PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES INCUMBENT
* Election * Transition * Inauguration
* timeline * first 100 days * executive actions * trips * opinion polling * protests
* Cabinet * judges * Supreme Court candidates * Neil Gorsuch
* Sally Yates * James Comey
* withdrawal from Paris Agreement
* Foreign policy
* as candidate * as president
* Social issues
2016 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
* Campaign * Rallies * Primaries * Convention * Endorsements * Debates * Never Trump * Sexual misconduct allegations
RUSSIA CONTROVERSIES Business projects in Russia Election interference timeline Steele dossier Comey memos Classified information disclosure Links of associates with Russian officials Trump campaign–Russian meeting 2017 Special Counsel investigation
------------------------- The Trump Organization _Real estate_ New York properties Trump Tower The Trump Building Trump Parc Trump Park Avenue Trump SoHo Trump Village Trump World Tower Central Park Carousel Wollman Rink Hotels Chicago Honolulu Las Vegas New York Palm Beach (Mar-a-Lago) Washington Baku Panama Toronto Vancouver NAME LICENSING Trump Palace Trump Place Trump Plaza Trump Tower FORMER NOTABLE PROPERTIES GM Building Grand Hyatt Plaza Hotel _Golf courses_ United States Bedminster Ferry Point Pine Hill Westchester Los Angeles Miami "Doral" Palm Beach Washington Europe Doonbeg Turnberry _Other ventures_ Current Trump Home Trump Productions Trump Winery Former Casinos Miss Universe Trump Foundation Trump Models Trump University Miscellaneous -------------------------
* Business career * Eponyms * Family * Legal affairs * Residences * Social media
* _The Apprentice_ franchise * Films
* _The Art of the Deal _ * _Surviving at the Top _ * _The Art of the Comeback _ * _ The America We Deserve _ * _ Trump 101 _ * _ Why We Want You to Be Rich _ * _ Think Big and Kick Ass _ * _ Time to Get Tough _ * _Midas Touch _ * _ Crippled America _
* v * t * e
DONALD JOHN TRUMP (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States , in office since January 20, 2017. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.
Trump was born in the New York City borough of Queens . He earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania . For 45 years, he managed The Trump Organization , the real estate development firm founded by his paternal grandmother . His business career focused on building or renovating office towers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. He started several side ventures and branded various products with his name. He produced and hosted _ The Apprentice _ television series for 12 years. As of 2017 , he was the 544th richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of $3.5 billion.
Trump had long expressed interest in politics . He entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries . Commentators described his political positions as populist , protectionist , and nationalist . His campaign received extensive free media coverage ; many of his public statements were controversial or false . Trump won the general election on November 8, 2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton . He became the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service , and the fifth to have won the election despite losing the popular vote . His election and policies sparked numerous protests .
In the first months of his presidency , Trump reversed several policies of former President Barack Obama : he withdrew the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Paris Climate Agreement , and he undid parts of the Cuban Thaw . Trump appointed Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court . He ordered a travel ban on citizens from six Muslim-majority countries, which was partially implemented after several legal challenges . After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey , the Justice Department appointed his predecessor Robert Mueller as special counsel to investigate Russia\'s interference in the presidential election , potential links between Russia and Trump campaign associates , and any related matters.
* 1 Family and personal life
* 1.1 Ancestry * 1.2 Early life and education * 1.3 Family * 1.4 Religion * 1.5 Health * 1.6 Wealth
* 2 Business career
* 2.1 Real estate
* 2.2 Branding and licensing * 2.3 Legal affairs and bankruptcies
* 2.4 Side ventures
* 2.5 Foundation * 2.6 Resignation
* 3 Media career
* 3.1 _The Apprentice_ * 3.2 Professional wrestling * 3.3 Acting and public image
* 4 Political career up to 2015
* 4.1 Early involvement in politics * 4.2 Political affiliations * 4.3 2000 presidential campaign
* 5 2016 presidential campaign
* 5.1 Campaign rhetoric * 5.2 Financial disclosures * 5.3 Republican primaries * 5.4 General election campaign * 5.5 Political positions * 5.6 Russian interference in election * 5.7 Interactions with Russia * 5.8 Sexual misconduct allegations * 5.9 Election to the presidency * 5.10 Protests * 5.11 Electoral history
* 6 Presidency
* 6.1 Transition
* 6.1.1 White House appointments * 6.1.2 Cabinet-level nominations * 6.1.3 Pre-inauguration events
* 6.2 First 100 days
* 6.2.1 False and misleading statements * 6.2.2 Immigration orders
* 6.3 Dismissal of James Comey
* 6.4 Domestic policy
* 6.4.1 Energy * 6.4.2 Climate change * 6.4.3 Immigration * 6.4.4 Social issues * 6.4.5 Health care * 6.4.6 Education * 6.4.7 Economy and trade * 6.4.8 Government size and deregulation
* 6.5 Foreign policy * 6.6 Impeachment efforts * 6.7 2020 presidential campaign
* 7 Awards, honors, and distinctions
* 7.1 Honorary degrees * 7.2 Organizational recognitions * 7.3 State orders and awards
* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links
FAMILY AND PERSONAL LIFE
Further information: Trump family
Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of Kallstadt , Palatinate , on his father's side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mother's side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe. His mother's grandfather was also christened "Donald".
Trump's paternal grandfather, Friedrich Trump (later Frederick), first emigrated to the United States in 1885 at the age of 16, and became a citizen in 1892. He amassed a fortune operating boom-town restaurants and boarding houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of Canada, during the gold rush . On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and married her in 1902. The couple settled in New York permanently in 1905. Frederick died from influenza during the 1918 pandemic .
Donald's father Fred Trump was born in 1905 in the Bronx . Fred started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after his father's death. Their company, Elizabeth Trump and Son, was primarily active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn . Fred eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks and apartments. The company would later become The Trump Organization after Donald Trump took over in 1971.
Donald's mother Mary Anne was born in Tong, Lewis , Scotland. At age 18 in 1930, she emigrated to New York where she worked as a maid. Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.
Fred's brother John (Donald's uncle) became a physicist and inventor.
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Donald Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens , New York City. He was the fourth of five children born to Frederick Christ "Fred" Trump (1905–1999) and Mary Anne Trump (née MacLeod, 1912–2000). His siblings are Maryanne (b. 1937), Fred Jr. (1938–1981), Elizabeth (b. 1942), and Robert (b. 1948).
Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens. He attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, Trump enrolled in the New York Military Academy , a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that Donald had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission.
In August 1964, Trump entered Fordham University . After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania , because it offered one of the few real estate studies departments in United States academia at the time.
In addition to his father, Trump was inspired by Manhattan developer William Zeckendorf , vowing to be "even bigger and better". While at Wharton, he worked at the family business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, graduating in May 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in economics.
Trump was not drafted during the Vietnam War , nor did he enlist as a volunteer or as a Reserve Officer Training Corps candidate. While in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination, and in 1968 was briefly classified as fit by a local draft board, but was given a 1-Y medical deferment in October 1968, attributed to heel spurs . In 1969, he received a high number in the draft lottery , which made him unlikely to be called.
Main article: Family of Donald Trump The January 20, 2017 swearing-in of Donald Trump as President: Trump, wife Melania , son Donald Jr. , son Barron , daughter Ivanka , son Eric , and daughter Tiffany
Trump has five children by three marriages, and has eight grandchildren. His first two marriages ended in widely publicized divorces.
At age 30, Trump married his first wife, Czech model Ivana Zelníčková , on April 7, 1977, at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan in a ceremony performed by the Reverend Norman Vincent Peale . They had three children: son Donald Jr. (b. 1977), daughter Ivanka (b. 1981), and son Eric (b. 1984). Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988. The couple divorced in 1992 following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples .
In October 1993, Maples gave birth to Trump's daughter Tiffany , named after high-end retailer Tiffany "> The President and First Lady at the Liberty Ball on Inauguration Day
On January 22, 2005, Trump married Slovene model Melania Knauss at Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Palm Beach, Florida . The ceremony was followed by a reception at Trump's Mar-a-Lago estate. In 2006, Melania acquired United States citizenship and she gave birth to their son Barron on March 20 of that year. Melania became First Lady of the United States upon Trump's accession to the presidency in January, 2017.
Prior to his inauguration as president, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his two adult sons, Eric and Don Jr. His daughter Ivanka resigned from The Trump Organization and moved to Washington with her husband Jared Kushner . She serves as assistant to the president, while he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.
Trump's elder sister, Maryanne Trump Barry , is an inactive Federal Appeals Court judge on the Third Circuit .
Trump's ancestors were Lutherans on his father's side in Germany and Presbyterian on his mother's side in Scotland. His parents married in a Manhattan Presbyterian church in 1936. As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, and had his Confirmation there. In the 1970s, his family joined the Marble Collegiate Church (an affiliate of the Reformed Church in America ) in Manhattan . The pastor at that church, Norman Vincent Peale , author of _The Power of Positive Thinking _ and _ The Art of Living _, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993. Trump, who is Presbyterian, has cited Peale and his works during interviews when asked about the role of religion in his personal life.
Trump receives Holy Communion , but he has said that he does not ask God for forgiveness. He stated: "I think if I do something wrong, I just try and make it right. I don't bring God into that picture." On the campaign trail , Trump has referred to _The Art of the Deal _ as his second favorite book after the Bible, saying "Nothing beats the Bible." In a 2016 speech to Liberty University , he referred to "Two Corinthians" instead of " Second Corinthians ", eliciting chuckles from the audience. Despite this, _The New York Times_ reported that Evangelical Christians nationwide thought "that his heart was in the right place, that his intentions for the country were pure."
Trump has had relationships with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White , who has been called his "closest spiritual confidant." In 2015, he received a blessing from Greek Orthodox priest Emmanuel Lemelson and in 2016, he released a list of his religious advisers, including James Dobson , Jerry Falwell Jr. , Ralph Reed and others. Referring to his daughter Ivanka's conversion to Judaism before her marriage to Jared Kushner , Trump said: "I have a Jewish daughter; and I am very honored by that."
Trump's doctor, Harold Bornstein M.D. , issued a 2016 medical report that showed Trump's blood pressure , liver and thyroid function were in normal ranges. Trump said that he has never smoked cigarettes or consumed other drugs, including marijuana . He also drinks no alcohol , a decision arising in part from watching his older brother Fred Jr. suffer from alcoholism that contributed to his early death in 1981.
Trump said that he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father. He appeared on the initial _ Forbes List _ of wealthy individuals in 1982 with an estimated $200 million fortune, including an "undefined" share of his parents' estate. During the 1980s he became a billionaire, but following business losses he was absent from the _Forbes_ list from 1990 to 1995; he reportedly borrowed from his siblings' trusts in 1993. His father's estate, valued at more than $20 million, was divided in 1999 among Trump, his three surviving siblings and their children. Trump Hotel Las Vegas , with gold infused glass
When Trump announced his candidacy for the Presidency on June 16, 2015, he released a one-page financial summary that stated a net worth of $8,737,540,000. The following month, he filed a 92-page FEC financial disclosure form and declared his net worth was "in excess of ten billion dollars". In his presidential announcement speech, he said "I'm really rich", and stated this would make him less indebted to large campaign donors. _Forbes_ believed his net worth estimate was "a whopper", setting their own estimate at $4.1 billion in 2015. Trump valued his "properties under development" at $293 million; _Forbes_ said they could not evaluate those deals, and booked them for $0. Trump's 2015 FEC disclosure reported $362 million in total income for the year 2014.
After Trump made controversial remarks about illegal immigrants in 2015, he lost business contracts with several companies; this reduced his _Forbes_ estimate by $125 million. Consumer boycotts and reduced bookings may have further affected his brand value during the presidential campaign. Trump's 104-page FEC disclosure in May 2016 still claimed a total wealth over $10 billion, unchanged from 2015. The release of the _Access Hollywood_ tapes in October 2016 put further pressure on his brand, but real estate experts predicted a positive rebound after he was elected.
In their 2017 billionaires' ranking, _ Forbes _ estimated Trump's net worth at $3.5 billion (544th in the world, 201st in the U.S.) making him one of the richest politicians in American history . These estimates fluctuate from year to year, and among various analysts. In July 2016 _ Bloomberg News _ had pegged his wealth at $3 billion, calling it an increase thanks to his presidential nomination, whereas _Forbes_ had ranked him 324th in the world (113th in the U.S.) with $4.5 billion just a few months earlier. The discrepancies among these estimates and with Trump's own figures stem from the uncertain values of appraised property and of his personal brand .
Main article: Business career of Donald Trump
Trump started his career at his father's real estate development company, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which focused on middle-class rental housing in the New York City boroughs outside Manhattan, but also had business elsewhere. For example, during his undergraduate study , Trump joined his father Fred in successfully revitalizing the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati , Ohio, thereby boosting the occupancy rate from 66% to 100%.
Trump was promoted to president of the company in 1971 (while his father became chairman of the board), and renamed it The Trump Organization . In 1973, he and his father drew wider attention when the Justice Department contended that the organization systematically discriminated against African Americans wishing to rent apartments, rather than merely screening out people based on low income, as the Trumps stated. Under an agreement reached in 1975, the Trumps made no admission of wrongdoing, and made the Urban League an intermediary for qualified minority applicants. His adviser and attorney during (and after) that period was Roy Cohn , who responded to attacks by counterattacking with maximum force, and who valued both positive and negative publicity, which were attitudes that Trump appreciated.
In 1978, Trump consummated his first major real estate deal in Manhattan when he purchased a half-share in the decrepit Commodore Hotel. The purchase was largely funded by a $70 million construction loan that was jointly guaranteed by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain. Designed by architect Der Scutt , the project was able to proceed by leveraging competing interests and by taking advantage of tax breaks. After remodeling, the hotel reopened as the Grand Hyatt Hotel , located next to Grand Central Terminal .
Also in 1978, Trump finished negotiations to develop Trump Tower , a 58-story, 202-meter (663-foot) skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan , which _The New York Times_ attributed to his "persistence" and "skills as a negotiator". To make way for the new building, a crew of undocumented Polish workers demolished an old Bonwit Teller store including art deco features that had initially been marked for preservation. The building was completed in 1983, and houses both the primary penthouse condominium residence of Trump and the headquarters of The Trump Organization. Architectural critic Paul Goldberger said in 1983 that he was surprised to find the tower's atrium was "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in New York in some years". Trump Tower was the setting of the NBC television show _The Apprentice _, and includes a fully functional television studio set. Central Park 's Wollman Rink , which was renovated by Trump
Repairs on the Wollman Rink (originally opened in 1949 in Central Park ) were started in 1980 by a general contractor unconnected to Trump. Despite an expected two and one-half year construction schedule, the repairs were not completed by 1986. Trump took over the project, completed it in three months for $775,000 less than the initial budget of $1.95 million, and operated the rink for one year with all profits going to charity in exchange for the rink's concession rights.
In 1988 Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for a record-setting $407 million, and asked his wife Ivana to manage its operation. Trump invested $50 million to restore the building, which he called "the Mona Lisa". According to hotel expert Thomas McConnell, the Trumps boosted it from a three-star to a four-star ranking, and sold it in 1995, by which time Ivana was no longer involved.
In 1994, Trump became involved with a building on Columbus Circle that was swaying in the wind. He began a reconstruction project that stopped the swaying and gave the building a full makeover. Trump thereafter owned commercial space in that 44-story mixed-use tower (hotel and condominium), which he named Trump International Hotel and Tower .
In 1996, Trump acquired a vacant seventy-story skyscraper on Wall Street that had briefly been the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1930. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street .
In 1997, he began construction on Trump Place , a multi-building development along the Hudson River . The project encountered delays the following year because a subcontracter had to replace defective concrete. He and the other investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for $1.8 billion in 2005, in what was then the biggest residential sale in the history of New York City.
In 2001, Trump completed Trump World Tower across from the headquarters of the United Nations . The structure was for a while the tallest all-residential tower in the world . Trump acquired the former Hotel Delmonico in Manhattan in 2002, which re-opened with 35 stories of luxury condominiums in 2004 as the Trump Park Avenue . Meanwhile, he continued to own millions of square feet of other prime Manhattan real estate.
Palm Beach Estate
Trump acquired the historic Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida in 1985 for $5 million, plus $3 million for the home's furnishings. The home was built in the 1920s by heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post , who envisioned the house as a future winter retreat for American presidents.
Trump's initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he was able to get the property at the much lower price by purchasing separate beachfront property and threatening to build a house on it that would block Mar-a-Lago's ocean view. In addition to using the estate as a home, Trump also turned it into a private club open to everyone who could afford the initiation fee of $100,000 plus annual dues.
In 1986, Trump acquired a foreclosed, 33-story, twin-tower condominium complex in nearby West Palm Beach for $40 million. Automobile manufacturing executive Lee Iacocca invested in three of the condos. Trump spruced up the complex's public areas and heavily promoted the property for years, but selling the units proved difficult, and the deal turned out to be unprofitable.
Atlantic City Casinos
New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, and the following year Trump was in Atlantic City, New Jersey to explore how he might get involved in a new business venture. Seven years later, Harrah\'s at Trump Plaza hotel and casino opened there; the multi-use unit was built by Trump with financing from Holiday Corporation , which also was managing that business. Renamed " Trump Plaza" soon after opening, it was at that time the tallest building in Atlantic City. The casino's poor financial results exacerbated disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corp., which led to Trump paying $70 million in May 1986 to buy out their interest in the property. Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million; when completed in 1985, that hotel and casino became Trump Castle , and Trump's wife, Ivana , managed that property until Trump transferred her in 1988 to run the Trump Plaza Hotel in New York. Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City
Also in 1988, Trump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal (then halfway through construction), by making a complex transaction with the television host and entertainer Merv Griffin as well as the resort and casino company Resorts International . In October 1989, three of his top Atlantic City executives were killed in a helicopter accident, which both stymied and delayed the planned opening of the Taj Mahal. The Taj finally opened in April 1990, and was built at a total cost of $1.1 billion, which at the time made it the most expensive casino ever. The project was financed with $675 million in junk bonds and was a major gamble by Trump. The project underwent debt restructuring the following year, leaving Trump with 50% ownership. He also sold his 282-foot (86 m) megayacht , the _ Trump Princess _, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.
Turnberry Hotel and golf course, Ayrshire, Scotland
The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and resorts in the United States and around the world. According to _ Golfweek _, Trump owns or manages about 18 golf courses. His personal financial disclosure with the Federal Elections Commission stated that his golf and resort revenue for the year 2015 was roughly $382 million, while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.
In 2006, Trump bought 1,400 acres (570 ha) including the Menie Estate in Balmedie , Aberdeenshire, Scotland and created a golf resort there. Scottish supporters emphasized potential economic benefits, and opponents emphasized potential environmental harm to a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). A spokesperson for the golf course has said 95% of the SSSI is untouched. A 2011 independent documentary, _You\'ve Been Trumped _, chronicled the golf resort's construction and struggles. In 2015, an offshore windfarm being built within sight of the golf course prompted a legal challenge by Trump, which was dismissed by the U.K. Supreme Court . In the wake of the 2008 recession, Trump greatly scaled back development of this property, and as of December 2016 Scottish officials were pushing for completion of the far larger development as originally approved.
In April 2014, Trump purchased the Turnberry hotel and golf resort in Ayrshire , Scotland, which hosted the Open Championship four times between 1977 and 2009. After extensive renovations and a remodeling of the course by golf architect Martin Ebert, Turnberry was re-opened in June 2016.
Hotels Outside New York
Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago Trump International Hotel and Tower in Vancouver
In the late 2000s and early 2010s, The Trump Organization expanded its footprint in the United States beyond New York and into a few other countries, with the co-development and management of hotel towers in Chicago , Las Vegas , Washington D.C. , Panama City , Toronto , and Vancouver . There are also Trump-branded buildings in Dubai, Honolulu , Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai and in Indonesia.
BRANDING AND LICENSING
Main article: List of things named after Donald Trump
Trump has marketed his name on a large number of building projects that are owned and operated by other people and companies, as well as licensing his name for various commercial products and services. In doing so, he achieved mixed success for himself, his partners, and investors in the projects. In 2011, _ Forbes '_ financial experts estimated the value of the Trump brand at $200 million. Trump disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about $3 billion.
LEGAL AFFAIRS AND BANKRUPTCIES
Main article: Legal affairs of Donald Trump
As of 2016, Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 3,500 state and federal legal actions. He or one of his companies was the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.
Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy , but his hotel and casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds. Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy , they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by _Newsweek_ in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt.
The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009). Trump said, "I've used the laws of this country to pare debt ... We'll have the company. We'll throw it into a chapter. We'll negotiate with the banks. We'll make a fantastic deal. You know, it's like on _The Apprentice_. It's not personal. It's just business."
A 2016 analysis of Trump's business career by _ The Economist _ concluded that his "... performance has been mediocre compared with the stock market and property in New York", noting both his successes and bankruptcies. A subsequent analysis by _ The Washington Post _ concluded that " Trump is a mix of braggadocio, business failures, and real success", calling his casino bankruptcies the "most infamous flop" of his business career.
After Trump took charge of the family real estate firm in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization , he not only greatly expanded its real estate operations, but also ventured into numerous other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.
In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals —an American Football team that played in the United States Football League —from oil magnate J. Walter Duncan . The USFL played three seasons during the spring and summer. After the 1985 season, the organization folded due to continuous financial difficulties, despite winning an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL .
Trump remained involved with other sports after the Generals folded; he operated golf courses in several countries. At the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, he hosted several boxing matches, which included Mike Tyson\'s 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael Spinks . He also acted as a financial advisor to Mike Tyson . In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race , which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d\'Italia .
From 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe pageants. The Miss Universe Pageants include Miss USA and Miss Teen USA , and his management of this business involved his family members; for example, daughter Ivanka once hosted Miss Teen USA. Trump hired the first female president of the Miss Universe business in 1997. He became dissatisfied with how CBS scheduled the pageants, and took both Miss Universe and Miss USA to NBC in 2002.
In 2015, after Trump made statements about illegal immigrants from Mexico in his U.S. presidential campaign kickoff speech, NBC decided to end its business relationship with him and stated that it would no longer air the Miss Universe or Miss USA pageants on its networks. In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization and became its sole owner for three days. He then sold the entire company to the WME/IMG talent agency.
Main article: Trump University
Trump University LLC was a for-profit education company that was founded by Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny. The company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500 and $35,000 per course. In 2005, the operation was notified by New York State authorities that its use of the word "university" was misleading and violated state law. After a second such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the " Trump Entrepreneurial Institute". Trump was also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.
In 2013, the State of New York filed a $40 million civil suit alleging that Trump University made false statements and defrauded consumers. In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to Trump University; they named Trump personally as well as his companies. During the presidential campaign , Trump criticized Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel who oversaw those two cases, alleging bias in his rulings because of his Mexican heritage. Shortly after Trump won the presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases, whereby Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any wrongdoing.
Main article: Donald J. Trump Foundation
The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book _Trump: The Art of the Deal _ by Trump and Tony Schwartz . The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump, who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.
The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. In 2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the New York– Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000). From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of WWE , who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007. Linda McMahon later became Administrator of the Small Business Administration .
In 2016, investigations by _The Washington Post_ uncovered several potential legal and ethical violations conducted by the charity, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion. After beginning an investigation into the foundation, the New York State Attorney General 's office notified the Trump Foundation that it was allegedly in violation of New York laws regarding charities, and ordered it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York. A Trump spokesman called the investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with role as President."
When Trump was elected president in November 2016, questions arose over how he would avoid conflicts of interest between his work in the White House and his business activities. At a press conference on January 10, 2017, Trump said that he and his daughter Ivanka would resign all roles with The Trump Organization, while his two adult sons Don Jr. and Eric would run the business, together with Chief Financial Officer Allen Weisselberg .
Trump retained his financial stake in the business. His attorney Sherri Dillon said that before the January 20 inauguration, Trump would put those business assets into a trust, which would hire an ethics advisor and a compliance counsel. She added that The Trump Organization would not enter any new foreign business deals, while continuing to pursue domestic opportunities. As of April 2017, Trump companies owned more than 400 condo units and home lots in the United States, valued at over $250 million in total ($200,000 to $35 million each).
Main articles: The Apprentice (U.S. TV series) and The Apprentice (TV series) _ Trump posing with former NBA basketball player Dennis Rodman during Rodman's 2009 participation on Celebrity Apprentice _
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show _The Apprentice_, in which a group of competitors battled for a high-level management job in one of Trump's commercial enterprises. Contestants were successively "fired " and eliminated from the game. For the first year of the show, Trump earned $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000 for the first season), but following the show's initial success, he was paid $1 million per episode. In a July 2015 press release, Trump's campaign manager said that NBCUniversal had paid him $213,606,575 for his 14 seasons hosting the show, although the network did not verify the statement. In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to television on _The Apprentice_.
Along with British TV producer Mark Burnett , Trump was hired as host of _ The Celebrity Apprentice _, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities. While Trump and Burnett co-produced the show, Trump stayed in the forefront, deciding winners and "firing" losers. International versions of _The Apprentice_ franchise were co-produced by Burnett and Trump.
On February 16, 2015, NBC announced that they would be renewing _The Apprentice_ for a 15th season. On February 27, Trump stated that he was "not ready" to sign on for another season because of the possibility of a presidential run. Despite this, on March 18, NBC announced they were going ahead with production. On June 29, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, "Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."
After Trump's election campaign and presidential win led to his departure from the program, actor and former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger replaced Trump as host for the fifteenth season. Trump is still credited as an executive producer for the show.
Trump is a World Wrestling Entertainment fan and a friend of WWE chairman Vince McMahon . In 1988–89 Trump hosted WrestleMania IV and V at Boardwalk Hall (dubbed " Trump Plaza" for storyline purposes) and has been an active participant in several of the shows. He also appeared in WrestleMania VII , and was interviewed ringside at WrestleMania XX .
Trump appeared at WrestleMania 23 in a match called "The Battle of the Billionaires". He was in Bobby Lashley 's corner, while Vince McMahon was in the corner of Lashley's opponent Umaga , with Stone Cold Steve Austin as the special guest referee. The terms of the match were that either Trump or McMahon would have their head shaved if their competitor lost. Lashley won the match, and so McMahon was shaved bald.
On June 15, 2009, McMahon announced as part of a storyline on _Monday Night Raw _ that he had "sold" the show to Trump. Appearing on screen, Trump declared that he would be at the following commercial-free episode in person and would give a full refund to the people who purchased tickets to the arena for that night's show. McMahon "bought back" _Raw_ the following week for twice the price.
In 2013, Trump was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame at Madison Square Garden for his contributions to the promotion. He made his sixth WrestleMania appearance the following night at WrestleMania 29 .
ACTING AND PUBLIC IMAGE
Trump has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television series, and he was twice nominated for an Emmy Award . He played an oil tycoon in _The Little Rascals _, and had a singing role at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2006. Trump is a member of the Screen Actors Guild and receives an annual pension of more than $110,000.
Trump has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on _Saturday Night Live_ by Phil Hartman , Darrell Hammond and Alec Baldwin , and in _ South Park _ as Mr. Garrison . The _ Simpsons _ episode "Bart to the Future ", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party , anticipated a future Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called _ The President Show _ debuted in April 2017.
Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated _Howard Stern Show _ on talk radio. Trump also had his own daily talk radio program called _ Trumped! _, from 2004 to 2008. Since the 1980s, Trump's wealth and lifestyle have been a fixture of hip hop lyrics, his name being quoted by more than 50 artists.
POLITICAL CAREER UP TO 2015
EARLY INVOLVEMENT IN POLITICS
_ Trump's September 1987 advertisement in The Boston Globe _, criticizing U.S. defense policy
Trump first vaguely expressed interest in running for office in 1987, when he spent almost $100,000 to place full-page advertisements in several newspapers. In his view at that time, "America should stop paying to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves", and "should present Western Europe and Japan with a bill for America's efforts to safeguard the passage of oil tankers in the Persian Gulf." As of December 1988, Trump was the tenth most admired person in America according to a Gallup poll.
Trump considered running for president in 1988 , 2000 , 2004 , and 2012 , and for Governor of New York in 2006 and 2014, but aside from 2000 did not enter any of those races. In February 2009, Trump appeared on the _ Late Show with David Letterman _, and spoke about the automotive industry crisis of 2008–10 . He said that "instead of asking for money", General Motors "should go into bankruptcy and work that stuff out in a deal."
Trump publicly speculated about seeking the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, and a _ Wall Street Journal_ / NBC News poll released in March 2011 found Trump leading among potential contenders; he was one point ahead of former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney. A _Newsweek_ poll conducted in February 2011 showed Trump within a few points of incumbent president Barack Obama, with many voters undecided in the November 2012 general election for president of the United States. A poll released in April 2011 by Public Policy Polling showed Trump having a nine-point lead in a potential contest for the Republican nomination for president while he was still actively considering a run. His moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show _The Apprentice_.
Trump played a leading role in "birther" conspiracy theories that had been circulating since President Obama\'s 2008 presidential campaign. Beginning in March 2011, Trump publicly questioned Obama's citizenship and eligibility to serve as President. Although the Obama campaign had released a copy of the short-form birth certificate in 2008, Trump demanded to see the original "long-form" certificate. He mentioned having sent investigators to Hawaii to research the question, but he did not follow up with any findings. He also repeated a debunked allegation that Obama's grandmother said she had witnessed his birth in Kenya. When the White House later released Obama's long-form birth certificate, Trump took credit for obtaining the document, saying "I hope it checks out." His official biography mentions his purported role in forcing Obama's hand, and he has defended his pursuit of the issue when prompted, later saying that his promotion of the conspiracy made him "very popular". In 2011, Trump had called for Obama to release his student records, questioning whether his grades warranted entry into an Ivy League school. When asked in 2015 whether he believed Obama was born in the United States, Trump said he did not want to discuss the matter further. In September 2016, Trump publicly acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S., and said that the rumors had been started by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign . Trump speaking at the Conservative Political Action Conference in 2011
Trump made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. His appearance at CPAC was organized by GOProud , an LGBT conservative organization, in conjunction with GOProud supporter Roger Stone , who was close with Trump. GOProud pushed for a write-in campaign for Trump at CPAC's presidential straw poll. The 2011 CPAC speech Trump gave is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party .
In the 2012 Republican primaries , Trump generally had polled at or below 17 percent among the crowded field of possible candidates. On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election, while also saying he would have become the President of the United States, had he run.
In 2013, Trump was a featured speaker at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). During the lightly attended early-morning speech, Trump spoke out against illegal immigration, then-President Obama's "unprecedented media protection", and advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security.
Additionally, Trump spent over $1 million in 2013 to research a possible run for president of the United States. In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo . In response to the memo, Trump said that while New York had problems and that its taxes were too high, running for governor was not of great interest to him. In January 2014, Trump made statements denying climate change that were discordant with the opinion of the scientific community . A February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election. In February 2015, Trump told NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of _The Apprentice_, as he mulled his political future.
Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over the years. Trump was a Democrat prior to 1987. In 1987, Trump registered as a Republican in Manhattan.
In 1999, Trump switched to the Reform Party and ran a presidential exploratory campaign for its nomination. After his run, Trump left the party in 2001, ostensibly due to the involvement of David Duke , Pat Buchanan , and Lenora Fulani .
From 2001 to 2008, Trump identified himself as a Democrat, but in 2008, he endorsed Republican John McCain for President. In 2009, he officially changed his party registration to Republican. In December 2011, Trump became an independent for five months before returning to the Republican Party, where he later pledged to stay.
Trump has made contributions to campaigns of both Republican Party and Democratic Party candidates, with the top ten recipients of his political contributions being six Democrats and four Republicans. After 2011, his campaign contributions were more favorable to Republicans than to Democrats. In February 2012, Trump openly endorsed Republican Mitt Romney for President. When asked in 2015 which recent president he prefers, Trump picked Democrat Bill Clinton over the Republican Bushes .
According to a New York state report, Trump circumvented corporate and personal campaign donation limits in the 1980s—although no laws were broken—by donating money to candidates from 18 different business subsidiaries, rather than donating primarily in his own name. Trump told investigators he did so on the advice of his lawyers. He also said the contributions were not to gain favor with business-friendly candidates, but simply to satisfy requests from friends.
2000 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
Main article: Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2000
In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the presidential nomination of the Reform Party in 2000. A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support. Trump eventually dropped out of the race due to party infighting, but still went on to win the party's California and Michigan primaries.
2016 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump drew attention to domestic issues such as illegal immigration , offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt , and Islamic terrorism , which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan, " Make America Great Again ".
In his campaign, Trump said that he disdained political correctness ; he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias . In part due to his fame, Trump received an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.
Republican leaders such as House Speaker Paul Ryan were hesitant to support him during his early quest for the presidency. They doubted his chances of winning the general election and feared that he could harm the image of the Republican Party.
The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration . The connection of this group to the Trump campaign is controversial; writers such as Jon Ronson have suggested that the link between Trump and right-wing figures such as Alex Jones and Roger Stone is a marriage of convenience .
During the campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white nationalists , especially in his initial refusal to condemn the support of David Duke —a former Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan —in a CNN interview with Jake Tapper . He had previously criticized Duke in 1991, disavowed the 2000 Reform Party due to the support of Duke and others, and disavowed Duke on the campaign trail both before and after the interview. In August, he appointed Steve Bannon —the executive chairman of Breitbart News —as his campaign CEO; the website was described by Bannon as "the platform for the alt-right." However, Bannon later told the _ Wall Street Journal _ that he was an "economic nationalist" but not "a supporter of ethno-nationalism ." According to Michael Barkun , the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream.
Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice-versa both inside and outside the venues.
Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of false statements compared to other candidates. At least four major publications – _Politico_, _The Washington Post_, _The New York Times_, and the _Los Angeles Times_ – have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements. _ NPR _ said that Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive. Lucas Graves, an assistant professor of journalism and mass communication at the University of Wisconsin–Madison , opined that Trump "often speaks in a suggestive way that makes it unclear what exactly he meant, so that fact-checkers "have to be really careful" when picking claims to check, "to pick things that reflect what the speaker was clearly trying to communicate."
Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and where puffery abounds. Trump has called his public speaking style "truthful hyperbole", an effective political tactic which may however backfire for overpromising. Martin Medhurst, a Baylor University professor of communication and political science, analyzed Trump's frequently used rhetorical devices , such as catchy slogans, hyperbole, insinuations and preterition .
Further information: Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016 § Refusal to release tax returns
In compliance with FEC regulations of all presidential candidates, Trump published a 92-page financial disclosure form that listed all his assets, liabilities, income sources and hundreds of business positions. He declined to release his tax returns, which was contrary to usual practice by every presidential candidate since Gerald Ford in 1976. Trump's refusal led to speculation that he was hiding something, although there is no law that requires presidential candidates to release their returns.
Trump explained that his tax returns were being audited and his lawyers had advised him against releasing the returns. However, no law prohibits release of tax returns during an audit. Tax attorneys differ about whether such a release is wise legal strategy. Trump has told the news media that his tax rate was "none of your business", but added, "I fight very hard to pay as little tax as possible."
On October 1, 2016, three pages of Trump's 1995 tax return were leaked to a reporter from _ The New York Times _, who said she received the documents in her _Times_ mailbox. Each of the three pages is one page from Trump's state filings in Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. They show that using allowed deductions for losses, Trump claimed a loss of $916 million that year. During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied. When asked if he used the tax code to avoid paying taxes, he said, "Of course I did. Of course I did." He then went on to say he paid "hundreds of millions of dollars in taxes", calling it a "simple" thing. "I pay tax, and I pay federal tax, too", he said.
On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MS NBC 's Rachel Maddow , who unveiled them on her show . The two pages showed that Trump paid $38 million in federal taxes and had a gross adjusted income of $150 million. The White House confirmed the authenticity of the 2005 documents and stated: "Despite this substantial income figure and tax paid, it is totally illegal to steal and publish tax returns."
Trump entered a field of 17 major candidates who were vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American history. Trump participated in eleven of the twelve Republican debates , skipping only the seventh debate on January 28 (that was the last debate before primary voting began on February 1). The debates received historically high television ratings, which increased the visibility of Trump's campaign.
By early 2016, the race had mostly centered on Trump and U.S. Senator Ted Cruz . On Super Tuesday , Trump won the plurality of the vote and remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump became poised to win the Republican nomination. After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016—which prompted the remaining candidates Ted Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns—RNC Chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee. With nearly 14 million votes, Trump broke the all-time record in the history of the Republican Party for winning the most primary votes. He also set the record for the largest number of votes against the front runner.
GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN
Main article: United States presidential election, 2016 Trump–Pence 2016 campaign logo
After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump's focus shifted to the general election . He urged remaining primary voters to "save vote for the general election." Trump began campaigning against Hillary Clinton , who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016, and continued to campaign across the country.
Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI 's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy . Trump with his running mate Mike Pence at the Republican National Convention on July 20, 2016
On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his running mate . Four days later on July 19, Trump and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention. The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole , but the other prior nominees did not attend.
Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech that was inspired by Richard Nixon 's 1968 acceptance speech. The historically long speech was watched by nearly 35 million people and received mixed reviews, with net negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.
On September 26, 2016, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate , which was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York . NBC News anchor Lester Holt was the moderator. The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential debate in United States history. The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri . The beginning narrative of that debate was dominated by a leaked tape of Trump making lewd comments , and counter-accusations by Trump of sexual misconduct by Bill Clinton . Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference prior to the debate. The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas . Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular press attention.
Main article: Political positions of Donald Trump
Trump\'s campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership , strongly enforcing immigration laws , and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border . His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement , modernizing and expediting services for veterans , repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act , abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure , simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending , extreme vetting of immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism , and aggressive military action against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS or IS).
Media have described Trump's political positions as "populist ", and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation, consistent with Republican Party policies, along with significant infrastructure investment, usually considered a liberal (Democratic Party) policy. According to political writer Jack Shafer , Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free media attention , sometimes by making outrageous comments.
Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time. _ Politico _ has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign.
RUSSIAN INTERFERENCE IN ELECTION
Main article: Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
In January 2017, American intelligence agencies – the CIA , FBI and NSA , represented by the Director of National Intelligence – jointly stated with "high confidence " that the Russian government attempted to intervene in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump. In testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee on June 8, former FBI Director James Comey affirmed he has "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, adding "they did it with purpose and sophistication".
As of May 2017, Trump believed investigation of Russian interference in the U.S. election to be pursuit of a false narrative. He tweeted it is the "single greatest witch hunt of a politician in American history!" Russian president Vladimir Putin echoed Trump's opinion, saying that Democrats cling to this fictitious explanation to avoid confronting their election loss.
INTERACTIONS WITH RUSSIA
Main article: Links between Trump associates and Russian officials
There has been intensive media scrutiny of Trump's relationship to Russia. During the campaign, Trump repeatedly praised Russian president Vladimir Putin as a strong leader. One of his campaign managers, Paul Manafort , had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovich win the Ukrainian presidency. Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone , have been connected to Russian officials. Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump.
Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election. In a December 29, 2016 conversation, Flynn and Kislyak discussed the recently imposed sanctions against Russia; Trump later fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions.
In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."
In 2017, Trump and other senior White House officials asked the Director of National Intelligence, the NSA director, the FBI director, and two chairs of congressional committees to publicly dispute the news reports about contacts between Trump associates and Russia.
SEXUAL MISCONDUCT ALLEGATIONS
Two days before the second presidential debate , a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women. The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were preparing to film an episode of _ Access Hollywood ._ "I just start kissing them," Trump said, "I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab them by the pussy." During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily." These statements were recorded several months after Trump married his third and current wife, Melania, who was pregnant at the time.
Trump's language on the tape was described by the media as "vulgar", "sexist", and descriptive of sexual assault . The incident prompted him to make his first public apology during the campaign, and caused outrage across the political spectrum, with many Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some urging him to quit the race. Subsequently, at least 15 women came forward with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media coverage.
Trump and his campaign have denied all of the sexual misconduct accusations, which Trump has called "false smears", and alleged a conspiracy against him. In his two public statements in response to the controversy, Trump responded by alleging that Bill Clinton, former President of the United States and husband of Trump's Democratic rival Hillary Clinton, had "abused women" and that Hillary had bullied her husband's victims.
ELECTION TO THE PRESIDENCY
Main article: United States presidential election, 2016 2016 electoral vote results
On Election Day, November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 electoral votes to Clinton's 232 votes. The counts were later adjusted to 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides , formalizing Trump's election to the presidency. In the early hours of November 9, Clinton called Trump to concede the election. Trump then delivered his victory speech before hundreds of supporters in the New York Hilton hotel. The speech was in contrast with some of his previous rhetoric, with Trump promising to heal the division caused by the election, thanking Clinton for her service to the country, and promising to be a president to all Americans.
Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, making him the fifth person to be elected president after losing the popular vote . Records on this matter date from the year 1824. Clinton finished ahead by 2.86 million votes or 2.1 percentage points, 48.04% to 46.09%, with neither candidate reaching a majority nationwide.
Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset, as polls consistently showed Hillary Clinton leading nationwide (where she did win) and in most battleground states, while Trump's support had been underestimated throughout his campaign. The errors in some state polls were later partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters. Trump won the perennial swing states of Florida , Iowa and Ohio , and flipped Clinton's "blue wall " states of Michigan , Pennsylvania and Wisconsin , which had been Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with control of both chambers of Congress , as was the case during parts of George W. Bush 's presidency from 2003 to 2007 .
Trump became the first president without prior governmental or military experience. Of the 43 previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office; two had not held elective office but had served in the Cabinet; and three had never held public office but had been commanding generals. He lost his home state of New York and became the fourth candidate to win the presidency without taking his home state. The others were James Polk ( Tennessee ) in 1844 , Woodrow Wilson ( New Jersey ) in 1916 , and Richard Nixon (New York ) in 1968 .
Main article: Protests against Donald Trump
Trump's victory sparked protests across the United States. Trump opponents took to the streets to amplify their opposition to Trump's views and denounce his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that the protests consisted of "professional protesters, incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later stated that he loves their passion for the country. In contrast, after Obama's re-election in 2012, Trump had tweeted "We can't let this happen. We should march on Washington and stop this travesty. Our nation is totally divided!"
On the Saturday following Trump's inauguration, there were massive demonstrations in the United States and worldwide in protest of Trump, with approximately 2,600,000 taking part in Women's Marches worldwide. The most notable of these marches was the Women\'s March on Washington (in Washington, D.C. ), where over 500,000 people marched in opposition to Trump.
Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 PARTY CANDIDATE VOTES %
Republican Donald Trump 14,015,993 votes 1,441 delegates (41 contests) Votes: 44.9% Delegates: 58.3%
Republican Ted Cruz 7,822,100 votes 551 delegates (11 contests) Votes: 25.1% Delegates: 22.3%
Republican Marco Rubio 3,515,576 votes 173 delegates (3 contests) Votes: 11.3% Delegates: 7%
Republican John Kasich 4,290,448 votes 161 delegates (1 contest) Votes: 13.8% Delegates: 6.5%
United States presidential election, 2016 PARTY CANDIDATE VOTES %
Republican Donald Trump 62,979,879 votes 304 electors (30 states + ME-02 ) Votes: 46.0% Electors: 56.5%
Democratic Hillary Clinton 65,844,954 votes 227 electors (20 states + DC ) Votes: 48.1% Electors: 42.2%
On November 10, President-elect Trump had his first ever meeting with President Obama to discuss plans for a peaceful transition of power . _The New York Times_ stated that "It was an extraordinary show of cordiality and respect between two men who have been political enemies and are stylistic opposites." The BBC stated that "their antipathy was barely concealed" in "awkward photos" of the meeting.
White House Appointments
For a more comprehensive list, see Political appointments of Donald Trump .
Trump's transition team was led by Chris Christie until November 11, 2016, when Vice President-elect Mike Pence took over. Since then, Trump has chosen RNC chairman Reince Priebus as White House Chief of Staff and businessman and media executive Steve Bannon as White House Chief Strategist .
Trump's cabinet nominations included Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions as Attorney General , financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury , retired Marine Corps General James Mattis as Secretary of Defense , and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State . Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, notably neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development , and South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations ,
While most of Trump's nominees were approved by the GOP majority in the Senate, the confirmation of education reform activist Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education required Vice President Pence to cast a rare tie-breaking vote .
Most cabinet members were unable to take office on Inauguration Day because of delays in the formal confirmation process . Part of the lateness was ascribed to delays in submitting background-check paperwork, part to obstructionism by Senate Democrats. The last Cabinet member, Robert Lighthizer , took office as U.S. Trade Representative on May 11, 2017, more than four months after his nomination.
On November 22, Trump outlined his plan for his first 100 days in office in a video posted on YouTube . The plan included the United States' withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and asking the U.S. Department of Defense to develop a plan to protect the U.S. from cyber-attack .
On December 7, _Time _ named Trump as its "Person of the Year ". In an interview on _ The Today Show _, he said he was honored by the award, but he took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America." He also opposed _Time'_s decision to change its "Man of the Year" title to "Person of the Year" in 1999, describing the action as too "politically correct". On December 13 he was named _ Financial Times _ Person of the Year . In December 2016, _ Forbes _ ranked Trump the second most powerful person in the world , after Vladimir Putin and before Angela Merkel .
Based on intelligence reports issued from October 2016 to January 2017, the Obama administration accused the Russian government of trying to influence the U.S. presidential election in favor of Trump, by supplying the DNC emails to WikiLeaks for publication. Trump, WikiLeaks and Russian officials have denied the allegations.
FIRST 100 DAYS
Trump\'s inauguration as the 45th President of the United States was held on Friday, January 20, 2017. In his first week as president, Trump signed six executive orders . His first order as president set out interim procedures in anticipation of repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). That same week, Trump withdrew the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership , re-instated the Mexico City Policy , reopened the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects and signed an executive order to begin planning, designing and constructing a new Mexico border wall and reinforce border security.
On January 31, Trump nominated U.S. Appeals Court judge Neil Gorsuch to fill the vacancy left on the Supreme Court by the death of Justice Antonin Scalia . The Senate confirmed the nomination on April 7, with a 54–45 vote.
False And Misleading Statements
As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks. Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office and had an average of 4.9 false or misleading claims during each of his first 100 days in office. "Fact Checker", a political analysis column in _The Washington Post_, wrote: "President Trump is the most fact-challenged politician that The Fact Checker has ever encountered... the pace and volume of the president's misstatements means that we cannot possibly keep up."
Main articles: Executive Order 13769 , Executive Order 13780 , and Legal challenges to Executive Orders 13769 and 13780 Trump signing Executive Order 13769 at the Pentagon as the Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of Defense Jim Mattis look on, January 27, 2017
On January 27, President Trump signed an executive order that suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq , Iran , Libya , Somalia , Sudan , Syria , and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns about terrorism. The order, which went into effect immediately, caused chaos at many airports as travelers were detained on arriving in the United States or barred from boarding U.S.-bound planes. The following day, thousands of protesters gathered at airports and other locations throughout the United States to protest the signing of the order and detainment of foreign nationals. The administration then clarified that visitors with a green card were exempt from the ban. Multiple legal challenges were immediately filed, and on February 5 a federal court barred enforcement of major provisions of the order.
On March 6, 2017, Trump issued a revised executive order that, among other differences with the original order, exempted Iraqi citizens, visa-holders, and permanent residents from the temporary suspension and did not differentiate Syrian refugees from refugees from other countries. A federal court blocked the order before it went into effect. On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court allowed a partial implementation of the executive order, and scheduled a full hearing for October 2017.
DISMISSAL OF JAMES COMEY
On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey . He attributed the action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein , which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton\'s emails . On May 11, Trump stated that he was concerned with the ongoing " Russia thing" and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier.
According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into Michael Flynn , who had been forced to resign as National Security Advisor after it was discovered that he had misled the Vice President about communications with Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak .
In March and April, Trump had told Comey that the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency, and asked him to tell the public that he was not personally under investigation. He also asked DNI Dan Coats and NSA Director Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election. Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal. Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself. _The Washington Post_ later reported that within days of Comey's dismissal, the FBI started investigating whether Trump had obstructed justice. Trump's lawyer Jay Sekulow stated that he had not been notified of any such investigation. ABC News later reported that the special counsel is gathering preliminary information about possible obstruction of justice but has not launched a full-scale investigation.
Trump attracted attention for implying that he had "tapes" of conversations with Comey, before later stating that he did not in fact have such tapes.
Trump's energy policy advocates domestic industrial support for both fossil and renewable energy sources in order to curb reliance on Middle-Eastern oil and possibly turn the U.S. into a net energy exporter. His appointed advisers favor a less regulated energy market and, because they do not consider climate change a threat, see no need for immediate action.
Main article: Environmental policy under the Trump administration
Trump does not accept the scientific consensus on climate change . In 2012, he said that global warming was a hoax invented by the Chinese, but later said that he was joking. He has called the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a "disgrace" and has threatened to cut its budget. Trump pledged to eliminate the Clean Power Plan and withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement , which calls for reductions in carbon emissions in more than 170 countries. After winning the presidency, Trump said he had an "open mind" towards the Paris agreement, but on June 1, 2017, he announced that the United States would withdraw from the Paris agreement , making the United States one of only three nations, including Syria and Nicaragua, to do so.
Trump's immigration policies were intensely discussed during the campaign. Trump vowed to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants , a wall which Trump promised Mexico would pay for. He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States , and criticized birthright citizenship as it creates "anchor babies ". He said the focus of deportation would be criminals, those who have overstayed their visas, and other "security threats".
Following the November 2015 Paris attacks , Trump made a controversial proposal to completely ban Muslim non-citizens from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. Later in 2016 he stated that the ban would apply only to people originating from countries with a "proven history of terrorism against the United States or its allies", or countries "compromised by terrorism".
In late January 2017, Trump issued an executive order banning the admission of immigrants from seven predominantly Muslim countries. The order was imposed without warning and took effect immediately. Confusion and protests caused chaos at many airports. Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and a federal court blocked its implementation. In early March 2017 Trump issued a revised order which excluded Iraq , gave specific exemptions for permanent residents , removed priorities for religious minorities (e.g. Christian refugees), and allowed for a week to implement legislation. Again federal courts blocked its implementation. On June 26, 2017, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the lower courts and allowed a portion of the executive order to take effect. The Supreme Court ruled that Trump's ban on visitors from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen can be enforced if those visitors lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States." The court set an October date to debate the other part of the travel ban, where an individual could claim a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the U.S. The ban is only supposed to last for 120 days, which could render the whole case moot, so the October court date might not occur.
Main article: Social policy of Donald Trump
Trump is conservative, describes himself as pro-life and generally opposes abortion ; exceptions are made in cases of rape , incest , and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. He has said that he is committed to appointing justices who would try to overturn the ruling in _ Roe v. Wade _. He personally supports "traditional marriage" but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue.
Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general, although his views have shifted over time. Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana . He favors capital punishment , as well as the use of waterboarding .
In 1999, Trump told _ Larry King Live _ that "I believe in universal healthcare." Trump's 2000 book, _The America We Deserve_, argued strongly for a single-payer healthcare system based on the Canadian model , and has voiced admiration for the Scottish National Health Service .
However, Trump has repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Obamacare . In March 2016, Trump's campaign released a platform summary which included a variety of free-market health reforms including provisions to allow health insurance to be sold across state lines, enable individuals to deduct health insurance premiums, expand health savings accounts, and give more control of Medicaid to the states.
Trump aims to streamline the Department of Veterans Affairs , getting rid of backlogs and waitlists , and upgrading relevant facilities. On his first Monday in office, Trump issued a federal hiring freeze on the VA.
Trump has stated his support for school choice and local control for primary and secondary schools. He opposes the Common Core State Standards Initiative for primary and secondary schools, and has called Common Core "a disaster" that must be ended. He has stated he would abolish all or part of the Department of Education .
Economy And Trade
Trump's campaign tax plan called for levelling the corporate tax rate to 15%, eliminating various business loopholes and deductions, and reducing the number of brackets for personal income tax: the top rate would be reduced from 39.6% to 25%, a large "zero bracket" would be created, and the alternative minimum tax and estate tax (which currently applies to individual estates over $5.45 million or $10.9 million per married couple) would both be eliminated. His comments about the minimum wage have been inconsistent.
Trump identifies as a "free trader ", but says that trade must be "reasonably fair". He has often been called a "protectionist ", because of his criticism of NAFTA , the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), and his proposal to raise tariffs on Chinese and Mexican exports to the United States significantly. He has also been critical of the World Trade Organization , threatening to leave unless his proposed tariffs are accepted. However, Trump has been very keen to support a "fair" post- Brexit trade deal with the United Kingdom , which Trump says would be "good for both sides".
Government Size And Deregulation
Trump's early policies have favored deregulation and a smaller federal government. He became the first president in sixteen years to sign a Congressional Review Act disapproval resolution; the law had been used only once before. During his first six weeks in office, he abolished ninety federal regulations.
On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze , which allows for exceptions, primarily for jobs deemed vital for national security or public safety reasons. The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs. Unlike some past freezes, the current freeze bars agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving.
A week later Trump signed Executive Order 13771 , directing administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue. Harvard Law professor Jody Freeman said that the order would do no more than slow the regulatory process, because it did not block rules required by statute.
On February 24, 2017, Trump ordered the agencies to create task forces to determine which regulations are deemed burdensome to the U.S. economy. Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying that the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups.
Trump has been described as non-interventionist and nationalist. He repeatedly stated that he supports "America First " foreign policy. He supports increasing United States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region. He says America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs. As a candidate he questioned whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members , and suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance. But as president he has reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO.
In order to confront the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Trump in 2015 called for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground troops. In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region, a position he later retracted. Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict , Trump has stated the importance of being a neutral party during potential negotiations, while also having stated that he is "a big fan of Israel". During the campaign he said he would relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem from its current location, Tel Aviv , although he has not pursued that proposal as president. On May 22, 2017, Trump was the first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip, visiting Israel, Italy , the Vatican , and Belgium .
Both as a candidate and as president, Trump repeatedly said he wants a good relationship with Russia. Trump has pledged to hold a summit meeting with Vladimir Putin . He added that Russia could help the U.S. in fighting ISIS militants . On April 7, 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack .
Main article: Efforts to impeach Donald Trump
On July 12, 2017, California Representative Brad Sherman formally introduced an article of impeachment, H. Res. 438, accusing the president of obstructing justice regarding the investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.
2020 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN
Main article: Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2020
Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency. This transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one. Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a campaign rally in Melbourne, Florida , on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office. By February 1, 2017, the campaign had already raised over $7 million.
AWARDS, HONORS, AND DISTINCTIONS
* Honorary Doctor of Laws from Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (1988) * Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Wagner College in Staten Island , New York (2004) * Honorary Doctor of Business Administration from Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen , Scotland (2010) (revoked in 2015) * Honorary Doctor of Business Administration from Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia (2012) * Honorary Doctor of Laws from Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia (2017)
_ Trump receiving the 2015 Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation's annual Commandant's Leadership Award in recognition of his contributions to American military education programs
* The Jewish National Fund 's Tree of Life Award for contributions to Israel– United States relations. (1983) * Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor for his role in Ghosts Can\'t Do It _ (1990) * Gaming Hall of Fame (1995) * Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (2007) * Muhammad Ali Entrepreneur Award (2007) * WWE Hall of Fame (2013) * _The Algemeiner _ Liberty Award for contributions to Israel– United States relations. (2015) * Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation Commandant's Leadership Award. (2015) * _Time _ Person of the Year (2016) * _ Financial Times _ Person of the Year (2016)
STATE ORDERS AND AWARDS
* ^ The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in _both_ the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no-one had a majority in the electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality ). * ^ Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president .
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The Forbes figure was high enough to put Trump in a tie at No. 324 on the magazine's global ranking of billionaires ... The gap between Forbes's $4.5 billion figure and Bloomberg's $2.9 billion figure is largely attributable to differences in how the two publications appraised individual properties. * ^ Trump & Schwartz 2009 , p. 46. * ^ Butts, Rebecca (March 12, 2016). "The Cincinnati summer Donald Trump talks about". _ Cincinnati Enquirer _. * ^ Brady, James (November 14, 2004). "Donald Trump (Real-estate mogul)". _Parade _. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. * ^ Kelly, Conor (July 27, 2015). "Meet Donald Trump: Everything You Need To Know (And Probably Didn\'t Know) About The 2016 Republican Presidential Candidate". ABC News. * ^ Dunlap, David (July 30, 2015). "1973: Meet Donald Trump". _The New York Times _. Archived from the original on July 31, 2015. Trump Management ... was also to allow the league to present qualified applicants for every fifth vacancy ... Trump himself said he was satisfied that the agreement did not 'compel the Trump Organization to accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant.' * ^ Kranish, Michael; O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (January 23, 2016). "Inside the government\'s racial bias case against Donald Trump\'s company, and how he fought it". _ The Washington Post _. Civil rights groups in the city viewed the Trump company as just one example of a nationwide problem of housing discrimination. But targeting the Trumps provided a chance to have an impact, said Eleanor Holmes Norton , who was then chairwoman of the city's human rights commission. 'They were big names.' * ^ Kranish & Fisher 2017 , p. 64–69, 104. * ^ Kranish & Fisher 2017 , p. 84. * ^ Wooten 2009 , p. 32–35. * ^ Kessler, Glenn (March 3, 2016). "Trump\'s false claim he built his empire with a \'small loan\' from his father". _The Washington Post_. * ^ Geist, William (April 8, 1984). 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SEN. MARTIN HEINRICH (D-NM): The president has repeatedly talked about ... Russia's involvement in the U.S. election cycle as "a hoax" and as "fake news." ...
JAMES COMEY: Yes, sir. There should be no fuzz on this whatsoever. The Russians interfered in our election during the 2016 cycle. They did it with purpose. They did it with sophistication. They did it with overwhelming technical efforts. And it was an active measures campaign driven from the top of that government. There is no fuzz on that. It is a high-confidence judgment of the entire intelligence community, and the members of this committee have seen the intelligence. It's not a close call. That happened. That's about as unfake as you can possibly get and is very, very serious, which is why it's so refreshing to see a bipartisan focus on that because this is about America, not about any particular party.
HEINRICH: So that was a hostile act by the Russian government against this country?
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" Trump travel ban partly reinstated; fall court arguments set". _ Associated Press _. New York City , New York . Retrieved June 26, 2017. * ^ Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion". CNN. * ^ _A_ _B_ de Vogue, Ariane (November 15, 2016). "Trump: Same-sex marriage is \'settled,\' but Roe v Wade can be changed". _60 Minutes _. CBS . Retrieved November 30, 2016 – via CNN . * ^ Gorman, Michele (May 20, 2016). "A brief history of Donald Trump\'s stance on gun rights". _Newsweek_. * ^ "Second Amendment Rights". _Donald J. Trump for President_. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2017. There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended. * ^ Krieg, Gregory (June 20, 2016). "The times Trump changed his positions on guns". CNN. * ^ February 27, 2015. (Excerpt from Donald Trump Remarks at CPAC). Donald Trump on Marijuana. _C-Span_. Retrieved October 21, 2015. * ^ Diamond, Jeremy (December 11, 2015). "Trump: Death penalty for cop killers". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2016. * ^ Foderaro, Lisa (May 1, 1989). "Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return Of the Death Penalty". _The New York Times_. Retrieved March 15, 2016. * ^ McCarthy, Tom. "Donald Trump: I\'d bring back \'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding\'". _The Guardian_. Retrieved February 8, 2016. * ^ "Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding". ABC News. February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kertscher, Tom (September 11, 2015). "Donald Trump wants to replace Obamacare with a single-payer health care system, GOP congressman says". _Politifact Wisconsin_. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
* ^ Trump, Donald (2000). _The America We Deserve_. Los Angeles, California: Renaissance Books. pp. 258–278. ISBN 978-1-58063-131-0 . Retrieved January 12, 2017. * ^ Millward, David (August 7, 2015). " Trump under attack as he praises NHS care". _ The Daily Telegraph _. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
* ^ Learmonth, Andrew (August 8, 2015). "US presidential hope Donald Trump hails the NHS in Scotland". _The National_. Retrieved January 25, 2017. * ^ Kodjak, Alison (November 9, 2016). " Trump Can Kill Obamacare With Or Without Help From Congress". _All Things Considered_. NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017. * ^ Walsh, Deirdre; Lee, MJ (January 10, 2017). " Trump wants Obamacare repeal \'quickly,\' but Republicans aren\'t ready". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2017. * ^ Levey, Noam (March 3, 2016). " Trump promised a \'beautiful\' healthcare plan, but it\'s pretty basic". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved June 4, 2016. * ^ "Healthcare Reform to Make America Great Again". _Donald J. Trump for President_. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017. * ^ Shane, Leo. "New in 2017: Trump takes on veterans health care reform", _Military Times _ (December 29, 2016). * ^ Slack, Donovan (January 24, 2017). " Trump hiring freeze includes the short-staffed VA". _ USA TODAY _. Retrieved January 25, 2017. * ^ "Donald Trump on School Choice". _American Principles in Action_. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2015. * ^ Trump sets record for longest 2016 GOP announcement speech. Fox News Channel, June 16, 2015 * ^ Moser, Laura (January 26, 2016). " Trump Releases Video Airing His Completely Vague Views on Education and Common Core". _Slate_. * ^ Richwine, Jason (October 23, 2015). Why Not Abolish the Department of Education? _National Review_. Retrieved July 27, 2016. * ^ "Details and Analysis of Donald Trump\'s Tax Plan". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved July 17, 2016. * ^ Jacobson, Louis (May 19, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren gets better of Donald Trump on his stance on abolishing federal minimum wage". PolitiFact.com . Retrieved May 23, 2016. * ^ Greenberg, Jon (July 26, 2016). "Sanders: Trump would allow states to lower the minimum wage". PolitiFact.com . Retrieved July 27, 2016. * ^ Jacobson, Louis (July 28, 2016). "Donald Trump gets a Full Flop for stance on minimum wage". PolitiFact.com . Retrieved July 30, 2016.
* ^ Haberman, Maggie (January 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports". _ The New York Times _. * ^ "Lawrence Solomon: Donald Trump\'s protectionism fits right in with Republicans". Retrieved July 22, 2016. * ^ Epstein, Reid J.; Nelson, Colleen McCain (June 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech". _The Wall Street Journal_. ISSN 0099-9660 . Retrieved July 22, 2016. * ^ Appelbaum, Binyamin (March 10, 2016). "On Trade, Donald Trump Breaks With 200 Years of Economic Orthodoxy". _The New York Times_. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved July 22, 2016. * ^ " Trump calls NAFTA a "disaster"". _60 Minutes, CBS_. September 25, 2015. * ^ "Election 2016: Your money, your vote. Yes, \'President Trump\' really could kill NAFTA – but it wouldn\'t be pretty". CNN. July 6, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016. * ^ "President Trump? Among U.S. allies, Japan may be one of the most anxious about that idea". _Los Angeles Times_. June 26, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. * ^ Lane, Charles (October 21, 2015). "Donald Trump\'s contempt for the free market". _The Washington Post_. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved July 22, 2016. * ^ Haberman, Maggie (January 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports". _ The New York Times — First Draft_. Retrieved July 22, 2016. * ^ "Trump: I\'m Running Against Clinton, Not \'Rest of the World\'". Retrieved July 31, 2016. * ^ Needham, Vicki (July 24, 2016). " Trump suggests leaving WTO over import tax proposal". Retrieved July 31, 2016. * ^ Stelloh, Tim (January 15, 2017). "Donald Trump promises post- Brexit Britain a \'fair\' trade deal". NBC News. Retrieved May 31, 2017. * ^ Shaw, Adam (January 16, 2017). " Trump vows to strike post- Brexit deal with UK, rips EU as \'vehicle for Germany\'". Fox News Channel. Retrieved May 31, 2017. * ^ Adriance, Sam (February 16, 2017). "President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years". The National Law Review . Retrieved March 8, 2017. * ^ Farand, Chloe (March 6, 2017). "Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House". _The Independent _. Retrieved March 7, 2017. * ^ "Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples". _ The New York Times _ (via DocumentCloud ). March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017. More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target. * ^ Michael D. Shear (January 23, 2017). " Trump Orders Broad Hiring Freeze for Federal Government". _The New York Times_. Retrieved January 23, 2017. * ^ " Trump Orders Hiring Freeze for Much of Federal Government". Fox News Channel . January 24, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Yoder, Eric (February 16, 2017). "Hiring freeze could add to government\'s risk, GAO chief warns". _The Washington Post_. 'We've looked at hiring freezes in the past by prior administrations and they haven't proven to be effective in reducing costs and they cause some problems if they're in effect for a long period of time,' Comptroller General Gene Dodaro told a House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing. * ^ " Trump Signs Executive Order to Drastically Cut Federal Regs". Fox News Channel . January 30, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017. * ^ The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (January 30, 2017). "Presidential Executive Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs". Retrieved May 16, 2017. * ^ Plumer, Brad (January 30, 2017). " Trump wants to kill two old regulations for every new one issued. Sort of.". _Vox Media_. Retrieved March 10, 2017. 'It is primarily an instrument for ... slowing the regulatory process,' says Freeman ... Trump's order does include a caveat that agencies can only act 'to the extent permitted by law'. 'So, in the end, this order may not block rules that are legally required by statute,' explains Freeman. * ^ Shepardson, David; Holland, Steve (February 24, 2017). "In Sweeping Move, Trump Puts Regulation Monitors in U.S. Agencies". Reuters . Retrieved March 6, 2017. Trump signed an executive order on Friday to place 'regulatory reform' task forces and officers within federal agencies in what may be the most far reaching effort to pare back U.S. red tape in recent decades. * ^ Calabresi, Massimo (March 9, 2017). "Inside Donald Trump\'s War against the State". _Time _. Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests. * ^ Cassidy, John (February 29, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party". _The New Yorker _. Retrieved March 5, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rucker, Philip; Costa, Robert (March 21, 2016). "Trump questions need for NATO, outlines noninterventionist foreign policy". _ The Washington Post _. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Donald Trump, American Nationalist". _The National Interest _. November 3, 2015. * ^ Amanpour, Christiane (July 22, 2016). "Donald Trump\'s speech: \'America first,\' but an America absent from the world". CNN. * ^ "Donald Trump reveals his isolationist foreign-policy instincts". _ The Economist _. May 22, 2016. * ^ Sanger, David E.; Haberman, Maggie (July 20, 2016). "Donald Trump Sets Conditions for Defending NATO Allies Against Attack". _The New York Times _. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved July 31, 2016. * ^ "What\'s Trump\'s Position on NATO?". factcheck.org. Retrieved July 31, 2016. * ^ " Trump supports NATO, but Senate holds up expansion". _Newsweek_. Reuters. March 1, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017. * ^ " Trump once called for sending US ground troops to fight ISIS and \'take that oil\'". _Mother Jones_. * ^ Gaouette, Nicole (March 11, 2016). " Trump wants 30,000 troops. Would that defeat ISIS?". CNN. Retrieved July 12, 2016. * ^ " Trump Calls for 20,000–30,000 Troops to Fight ISIS". _The Weekly Standard_. March 10, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. * ^ "The Latest: Trump backtracks on US forces to fight militants". _ U.S. News & World Report _. Associated Press. March 21, 2016. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. * ^ Sherman, Amy (March 1, 2016). Would Donald Trump be \'neutral\' between Israel and its enemies? _Tampa Bay Times_. Retrieved April 10, 2016. * ^ "Moving US embassy to Jerusalem may be slipping down Trump\'s agenda". _The Guardian_. Reuters. January 23, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
* ^ Rafferty, Andrew (May 23, 2017). " Trump Becomes First Sitting U.S. President to Visit Western Wall". New York City: NBC News . Retrieved May 24, 2017. Baker, Luke; Holland, Steve (May 23, 2017). "In U.S. presidential first, Trump prays at Jerusalem\'s Western Wall". London, England. Reuters . Retrieved May 24, 2017. Diamond, Jeremy (May 23, 2017). " Trump makes historic visit to Western Wall". Atlanta, Georgia: CNN . Retrieved May 24, 2017. * ^ Flores, Reena (January 7, 2017). "Donald Trump urges \'good relationship\' with Russia in tweets". CBS News. Retrieved May 2, 2017. * ^ Berry, Lynn (January 29, 2017). "GOP warns Trump not to lift Russia sanctions after call with Putin". PBS. Associated Press. Retrieved May 2, 2017. * ^ Oliphant, Roland; Millward, David (January 28, 2017). "Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin ready to hold summit following historic phone call". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved May 31, 2017. * ^ " Trump suggests U.S. accept Russia\'s annexation of Crimea". _ PBS _. Associated Press. August 1, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
* ^ " Syria war: Trump\'s missile strike attracts US praise – and barbs". BBC News. April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. * ^ "H Res 438 Article of Impeachment" (PDF). Retrieved July 13, 2017. * ^ Marcos, Cristina (July 12, 2017). "House Democrat files article of impeachment against Trump". _The Hill_. Retrieved July 12, 2017. * ^ Westwood, Sarah (January 22, 2017). " Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing \'eight years\' of \'great things\'". _Washington Examiner_. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ "PAGE BY PAGE REPORT DISPLAY FOR 201701209041436569 (Page 1 of 1)". Federal Election Commission. January 20, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ " Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". Azfamily.com. January 31, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ Graham, David A. (February 15, 2017). " Trump Kicks Off His 2020 Reelection Campaign on Saturday". _The Atlantic_. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ " Trump already has socked away more than $7 million for his 2020 reelection". _The Washington Post_. Retrieved February 17, 2017. * ^ "Commencement Speaker - University Nominations". _honorary.lehigh.edu_. Retrieved May 18, 2017. * ^ " Trump has now been awarded five honorary doctorates — and stripped of one". _The Washington Post_. Retrieved May 18, 2017. * ^ "IT\'S DR. TRUMP TO YOU, PAL!". _Daily News_. New York. Retrieved May 18, 2017. * ^ "The Guarasci Decade" (PDF). _The Wagnerian_. Staten Island , New York City , New York . October 12, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2017. * ^ "Donald Trump Honoured by Robert Gordon University". _rgu.ac.uk_. Retrieved May 18, 2017. * ^ Smith, Pauline; Youngson, Andrew (September 16, 2010). "Donald Trump Honoured by Robert Gordon University". Robert Gordon University. Retrieved May 22, 2017. * ^ Holton, Kate (December 9, 2015). "More than 250,000 Britons petition to ban Trump from UK". Reuters. * ^ Bible, Mitzi (September 24, 2012).Donald Trump addresses largest Convocation crowd, praises Liberty\'s growth. Liberty University News Service, September. Liberty University News Service. * ^ "Donald Trump to Talk Politics, Business and Faith at Liberty University Convocation". _The Christian Post_. Retrieved March 9, 2016. * ^ Liberty University News Service (May 13, 2017). "LU confers seven honorary doctorates to world changers, including President Trump". Retrieved May 14, 2017. * ^ White House (May 13, 2017). "President Trump Makes Remarks at the Liberty University Commencement Ceremony". Retrieved May 13, 2017.
* ^ Jewish National Fund Tree of Life Award Presentation to Donald J. Trump: Tuesday Evening March 1, 1983, Gala Dinner Dance, Grand Hyatt Hotel, New York * ^ Weisman, Aly (September 1, 2015). "Donald Trump won a \'worst supporting actor\' Razzie award for his role in this 1989 film". _Business Insider_. Retrieved April 23, 2016. * ^ "The Gaming Hall of Fame". University of Nevada Las Vegas . Retrieved August 30, 2009. * ^ "Donald Trump". Hollywood Walk of Fame . * ^ Robinson, Joanna (April 3, 2016). "People Can\'t Stop Vandalizing Donald Trump\'s Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". _Vanity Fair _. * ^ "March 24, 2007 Muhammad Ali\'s Celebrity Fight Night XIII". Blacktie. March 24, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2016. * ^ "Donald Trump cements his WWE legacy: 2013 WWE Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony". WWE . 2013. * ^ "Algemeiner Honors Joan Rivers, Donald Trump, Yuli Edelstein at Second Annual \'Jewish 100\' Gala". _ Algemeiner Journal _. Brooklyn, NY. February 5, 2015. * ^ "MC–LEF Events". Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation. 2015. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Donald Trump received our Commandant's Leadership Award. * ^ "Donald Trump is a Kentucky Colonel". CNN . * ^ Wilts, Alexandra (May 20, 2017). "Donald Trump awarded with Saudi Arabia\'s highest civilian honour within hours of landing in the country". _ The Independent _. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
See also: Bibliography of Donald Trump
* Blair, Gwenda (2005). _Donald Trump: Master Apprentice_. Simon & Schuster . ISBN 978-0-7432-7510-1 . * Blair, Gwenda (2015a). _Donald Trump: The Candidate_. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-2937-1 . * Blair, Gwenda (2015b) . _The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire_. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5011-3936-9 . * Cramer, Renee (2005). _Cash, Color, and Colonialism: The Politics of Tribal Acknowledgment_. University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 978-0-8061-3671-4 . * Gallup, George, Jr. (1990). _The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1989_. Rowman & Littlefield . ISBN 978-0-8420-2344-3 . * Pacelle, Mitchell (2001). _Empire: A Tale of Obsession, Betrayal, and the Battle for an American Icon_. John Wiley & Sons . ISBN 978-0-471-23865-2 . * Kranish, Michael ; Fisher, Marc (2017) . _ Trump Revealed: The Definitive Biography of the 45th President _. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5011-5652-6 . * Light, Larry (2012). _Taming the Beast: Wall Street\'s Imperfect Answers to Making Money_. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-08420-5 . * Payment, Simone (2007). _Donald Trump: Profile of a Real Estate Tycoon_. Rosen Publishing . ISBN 978-1-4042-1909-0 . * Trump, Donald J.; Schwartz, Tony (2009) . _Trump: The Art of the Deal_. Random House . ISBN 978-0-446-35325-0 . * Wooten, Sara (2009). _Donald Trump: From Real Estate to Reality TV_. Enslow Publishers . ISBN 978-0-7660-2890-6 .
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