comey's dismissal the
special counsel had started investigating whether
Trump had obstructed
justice. Trump's lawyer
Jay Sekulow stated that he had not been
notified of any such investigation.
ABC News later reported
that the special counsel is gathering preliminary information about
possible obstruction of justice but has not launched a full-scale
investigation. In June 2017, a close friend of
Trump said that
Trump was considering terminating Mueller's appointment, and
in January 2018,
The New York Times
The New York Times reported that
Mueller to be fired after learning that Mueller was investigating
possible obstruction of justice, but backed down after White House
Don McGahn said he would quit.
Trump called the report
In January 2018,
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that Mueller wants to
Trump about the removal of Michael Flynn and James
Trump has expressed a willingness to do the interview;
according to The New York Times, some of his lawyers have warned
against doing so. Mueller can subpoena
Trump to testify if Trump
Main article: Efforts to impeach Donald Trump
In July 2017, Congressman
Brad Sherman (D-CA) introduced an article of
impeachment. In November 2017, six other Democratic
representatives introduced five articles of impeachment citing
"obstruction of justice", "violation of the foreign emoluments
clause", "violation of the domestic emoluments clause", "undermining
the independence of the federal judiciary," and "undermining the
freedom of the press".
In December 2017, an impeachment resolution was put to a vote.
Introduced by Congressman Al Green (D-TX), it comprised two articles
of impeachment titled "Associating the Presidency with White
Nationalism, Neo-Nazism and Hatred" and "Inciting Hatred and
Hostility". It was defeated 364 to 58.
2020 presidential campaign
Main article: Donald
Trump presidential campaign, 2020
Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with
the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency. This transformed
his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one. Trump
marked the official start of the campaign with a campaign rally in
Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after
taking office. By January 2018, Trump's reelection committee had
raised $22.1 million.
Book: Donald Trump, President of the United States
List of honors and awards received by Donald Trump
^ Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five"
includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite
their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results;
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and
the electoral college in 1824 (since no-one had a majority in the
electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives),
Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an
actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a
Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.
^ Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 19.
^ Panetta, Alexander (September 19, 2015). "Donald Trump's grandfather
ran Canadian brothel during gold rush". CBC News. Retrieved December
^ Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 23–25.
^ a b Blair 2015a, p. 5.
^ Blair, Gwenda (August 24, 2015). "The Man Who Made
Trump Who He Is".
Politico. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
^ a b Blair 2005, p. 23.
^ a b Pilon, Mary (June 24, 2016). "Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother".
The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ McGrane, Sally (April 29, 2016). "The Ancestral German Home of the
Trumps". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ Davidson, Amy (April 8, 2016). "Donald Trump's Nuclear Uncle". The
New Yorker. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
^ a b Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 45.
^ The 75th Anniversary Shrapnel. NYMA. Spring 1964. p. 107.
Retrieved January 21, 2017.
New York City
New York City Department of Health (June 14, 1946). "Donald Trump
Birth Certificate". ABC News. Archived from the original on May 12,
2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
Jamaica Hospital (June 14, 1946). "Certificate of Birth: Donald John
Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on April 9,
2011. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
^ Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 31, 37.
^ Schwartzman, Paul; Miller, Michael E. (June 22, 2016). "Confident.
Incorrigible. Bully: Little Donny was a lot like candidate Donald
Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ a b c Viser, Matt (August 28, 2015). "Even in college, Donald Trump
was brash". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on August 28,
2015. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ Blair 2005, p. 16.
^ Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 47, 50, 104–105.
^ Ehrenfreund, Max (September 3, 2015). "The real reason Donald Trump
is so rich". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
^ "The Best Known Brand Name in Real Estate". The Wharton School.
Spring 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ "Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees"
(PDF). University of Pennsylvania. May 20, 1968. Archived from the
original (PDF) on July 19, 2016.
^ Montopoli, Brian (April 29, 2011). "Donald
Trump avoided Vietnam
with deferments, records show".
CBS News. Retrieved July 17,
^ Lee, Kurtis (August 4, 2016). "How deferments protected Donald Trump
from serving in Vietnam". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035.
Retrieved August 4, 2016.
^ a b Whitlock, Craig (July 21, 2015). "Questions linger about Trump's
draft deferments during Vietnam War". The Washington Post. Retrieved
April 2, 2017.
^ Goldman, Russell (April 29, 2011). "Donald Trump's Own Secret:
Vietnam Draft Records". ABC News. Retrieved August 1, 2016. Nor do the
documents categorically suggest it was deferments and not a high draft
number that ultimately allowed him to avoid the draft.
^ Eder, Steve; Philipps, Dave (August 1, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft
Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet". The New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2016. Because of his medical
exemption, his lottery number would have been irrelevant, said Richard
Flahavan, a spokesman for the Selective Service System who has worked
for the agency for three decades ... Still, Mr. Trump, in the
interviews, said he believed he could have been subject to another
physical exam to check on his bone spurs, had his draft number been
called. 'I would have had to go eventually because that was a minor
medical ...' But the publicly available draft records of Mr.
Trump include the letters 'DISQ' next to his exam date, with no
notation indicating that he would be re-examined.
^ Mannion, Cara (February 3, 2017). "3rd Circ. Judge, Trump's Sister,
Stops Hearing Cases". Law360. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
^ Puente, Maria (September 12, 2017). "Eric and Lara
birth of son, POTUS' ninth grandchild". USA Today. Retrieved September
^ "Trump's daughter, Ivanka, gives birth to third child". Fox News
Channel. Associated Press. March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 28,
^ "Melania Trump, the Silent Partner". The New York Times. October 1,
^ Brenner, Marie (September 1990). "After The Gold Rush". Vanity Fair.
Retrieved January 10, 2016. "They were married in New York
during Easter of 1977. Mayor Beame attended the wedding at Marble
Collegiate Church. Donald had already made his alliance with Roy Cohn,
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We have really never seen anything like this. Former acting CIA
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term drawn from the arcana of the Soviet era: polezni durak. That's
the useful fool, some naif, manipulated by Moscow, secretly held in
contempt, but whose blind support is happily accepted and exploited.
That's a pretty harsh term, and
Trump supporters will no doubt be
offended. But, frankly, it's the most benign interpretation of all
this that I can come up with right now. - Michael Hayden
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White House Has Highest
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White House Staff Turnover Was Already
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^ "Former US banker
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^ Lamothe, Dan. "
Trump has chosen retired Marine Gen.
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^ "Rex Tillerson, Exxon C.E.O., chosen as Secretary of State".
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^ Gabriel, Trip (December 5, 2016). "
Ben Carson to Lead
HUD". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
^ Costa, Robert (November 23, 2016). "Gov.
Nikki Haley tapped to be
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^ Smith, David (November 23, 2016). "Betsy Devos, billionaire
philanthropist, picked as
Trump education secretary". The Guardian.
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^ "DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic
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Trump's cabinet facing historic obstruction?". BBC News. Retrieved
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Trump Leaves Top Administration
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^ a b "One year into Trump's presidency, hundreds of key executive
branch positions remain unfilled".
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Trump Misleads on Russian
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Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016
aimed at the US presidential election. Russia's goals were to
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Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency.
We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear
preference for President-elect Trump. We have high confidence in these
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Investigating Trump's Links to Russia". The Atlantic. Retrieved June
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to Ukraine, explained". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 14,
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Trump's Side, Is Under F.B.I. Scrutiny". The New York Times.
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Manafort, Flynn to influence Trump". The Hill. Retrieved May 28,
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AMID RUSSIA INQUIRY – Clinton Email Investigation Cited –
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Trump said he was
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House account of the Comey firing". The Week. May 11, 2017. Retrieved
May 11, 2017.
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Comey to Drop Flynn Investigation, According to Memo Written by Former
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Trump Pressured Him to Say He Wasn't Under Investigation". The New
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Trump asked DNI, NSA to
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Trump Asked Top
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Trump Says He Did
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DICKERSON: How do you know?
SEKULOW: Because we've received no notice of investigation. There has
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circumstances will be completed before a final decision is made to
launch an investigation of the president of the United States
regarding potential obstruction of justice.
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Trump Is Considering Firing
Robert Mueller". time.com. 'I think he's considering perhaps
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See also: Bibliography of Donald Trump
Blair, Gwenda (2005). Donald Trump: Master Apprentice. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-7510-1.
Blair, Gwenda (2015a). Donald Trump: The Candidate. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-2937-1.
Blair, Gwenda (2015b) [First published 2001]. The Trumps: Three
Generations That Built an Empire. Simon & Schuster.
Gallup, George, Jr. (1990). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1989.
Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8420-2344-3.
Pacelle, Mitchell (2001). Empire: A Tale of Obsession, Betrayal, and
the Battle for an American Icon. John Wiley & Sons.
Kranish, Michael; Fisher, Marc (2017) [First published 2016]. Trump
Revealed: The Definitive Biography of the 45th President. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5011-5652-6.
Light, Larry (2012). Taming the Beast: Wall Street's Imperfect Answers
to Making Money. John Wiley & Sons.
Payment, Simone (2007). Donald Trump: Profile of a Real Estate Tycoon.
Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4042-1909-0.
Trump, Donald J.; Schwartz, Tony (2009) [First published 1987]. Trump:
The Art of the Deal. Random House. ISBN 978-0-446-35325-0.
Wooten, Sara (2009). Donald Trump: From Real Estate to Reality TV.
Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-2890-6.
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The America We Deserve
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Trump 101 (2006)
Why We Want You to Be Rich
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Think Big and Kick Ass
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