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Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(Italian pronunciation: [dɔn dʒoˈvanni]; K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, namely Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
or The Libertine
Libertine
Punished) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It is based on the legends of Don Juan, a fictional libertine and seducer. It was premiered by the Prague Italian opera at the National Theater (of Bohemia), now called the Estates Theatre, on 29 October 1787.[1] Da Ponte's libretto was billed as a dramma giocoso, a common designation of its time that denotes a mixing of serious and comic action. Mozart entered the work into his catalogue as an opera buffa. Although sometimes classified as comic, it blends comedy, melodrama and supernatural elements. A staple of the standard operatic repertoire, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
for the five seasons 2011/12 through 2015/16 was ninth on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide.[2] It has also proved a fruitful subject for writers and philosophers.

Contents

1 Composition and premiere

1.1 Revision for Vienna 1.2 Later performance traditions

2 Roles 3 Instrumentation 4 Synopsis

4.1 Act 1 4.2 Act 2

5 Recordings 6 Cultural influence

6.1 Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and other composers

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Composition and premiere[edit]

Original playbill for the Vienna premiere of Don Giovanni

The opera was commissioned as a result of the overwhelming success of Mozart's trip to Prague
Prague
in January and February 1787.[3] The subject matter may have been chosen in consideration of the long history of Don Juan
Don Juan
operas in Prague; the genre of eighteenth-century Don Juan opera originated in Prague.[4] The libretto of Lorenzo Da Ponte
Lorenzo Da Ponte
was based closely on a libretto by Giovanni Bertati for the opera Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Tenorio, first performed in Venice early in 1787, although he was loath to admit this in memoirs written decades later.[5] Some of the most important elements that he copied were the idea of opening the drama with the murder of the Commendatore
Commendatore
(in earlier dramas, this incident always appeared somewhere in the middle), and the lack of a specification of Seville as the setting, which had been customary in the tradition of Don Juan dramas since the appearance of the prototype Don Juan
Don Juan
drama El burlador de Sevilla by Tirso de Molina, written in the early 17th century. For Bertati, the setting was Villena, Spain, whereas Da Ponte's libretto only specifies a "city in Spain".[6] Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
was originally to have been performed on 14 October 1787 for a visit to Prague
Prague
of the Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, niece of the Emperor Joseph II, and her new husband, Prince Anthony of Saxony; however, the production could not be prepared in time and Le nozze di Figaro was substituted instead on the order of the emperor himself.[7] The score was completed on 28 or 29 October 1787 after Da Ponte was recalled to Vienna to work on another opera. Reports about the last-minute completion of the overture conflict; some say it was completed the day before the premiere,[8] some on the very day. More likely it was completed the day before, in light of the fact that Mozart recorded the completion of the opera on 28 October.[3] The score calls for double woodwinds, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones (alto, tenor, bass), timpani, basso continuo for the recitatives, and the usual string section. The composer also specified occasional special musical effects. For the ballroom scene at the end of the first act, Mozart calls for two onstage ensembles to play separate dance music in synchronization with the pit orchestra, each of the three groups playing in its own metre (a 3/4 minuet, a 2/4 contradanse and a fast 3/8 peasant dance), accompanying the dancing of the principal characters. In act 2, Giovanni is seen to play the mandolin, accompanied by pizzicato strings. In the same act, two of the Commendatore's interventions ("Di rider finirai pria dell'aurora" and "Ribaldo, audace, lascia a' morti la pace") are accompanied by a wind chorale of oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and trombones (with cellos and basses playing from the string section). The instrumentation and vocal writing are very reminiscent of Mozart's treatment of the voice of Neptune in Idomeneo.[citation needed] The opera was first performed on 29 October 1787 in Prague
Prague
under its full title of Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
– Dramma giocoso in due atti (The Rake punished, or Don Giovanni, a dramma giocoso in two acts). The work was rapturously received, as was often true of Mozart's work in Prague
Prague
(See Mozart and Prague). The Prager Oberpostamtzeitung reported, "Connoisseurs and musicians say that Prague
Prague
has never heard the like," and "the opera … is extremely difficult to perform."[9] The Provincialnachrichten of Vienna reported, "Herr Mozart conducted in person and was welcomed joyously and jubilantly by the numerous gathering."[10] Revision for Vienna[edit] Mozart also supervised the Vienna premiere of the work, which took place on 7 May 1788. For this production, he wrote two new arias with corresponding recitatives – Don Ottavio's aria "Dalla sua pace" (K. 540a, composed on 24 April for the tenor Francesco Morella), Elvira's aria "In quali eccessi ... Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata" (K. 540c, composed on 30 April for the soprano Caterina Cavalieri)[11] – and the duet between Leporello and Zerlina "Per queste tue manine" (K. 540b, composed on 28 April). He also made some cuts in the Finale in order to make it shorter and more incisive, the most important of which is the section where Anna and Ottavio, Elvira, Zerlina and Masetto, Leporello reveal their plans for the future ("Or che tutti, o mio tesoro"). In order to connect "Ah, certo è l'ombra che l'incontrò" ("It must have been the ghost she met") directly to the moral of the story "Questo è il fin di chi fa mal" ("This is the end which befalls to evildoers"), Mozart composed a different version of "Resti dunque quel birbon fra Proserpina
Proserpina
e Pluton!" ("So the wretch can stay down there with Proserpina
Proserpina
and Pluto!"). These cuts are very seldom performed in theatres or recordings.[12] Later performance traditions[edit] The opera's final ensemble was generally omitted until the early 20th century, a tradition that apparently began very early on. According to the 19th-century Bohemian memoirist Wilhelm Kuhe, the final ensemble was only presented at the very first performance in Prague, then never heard again during the original run.[13] It does not appear in the Viennese libretto of 1788, thus the ending of the first performance in Vienna without the ensemble as depicted in the film Amadeus must be an accurate portrayal. Undoubtedly, this practice was sanctioned by Mozart himself.[citation needed] Nonetheless, the final ensemble is almost invariably performed in full today. Modern productions sometimes include both the original aria for Don Ottavio, "Il mio tesoro", and its replacement from the first production in Vienna that was crafted to suit the capabilities of the tenor Francesco Morella, "Dalla sua pace". Elvira's "In quali eccessi, o Numi ... Mi tradi per l'alma ingrata" is usually retained as well. The duet "Per queste tue manine" and the whole accompanying scene involving Zerlina and Leporello from the Viennese version is almost never included. In modern-day productions, Masetto and the Commendatore
Commendatore
are typically played by different singers (unless limited by such things as finance or rehearsal time and space), although the same singer played both roles in both the Prague
Prague
and Vienna premieres, and the final scene's chorus of demons after the Commendatore's exit gives the singer time for a costume change before entering as Masetto for the sextet.[14] Roles[edit]

Role Voice type Prague
Prague
premiere cast, 29 October 1787[15] Conductor: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Vienna premiere cast, 7 May 1788[16] Conductor: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Don Giovanni, a young, extremely licentious nobleman baritone Luigi Bassi Francesco Albertarelli

Leporello, Don Giovanni's servant bass Felice Ponziani Francesco Benucci[17]

Il Commendatore
Commendatore
(Don Pedro) bass Giuseppe Lolli Francesco Bussani

Donna Anna, his daughter soprano Teresa Saporiti Aloysia Weber[18]

Don Ottavio, her fiancé tenor Antonio Baglioni Francesco Morella

Donna Elvira, a lady of Burgos
Burgos
abandoned by Don Giovanni soprano Katherina Micelli Caterina Cavalieri[19]

Masetto, a peasant bass[20] Giuseppe Lolli Francesco Bussani

Zerlina, Masetto's fiancée soprano Caterina Bondini[21] Luisa Mombelli

Chorus: peasants, servants, young ladies, musicians, demons

Instrumentation[edit] The instrumentation is:

Woodwinds: two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets and two bassoons Brass: two horns, two trumpets, three trombones Percussion: timpani Strings: first violins, second violins, violas, cellos and double basses Harpsichord Mandolin[22]

Synopsis[edit] Don Giovanni, a young,[23] arrogant, and sexually promiscuous nobleman, abuses and outrages everyone else in the cast until he encounters something he cannot kill, beat up, dodge, or outwit. Act 1[edit]

Overture to Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(6:49)

Fulda Symphonic Orchestra

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The overture begins with a thundering D minor
D minor
cadence, followed by a short misterioso sequence which leads into a light-hearted D major allegro. Scene 1 – The garden of the Commendatore Leporello, Don Giovanni's servant, grumbles about his demanding master and daydreams about being free of him ("Notte e giorno faticar" – "Night and day I slave away"). He is keeping watch while Don Giovanni is in the Commendatore's house attempting to seduce or rape the Commendatore's daughter, Donna Anna.[24] Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
enters the garden from inside the house, pursued by Donna Anna. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is masked and Donna Anna tries to hold him and to unmask him, shouting for help. (Trio: "Non sperar, se non m'uccidi, Ch'io ti lasci fuggir mai!" – "Do not hope, unless you kill me, that I shall ever let you run away!"). He breaks free and she runs off as the Commendatore enters the garden. The Commendatore
Commendatore
blocks Don Giovanni's path and forces him to fight a duel. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
kills the Commendatore
Commendatore
with his sword and escapes with Leporello. Donna Anna, returning with her fiancé, Don Ottavio, is horrified to see her father lying dead in a pool of his own blood. She makes Don Ottavio swear vengeance against the unknown murderer. (Duet: "Ah, vendicar, se il puoi, giura quel sangue ognor!" – "Ah, swear to avenge that blood if you can!"). Scene 2 – A public square outside Don Giovanni's palace

Ildebrando D'Arcangelo as Don Giovanni, Salzburg Festival
Salzburg Festival
2014

Leporello tells Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
that he (Giovanni) is leading a rotten life; Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
reacts angrily. They hear a woman (Donna Elvira) singing of having been abandoned by her lover, on whom she is seeking revenge ("Ah, chi mi dice mai" – "Ah, who could ever tell me"). Don Giovanni starts to flirt with her, but it turns out he is the former lover she is seeking. The two recognize each other and she reproaches him bitterly. He shoves Leporello forward, ordering him to tell Donna Elvira the truth about him, and then hurries away. Leporello tells Donna Elvira that Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is not worth her feelings for him. He is unfaithful to everyone; his conquests include 640 women and girls in Italy, 231 in Germany, 100 in France, 91 in Turkey, but in Spain, 1,003 ("Madamina, il catalogo è questo" – "My dear lady, this is the catalogue"). In a frequently cut recitative, Donna Elvira vows vengeance. Scene 3 – The open country A marriage procession with Masetto and Zerlina enters. Don Giovanni and Leporello arrive soon after. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is immediately attracted to Zerlina, and he attempts to remove the jealous Masetto by offering to host a wedding celebration at his castle. On realizing that Don Giovanni means to remain behind with Zerlina, Masetto becomes angry ("Ho capito! Signor, sì" – "I understand! Yes, my lord!") but is forced to leave. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and Zerlina are soon alone and he immediately begins his seductive arts (Duet: "Là ci darem la mano" – "There we will entwine our hands"). Donna Elvira arrives and thwarts the seduction ("Ah, fuggi il traditor" – "Flee from the traitor!"). She leaves with Zerlina. Don Ottavio and Donna Anna enter, plotting vengeance on the still unknown murderer of Donna Anna's father. Donna Anna, unaware that she is speaking to her attacker, pleads for Don Giovanni's help. Don Giovanni, relieved that he is unrecognised, readily promises it, and asks who has disturbed her peace. Before she can answer, Donna Elvira returns and tells Donna Anna and Don Ottavio that Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is a false-hearted seducer. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
tries to convince Don Ottavio and Donna Anna that Donna Elvira is insane (Quartet: "Non ti fidar, o misera" – "Don't trust him, oh sad one"). As Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
leaves, Donna Anna suddenly recognizes him as her father's murderer and tells Don Ottavio the story of his intrusion, claiming that she was deceived at first because she was expecting a night visit from Don Ottavio himself, but managed to fight Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
off after discovering the imposture (long recitative exchange between Donna Anna and Don Ottavio). She repeats her demand that he avenge her and points out that he will be avenging himself as well (aria: "Or sai chi l'onore Rapire a me volse" – "Now you know who wanted to rob me of my honour"). In the Vienna version, Don Ottavio, not yet convinced (Donna Anna having only recognised Don Giovanni's voice, not seen his face), resolves to keep an eye on his friend ("Dalla sua pace la mia dipende" – "On her peace my peace depends"). Leporello informs Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
that all the guests of the peasant wedding are in Don Giovanni's house and that he distracted Masetto from his jealousy, but that Zerlina, returning with Donna Elvira, made a scene and spoiled everything. However, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
remains cheerful and tells Leporello to organize a party and invite every girl he can find. (Don Giovanni's "Champagne Aria": "Fin ch'han dal vino calda la testa" – "Till they are tipsy"). They hasten to his palace. Scene 4 – A garden outside Don Giovanni's palace

"Batti, batti, o bel Masetto"

Sung by Adelina Patti

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Zerlina follows the jealous Masetto and tries to pacify him ("Batti, batti o bel Masetto" – "Beat, O beat me, handsome Masetto"), but just as she manages to persuade him of her innocence, Don Giovanni's voice from offstage startles and frightens her. Masetto hides, resolving to see for himself what Zerlina will do when Don Giovanni arrives. Zerlina tries to hide from Don Giovanni, but he finds her and attempts to continue the seduction, until he stumbles upon Masetto's hiding place. Confused but quickly recovering, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
reproaches Masetto for leaving Zerlina alone, and returns her temporarily to him. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
then leads both offstage to his ballroom. Three masked guests – the disguised Don Ottavio, Donna Anna, and Donna Elvira – enter the garden. From a balcony, Leporello invites them to his master's party. They accept the invitation and Leporello leaves the balcony. Alone, Don Ottavio and Donna Anna pray for protection, Donna Elvira for vengeance (Trio: "Protegga il giusto cielo" – "May the just heavens protect us").

Luigi Bassi
Luigi Bassi
in the title role of Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
in 1787

Scene 5 – Don Giovanni's ballroom As the merriment, featuring three separate chamber orchestras on stage, proceeds, Leporello distracts Masetto by dancing with him, while Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
leads Zerlina offstage to a private room and tries to assault her. When Zerlina screams for help, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
drags Leporello onstage from the room, accuses Leporello of assaulting Zerlina himself, and threatens to kill him. The others are not fooled. Don Ottavio produces a pistol and points it at Don Giovanni, and the three guests unmask and declare that they know all. But despite being denounced and menaced from all sides, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
remains calm and escapes – for the moment. Act 2[edit] Scene 1 – Outside Donna Elvira's house Leporello threatens to leave Don Giovanni, but his master calms him with a peace offering of money (Duet: "Eh via buffone" – "Go on, fool"). Wanting to seduce Donna Elvira's maid, and believing that she will trust him better if he appears in lower-class clothes, Don Giovanni orders Leporello to exchange cloak and hat with him. Donna Elvira comes to her window (Trio: "Ah taci, ingiusto core" – "Ah, be quiet unjust heart"). Seeing an opportunity for a game, Don Giovanni hides and sends Leporello out in the open wearing Don Giovanni's cloak and hat. From his hiding place Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
sings a promise of repentance, expressing a desire to return to her and threatening to kill himself if she does not take him back, while Leporello poses as Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and tries to keep from laughing. Donna Elvira is convinced and descends to the street. Leporello, continuing to pose as Don Giovanni, leads her away to keep her occupied while Don Giovanni serenades her maid with his mandolin. ("Deh vieni alla finestra" – "Ah, come to the window"). Before Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
can complete his seduction of the maid, Masetto and his friends arrive, looking for Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
in order to kill him. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
poses as Leporello (whose clothes he is still wearing) and joins the posse, pretending that he also hates Don Giovanni. After cunningly dispersing Masetto's friends ( Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
aria: "Metà di voi qua vadano" – "Half of you go this way. the others, go that way"), Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
takes Masetto's weapons away, beats him up, and runs off, laughing. Zerlina arrives and consoles the bruised and battered Masetto ("Vedrai carino" – "You'll see, dear one"). Scene 2 – A dark courtyard Leporello abandons Donna Elvira. (Sextet: "Sola, sola in buio loco" – "All alone in this dark place"). As he tries to escape, he bumps into Don Ottavio and Donna Anna. Zerlina and Masetto also enter the scene. Everyone mistakes Leporello for Don Giovanni, whose clothes he is still wearing. They surround Leporello and threaten to kill him. Donna Elvira tries to protect the man who she thinks is Don Giovanni, claiming that he is her husband and begging the others to spare him. Leporello takes off Don Giovanni's cloak and reveals his true identity. He begs for mercy and, seeing an opportunity, runs off (Leporello aria: "Ah pietà signori miei" – "Ah, have mercy, my lords"). Don Ottavio is now convinced that Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is the one who murdered Donna Anna's father (the deceased Commendatore). He swears vengeance ("Il mio tesoro" – "My treasure" – though in the Vienna version this was cut). In the Vienna production of the opera, Zerlina follows Leporello and recaptures him. Threatening him with a razor, she ties him to a stool. He attempts to sweet-talk her out of hurting him. (Duet: "Per queste tue manine" – "For these hands of yours"). Zerlina goes to find Masetto and the others; Leporello escapes again before she returns. This scene, marked by low comedy, is rarely performed today. Also in the Vienna production, Donna Elvira is still furious at Don Giovanni for betraying her, but she also feels sorry for him. ("Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata" – "That ungrateful wretch betrayed me").[25]

Graveyard scene of act 2 (Prague, probably 1790s), the earliest known set design for the opera

Scene 3 – A graveyard with the statue of the Commendatore. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
wanders into a graveyard. Leporello happens along and the two are reunited. Leporello tells Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
of his brush with danger, and Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
laughingly taunts him, saying that he took advantage of his disguise as Leporello by trying to seduce one of Leporello's girlfriends. The voice of the statue interrupts and warns Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
that his laughter will not last beyond sunrise. At the command of his master, Leporello reads the inscription upon the statue's base: "Here am I waiting for revenge against the scoundrel who killed me" (Dell'empio che mi trasse al passo estremo qui attendo la vendetta). The servant trembles, but Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
scornfully orders him to invite the statue to dinner, and threatens to kill him if he does not. Leporello makes several attempts to invite the statue to dinner but is too frightened to complete the invitation (Duet: "O, statua gentilissima" – "Oh most noble statue"). Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
invites the statue to dinner himself. Much to his surprise, the statue nods its head and responds affirmatively. Scene 4 – Donna Anna's room Don Ottavio pressures Donna Anna to marry him, but she thinks it inappropriate so soon after her father's death. He accuses her of being cruel, and she assures him that she loves him, and is faithful ("Non mi dir" – "Tell me not").

Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
confronts the stone guest in a painting by Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard, ca 1830–35 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)

Scene 5 – Don Giovanni's chambers Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
revels in the luxury of a great meal, served by Leporello, and musical entertainment during which the orchestra plays music from popular (at the time) late-18th-century operas: "O quanto un sì bel giubilo" from Vicente Martín y Soler's Una cosa rara (1786), "Come un agnello" from Giuseppe Sarti's Fra i due litiganti il terzo gode (1782) and finally, "Non più andrai" from Mozart's own The Marriage of Figaro (1786). Leporello complains that he is sick and tired of hearing Mozart's aria everywhere all the time.[26] (Finale "Già la mensa preparata" – "Already the table is prepared"). Donna Elvira enters, saying that she no longer feels resentment against Don Giovanni, only pity for him. ("L'ultima prova dell'amor mio" – "The final proof of my love"). Don Giovanni, surprised, asks what she wants, and she begs him to change his life. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
taunts her and then turns away, praising wine and women as the "support and glory of humankind" (sostegno e gloria d'umanità). Hurt and angry, Donna Elvira gives up and leaves. Offstage, she screams in sudden terror. Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
orders Leporello to see what has upset her; when he does, he also cries out, and runs back into the room, stammering that the statue has appeared as promised. An ominous knocking sounds at the door. Leporello, paralyzed by fear, cannot answer it, so Don Giovanni opens it himself, revealing the statue of the Commendatore. With the rhythmic chords of the overture, now reharmonized with diabolic diminished sevenths accompanying the Commendatore
Commendatore
("Don Giovanni! A cenar teco m'invitasti" – "Don Giovanni! You invited me to dine with you"), the statue offers a last chance to repent, but Don Giovanni adamantly refuses. The statue disappears and Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
cries out in pain and terror as he is surrounded by a chorus of demons, who carry him down to Hell. Leporello, watching from under the table, also cries out in fear. Donna Anna, Don Ottavio, Donna Elvira, Zerlina, and Masetto arrive, searching for the villain. They find instead Leporello hiding under the table, shaken by the supernatural horror he has witnessed. He assures them that no one will ever see Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
again. The remaining characters announce their plans for the future: Donna Anna and Don Ottavio will marry when Donna Anna's year of mourning is over; Donna Elvira will withdraw from society for the rest of her life;[27] Zerlina and Masetto will finally go home for dinner; and Leporello will go to the tavern to find a better master. The concluding ensemble delivers the moral of the opera – "Such is the end of the evildoer: the death of a sinner always reflects his life" ("Questo è il fin di chi fa mal, e de' perfidi la morte alla vita è sempre ugual"). As mentioned above, the final ensemble was customarily omitted from productions for over a century beginning with the original run in Prague, but it started to be performed again frequently in the 20th century and is now is usually included in productions of the opera. The return to D major
D major
and the innocent simplicity of the last few bars conclude the opera. Recordings[edit] Main article: Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
discography A screen adaptation of the opera was made under the title Don Giovanni in 1979 directed by Joseph Losey.[28] Cultural influence[edit] The Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
wrote a long essay in his book Enten – Eller in which he argues, writing under the pseudonym of his character "A", that "among all classic works Don Giovanni stands highest."[29] Charles Gounod
Charles Gounod
wrote that Mozart's Don Giovanni is "a work without blemish, of uninterrupted perfection."[30] The finale, in which Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
refuses to repent, has been a captivating philosophical and artistic topic for many writers including George Bernard Shaw, who in Man and Superman
Man and Superman
parodied the opera (with explicit mention of the Mozart score for the finale scene between the Commendatore
Commendatore
and Don Giovanni). Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
called Don Giovanni, along with Hamlet
Hamlet
and the sea, "the three finest things God ever made."[31] E. T. A. Hoffmann
E. T. A. Hoffmann
also wrote a short story derived from the opera, "Don Juan," in which the narrator meets Donna Anna and describes Don Juan
Don Juan
as an aesthetic hero rebelling against God and society. In some Germanic and other languages, Leporello's "Catalogue Aria" provided the name "Leporello List" for fan-folded printed matter, as used for brochures, photo albums, computer printouts and other continuous stationery.[32] Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and other composers[edit]

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The sustained popularity of Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
has resulted in extensive borrowings and arrangements of the original. The most famous and probably the most musically substantial is the operatic fantasy, Réminiscences de Don Juan
Don Juan
by Franz Liszt. The minuet from the finale of act 1, transcribed by Moritz Moszkowski, also makes an incongruous appearance in the manuscript of Liszt's Fantasy on Themes from Mozart's Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni, and Sigismond Thalberg uses the same minuet, along with "Deh, vieni alla finestra", in his Grand Fantaisie sur la serenade et le Minuet
Minuet
de Don Juan, Op. 42. "Deh, vieni alla finestra" also makes an appearance in the Klavierübung of Ferruccio Busoni, under the title Variations-Studie nach Mozart (Variation study after Mozart). Chopin wrote Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" (the duet between Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
and Zerlina) for piano and orchestra. Beethoven and Danzi also wrote variations on the same theme. And Beethoven, in his Diabelli Variations, cites Leporello's aria "Notte e giorno faticar" in variation 22. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
always regarded Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
– and its composer – with awe. In 1855, Mozart's original manuscript had been purchased in London by the mezzo-soprano Pauline Viardot, who was the teacher of Tchaikovsky's one-time unofficial fiancée Désirée Artôt (whom Viardot may have persuaded not to go through with her plan to marry the composer). Viardot kept the manuscript in a shrine in her Paris home, where it was visited by many people. Tchaikovsky visited her when he was in Paris in June 1886,[33] and said that when looking at the manuscript, he was "in the presence of divinity".[34] So it is not surprising that the centenary of the opera in 1887 would inspire him to write something honouring Mozart. Instead of taking any themes from Don Giovanni, however, he took four lesser known works by Mozart and arranged them into his fourth orchestral suite, which he called Mozartiana. The baritone who sang the title role in the centenary performance of Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
in Prague
Prague
that year was Mariano Padilla y Ramos, the man Désirée Artôt
Désirée Artôt
married instead of Tchaikovsky.[35] In addition to instrumental works, allusions to Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
also appear in a number of operas: Nicklausse of Offenbach's The Tales of Hoffmann sings a snatch of Leporello's "Notte e giorno", and Rossini alludes to the Commendatore's music for Selim's entrance in Il turco in Italia. See also[edit]

Opera
Opera
portal

List of operas by Mozart

References[edit] Notes

^ The theatre is referred to as the Teatro di Praga in the libretto for the 1787 premiere (Deutsch 1965, 302–03); for the current name of the theatre see "The Estates Theatre" at the Prague
Prague
National Theatre website. ^ " Opera
Opera
Statistics". Operabase. Retrieved 28 November 2016. ; the count is of productions (performance runs) ^ a b The background of the production is summarized in Freeman (2013), 104–30. ^ The first eighteenth-century Don Juan
Don Juan
opera produced in Europe was La pravità castigata (Prague, 1730), and the second one was Il convitato di pietra (Prague, 1776). ^ See Freeman (2013), 199-205, for a discussion of Da Ponte's borrowings from the Bertati libretto and Da Ponte's description of the genesis of the work from his memoirs of 1819 and 1823. ^ See Freeman (2013), 205, for a discussion of Da Ponte's vague specification, including a theory about why it is so vague that is based on suspiciously archaic cultural references incompatible with the modern city of Seville
Seville
as it existed in Da Ponte's day. ^ Mozart's letter sent to Gottfried von Jacquin, dated October 15 ^ Esposito, Eric. "Mozart's Midnight Masterpiece: The Composition of "Don Giovanni's" Overture". CMUSE. Retrieved 2016-02-11.  ^ Deutsch 1965, 303 ^ Deutsch 1965, 304 ^ OperaGlass at Opera.Stanford.Edu ^ Wolfgang Plath and Wolfgang Rehm (de), Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, Serie II, Werkgruppe 5, Band 17, Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(Kassel, 1968) ^ See Freeman (2013), 224. ^ Buch, David Joseph (2008). Magic flutes & enchanted forests: the supernatural in eighteenth-century musical theater. University of Chicago Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-226-07811-3.  ^ Premiere cast from Casaglia (2005) ^ Deutsch 1965, 313 ^ Benucci was the first Figaro in Le nozze di Figaro'. ^ Weber, Mozart's sister-in-law, frequently sang in his works. ^ Cavalieri was the first Konstanze in Die Entführung aus dem Serail. ^ The role is often sung by baritones ^ Abert, Spencer, Eisen: W. A. Mozart ^ Sparks, Paul (1995). The Classical Mandolin. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-19-517337-6. The mandoline is today (1843) so neglected that, in the theatres where Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
is staged, it is always a problem to execute the serenade...it has become allowed almost everywhere...to play the mandoline part in Don Giovanni on pizzicato violins or on guitars....  ^ Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Schirmer piano-vocal score ISBN 079351231X, page iv ^ In the absence of an unambiguous indication in Da Ponte's libretto, it is reasonable to interpret this incident variously. However, in a discussion of the literary tradition available to Da Ponte as detailed in Freeman (2013), 197-204, it is clear that there was no precedent for the portrayal of Don Juan
Don Juan
as a rapist in the literary tradition that extended from Da Ponte's time back to the prototype Don Juan drama, Tirso de Molina's early seventeenth-century play El burlador de Sevilla. Da Ponte's scene at the beginning of the opera is based on a standard scenario of earlier dramas in which Don Juan
Don Juan
attempts to seduce a noblewoman in disguise as her lover, one of his standard burlas (or "tricks" of seduction). Besides no precedent for rape, there is also no portrayal in the Don Juan
Don Juan
literature before Da Ponte of impregnation or the contraction of venereal disease in spite of Don Juan's numberless sexual encounters. ^ This scene was added at the same time as the preceding Zerlina / Leporello duet, but is generally retained and sung directly after "Il mio tesoro". ^ Freeman (2013), 222–24, points out that the purpose of excerpting music from other composer's operas is an assertion of superiority – and a highly effective one. The impact of Mozart's music after hearing insipid examples by other composers' work is striking indeed. The dialogue that accompanies this vignette does not appear in the libretto published for the first performance, thus the idea was almost certainly Mozart's, and he must have written the lines of text himself. ^ Freeman (2013), 225, points out that the correct translation of Donna Elvira's line "Io men vado in un ritiro a finir la vita mia!" indicates that she intends to remove herself to a "retreat" instead of entering a convent (as the line is frequently mistranslated into English). Neither in eighteenth-century Italian nor modern Italian could "ritiro" be construed as a synonym for "convento" (convent) or "monastero" (monastery). Rather, it has the connotation of a comfortable, secluded private dwelling in the countryside. ^ Citron, Marcia J. (2000). Opera
Opera
on Screen, p. 203. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08158-8 ^ Kierkegaard, p. 135. ^ Gounod, pp. v-vi ^ Flaubert, Gustave. The Letters of Gustave Flaubert.  ^ "leporelloliste". Den Danske Ordbog (in Danish). Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ Alexander Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man, p. 460 ^ Abstract: 19th Century Music, Mark Everist Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Louis Charles Elson (1912). University musical encyclopedia. The University society. p. 467. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 

Sources

Allanbrook, W. J. (1983). Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Chicago. (reviewed in Platoff, John. "Untitled." The Journal of Musicology, Vol . 4, No. 4 (1986). pp. 535–38). Baker, Even A. (1993): Alfred Roller's Production Of Mozart's Don Giovanni – A Break in the Scenic Traditions of the Vienna Court Opera. New York University. Casaglia, Gherardo (2005). "Don Giovanni, 29 October 1787". L'Almanacco di Gherardo Casaglia (in Italian). Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965), Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0233-1. Freeman, Daniel E. (2013). Mozart in Prague. Minneapolis: Bearclaw. ISBN 978-0-9794223-1-7. Goehr, Lydia; Herwitz, Daniel A. (2006). The Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Moment: Essays on the Legacy of an Opera. Columbia Press University, New York. Gounod, Charles, Mozart's Don Giovanni: A Commentary, transl. by Windeyer Clark and J. P. Hutchinson from the third French edition of Le Don Juan
Don Juan
de Mozart, London, R. Cocks, 1895, Repr. Da Capo Press, New York, 1970. Kaminsky, Peter (1996). How to Do things with Words and Music: Towards an Analysis of Selected ensembles in Mozart's Don Giovanni. Theory and Practice Kierkegaard, Søren, Either/Or, ed. by Victor Eremita, abridged, translated, and with an introduction and notes, by Alastair Hannay, Penguin, London, 1992. Melitz, Leo (1921): The Opera
Opera
Goer's Complete Guide McClatchy, J.D. (2010). Seven Mozart Librettos. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06609-6.  Noske, F. R. "Don Giovanni: Musical Affinities and Dramatic Structure." SMH, xii (1970), 167–203; repr. in Theatre Research viii (1973), 60–74 and in Noske, 1977, 39–75 Ponte, Lorenzo Da. Mozart's Don Giovanni. Dover Publications, New York, 1985. (reviewed in G.S. "Untitled." Music & Letters Vol 19. No. 2 (April 1938). pp. 216–18) Rushton, Julian G. (1981). W.A. Mozart: Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Cambridge. (reviewed in Sternfeld, F. W. "Untitled." Music and Letters, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Oct. 1984) pp. 377–78) Schünemann, Georg and Soldan, Kurt (translated by Stanley Appelbaum) Don Giovanni: Complete orchestral and vocal score Dover 1974 Tyson, Alan. "Some Features of the Autograph Score of Don Giovanni", Israel Studies in Musicology (1990), 7–26 Hermann Abert: W. A. Mozart, Breitkopf & Härtel, 1923

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Don Giovanni: Score and critical report (in German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe Don Giovanni: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Opera
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Don Giovanni
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v t e

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Biography

Biographies Birthplace Grand tour Name Nationality Scatology Smallpox Italy Berlin Prague Death

Music

Köchel catalogue List of compositions Concert arias, songs, canons Dances Horn concertos Masses Operas Piano concertos Works for solo piano Sonatas Symphonies Compositional method

Family

Leopold Mozart Anna Maria Mozart Maria Anna Mozart
Maria Anna Mozart
(Nannerl) Constanze Mozart Maria Anna Thekla Mozart
Maria Anna Thekla Mozart
(Bäsle) Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart Karl Thomas Mozart Johann Georg Mozart Joseph Lange Cäcilia Weber Josepha Weber Aloysia Weber Sophie Weber Georg Nissen Family trees

Influences

Beethoven Catholic Church Freemasonry Haydn Salieri

Related

Mozart in popular culture

Book Category

v t e

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni

Films

Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(1979)

Arias

"Madamina, il catalogo è questo" "Là ci darem la mano"

Variations and adaptations

Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" (1827) Réminiscences de Don Juan
Don Juan
(1841) Orchestral Suite No. 4 Mozartiana (1887) Don Juan
Don Juan
Triumphant (fictional, 1910) John Gavanti
John Gavanti
(1980)

Related

Discography

v t e

Don Juan

Films

Don Juan
Don Juan
Tenorio (1898) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1913) The Lucky Horseshoe
The Lucky Horseshoe
(1925) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1926) The Private Life of Don Juan
Don Juan
(1934) Adventures of Don Juan
Don Juan
(1948) Le avventure di Mandrin
Le avventure di Mandrin
(1952) Crossed Swords (1954) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1956) The Devil's Eye
The Devil's Eye
(1960) Don Juan
Don Juan
in Sicily (1967) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1969) Don Juan, or If Don Juan
Don Juan
Were a Woman (1973) Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(1979) Little Tragedies (1979) Don Juan
Don Juan
in Hell (1995) Don Juan
Don Juan
DeMarco (1995)

"El Toro Relajo" "Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman?"

Don Juan
Don Juan
(1998) Broken Flowers
Broken Flowers
(2005) Don Jon
Don Jon
(2013)

Plays

The Trickster of Seville
Seville
and the Stone Guest (1630) Dom Juan
Dom Juan
(1665) The Stone Guest (1830) Don Juan
Don Juan
Tenorio (1844) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1862) Man and Superman
Man and Superman
(1905) Don Juan
Don Juan
(1959) Don Juan
Don Juan
in Soho (2006) A Free Man of Color (2010)

Operas

L'empio punito (1669) La pravità castigata (1730) Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(1787)

" Là ci darem la mano " "Madamina, il catalogo è questo" Discography

Don Giovanni Tenorio
Don Giovanni Tenorio
(1787) Réminiscences de Don Juan
Don Juan
(1841) The Stone Guest (1872) Margarita la tornera
Margarita la tornera
(1909) Flammen (1932)

Other music

Don Juan
Don Juan
(ballet, 1761) Don Juan
Don Juan
(tone poem, 1888) Don Juan
Don Juan
Triumphant (fictional, 1910) John Gavanti
John Gavanti
(album, 1980) Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(album, 1986) Don Juan
Don Juan
(musical, 2003) "Don Juan" (song, 2012)

Poems

Don Juan
Don Juan
(1821) El estudiante de Salamanca
El estudiante de Salamanca
(1840)

Novels

Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
in Sicilia (1941) Blue of Noon (1957) Mary and the Giant
Mary and the Giant
(1987)

v t e

Operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Operas

Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots
Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots
(1767) Apollo et Hyacinthus
Apollo et Hyacinthus
(1767) Bastien und Bastienne
Bastien und Bastienne
(1768) La finta semplice
La finta semplice
(1769) Mitridate, re di Ponto
Mitridate, re di Ponto
(1770) Ascanio in Alba
Ascanio in Alba
(1771) Il sogno di Scipione
Il sogno di Scipione
(1772) Lucio Silla
Lucio Silla
(1772) La finta giardiniera
La finta giardiniera
(1775) Il re pastore
Il re pastore
(1775) Thamos, King of Egypt
Thamos, King of Egypt
(1779) Zaide
Zaide
(1780) Idomeneo
Idomeneo
(1781) Die Entführung aus dem Serail
Die Entführung aus dem Serail
(1782) L'oca del Cairo
L'oca del Cairo
(1783) Lo sposo deluso
Lo sposo deluso
(1784) Der Schauspieldirektor
Der Schauspieldirektor
(1786) The Marriage of Figaro
The Marriage of Figaro
(1786) Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(1787) Così fan tutte
Così fan tutte
(1790) La clemenza di Tito
La clemenza di Tito
(1791) The Magic Flute
Flute
(1791)

Arias

"Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" "Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön" "Madamina, il catalogo è questo" "Non più andrai" "O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn" "Se vuol ballare"

Discographies

Così fan tutte Die Entführung aus dem Serail Don Giovanni The Magic Flute The Marriage of Figaro

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 292600412 LCCN: n80008521 GND: 30010782X SUDOC: 085259357 BNF:

.