A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles
the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a
matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and
specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or
drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the
dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an oculus
and may itself have another dome.
Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into
prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, snow, stone, wood,
brick, concrete, metal, glass, and plastic over the centuries. The
symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary, celestial, and
governmental traditions that have likewise developed over time.
Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, which may explain the
form's spread. They are found in Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, and
Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number
of contemporary indigenous building traditions.
Dome structures were
Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, and there are
numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages. The
Renaissance architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern
period. Advancements in mathematics, materials, and production
techniques since that time resulted in new dome types. The domes of
the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative
chambers, sports stadiums, and a variety of functional structures.
3.1 Internal forces
3.2 Zone of transition
4 General types
4.1 Beehive dome
4.2 Braced dome
4.3 Cloister vault
4.4 Compound dome
4.5 Crossed-arch dome
4.7 Hemispherical dome
4.10 Parabolic dome
4.11 Sail dome
4.12 Saucer dome
4.13 Umbrella dome
5.1 Early history and simple domes
5.2 Persian domes
5.3 Chinese domes
5.4 Roman and
5.5 Arabic and Western European domes
5.6 Russian domes
5.7 Ottoman domes
5.9 South Asian domes
Early modern period
Early modern period domes
5.11 Modern period domes
6 See also
The English word "dome" ultimately derives from the
("house")—which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered
house, such as a Domus Dei, or "House of God", regardless of the shape
of its roof. This is reflected in the uses of the Italian word duomo,
the German/Icelandic/Danish word dom ("cathedral"), and the English
word dome as late as 1656, when it meant a "Town-House, Guild-Hall,
State-House, and Meeting-House in a city." The French word dosme came
to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault, specifically, by 1660. This
French definition gradually became the standard usage of the English
dome in the eighteenth century as many of the most impressive Houses
of God were built with monumental domes, and in response to the
scientific need for more technical terms.
Comparison of a generic "true" arch (left) and a corbel arch (right).
A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of
revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical
axis. The terminology used has been a source of controversy, with
inconsistency between scholars and even within individual texts, but
the term "dome" may be considered a "blanket-word to describe an
hemispherical or similar spanning element." A half-dome or
semi-dome is a semi-circular shape often used, especially in apses.
Sometimes called "false" domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by
extending each horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than
the lower one until they meet at the top. A "false" dome may also
refer to a wooden dome. "True" domes are said to be those whose
structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of
wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central
point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground
with corbelled stone layers are also in compression from the
As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the level from which the
dome rises. The top of a dome is the "crown". The inner side of a dome
is called the "intrados" and the outer side is called the
"extrados". The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies roughly
halfway between the base and the top.
The word "cupola" is another word for "dome", and is usually used for
a small dome upon a roof or turret. "Cupola" has also been used to
describe the inner side of a dome.
Drums, also called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with
or without windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the
equivalent structure over a dome's oculus, supporting a cupola.
A masonry dome produces thrusts down and outward. They are thought of
in terms of two kinds of forces at right angles from one another.
Meridional forces (like the meridians, or lines of longitude, on a
globe) are compressive only, and increase towards the base, while hoop
forces (like the lines of latitude on a globe) are in compression at
the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a
hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the
top. The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to
the weight of its materials. Grounded hemispherical domes generate
significant horizontal thrusts at their haunches.
Unlike voussoir arches, which require support for each element until
the keystone is in place, domes are stable during construction as each
level is made a complete and self-supporting ring. The upper
portion of a masonry dome is always in compression and is supported
laterally, so it does not collapse except as a whole unit and a range
of deviations from the ideal in this shallow upper cap are equally
stable. Because voussoir domes have lateral support, they can be
made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For
example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a
semicircular arch, and a dome with the profile of an equilateral arch
can be thinner still.
The optimal shape for a masonry dome of equal thickness provides for
perfect compression, with none of the tension or bending forces
against which masonry is weak. For a particular material, the
optimal dome geometry is called the funicular surface, the comparable
shape in three dimensions to a catenary curve for a two-dimensional
arch. The pointed profiles of many Gothic domes more closely
approximate this optimal shape than do hemispheres, which were favored
by Roman and
Byzantine architects due to the circle being considered
the most perfect of forms. Adding a weight to the top of the pointed
dome, such as the heavy cupola at the top of
changes the optimal shape to perfectly match the actual pointed shape
of the dome.
The outward thrusts in the lower portion of a hemispherical masonry
dome can be counteracted with the use of chains incorporated around
the circumference or with external buttressing, although cracking
along the meridians is natural. For small or tall domes with less
horizontal thrust, the thickness of the supporting arches or walls can
be enough to resist deformation, which is why drums tend to be much
thicker than the domes they support.
Zone of transition
A compound dome (red) with pendentives (yellow) from a sphere of
greater radius than the dome.
An example of quadrangular to circle transition – The mosque of
Isfahan international conference center
When the base of the dome does not match the plan of the supporting
walls beneath it (for example, a dome's circular base over a square
bay), techniques are employed to bridge the two. The simplest
technique is to use diagonal lintels across the corners of the walls
to create an octagonal base. Another is to use arches to span the
corners, which can support more weight. A variety of these
techniques use what are called "squinches". A squinch can be a
single arch or a set of multiple projecting nested arches placed
diagonally over an internal corner. Squinches can take a variety
of other forms, as well, including trumpet arches and niche heads, or
The invention of pendentives superseded the squinch technique.
Pendentives are triangular sections of a sphere, like concave
spandrels between arches, and transition from the corners of a square
bay to the circular base of a dome. The curvature of the pendentives
is that of a sphere with a diameter equal to the diagonal of the
square bay. The precise definition of "pendentive" has been a
source of contention among academics, including whether or not
corbelling is permitted under the definition and whether or not the
lower portions of a sail vault should be considered pendentives.
Domes with pendentives can be divided into two kinds: simple and
compound. In the case of the simple dome, the pendentives are part
of the same sphere as the dome itself; however, such domes are
rare. In the case of the more common compound dome, the
pendentives are part of the surface of a larger sphere below that of
the dome itself and form a circular base for either the dome or a drum
Because domes are concave from below, they can reflect sound and
create echoes. A dome may have a "whispering gallery" at its base
that at certain places transmits distinct sound to other distant
places in the gallery. The half-domes over the apses of Byzantine
churches helped to project the chants of the clergy. Although this
can complement music, it may make speech less intelligible, leading
Francesco Giorgi in 1535 to recommend vaulted ceilings for the choir
areas of a church, but a flat ceiling filled with as many coffers as
possible for where preaching would occur.
Cavities in the form of jars built into the inner surface of a dome
may serve to compensate for this interference by diffusing sound in
all directions, eliminating echoes while creating a "divine effect in
the atmosphere of worship." This technique was written about by
Vitruvius in his Ten Books on Architecture, which describes bronze and
earthenware resonators. The material, shape, contents, and
placement of these cavity resonators determine the effect they have:
reinforcing certain frequencies or absorbing them.
The earliest domes in the
Middle East were built with mud-brick and,
eventually, with baked brick and stone. Domes of wood allowed for wide
spans due to the relatively light and flexible nature of the material
and were the normal method for domed churches by the 7th century,
although most domes were built with the other less flexible materials.
Wooden domes were protected from the weather by roofing, such as
copper or lead sheeting. Domes of cut stone were more expensive
and never as large, and timber was used for large spans where brick
Roman concrete used an aggregate of stone with a powerful mortar. The
aggregate transitioned over the centuries to pieces of fired clay,
then to Roman bricks. By the sixth century, bricks with large amounts
of mortar were the principle vaulting materials.
Pozzolana appears to
have only been used in central Italy. Brick domes were the favored
choice for large-space monumental coverings until the Industrial Age,
due to their convenience and dependability. Ties and chains of
iron or wood could be used to resist stresses.
The new building materials of the 19th century and a better
understanding of the forces within structures from the 20th century
has opened up new possibilities. Iron and steel beams, steel cables,
and pre-stressed concrete have eliminated the need for external
buttressing and enabled far thinner domes. Whereas earlier masonry
domes may have had a radius to thickness ratio of 50, the ratio for
modern domes can be in excess of 800. The lighter weight of these
domes has not only permitted far greater spans, but also allowed for
the creation of large movable domes over modern sports stadiums.
Experimental rammed earth domes were made as part of work on
sustainable architecture at the
University of Kassel
University of Kassel in 1983.
Main article: Symbolism of domes
According to E. Baldwin Smith, from the late Stone Age the dome-shaped
tomb was used as a reproduction of the ancestral, god-given shelter
made permanent as a venerated home of the dead. The instinctive desire
to do this resulted in widespread domical mortuary traditions across
the ancient world, from the stupas of
India to the tholos tombs of
Iberia. By Hellenistic and Roman times, the domical tholos had become
the customary cemetery symbol.
Domes and tent-canopies were also associated with the heavens in
Ancient Persia and the Hellenistic-Roman world. A dome over a square
base reflected the geometric symbolism of those shapes. The circle
represented perfection, eternity, and the heavens. The square
represented the earth. An octagon was intermediate between the
two. The distinct symbolism of the heavenly or cosmic tent
stemming from the royal audience tents of Achaemenid and Indian rulers
was adopted by Roman rulers in imitation of Alexander the Great,
becoming the imperial baldachin. This probably began with Nero, whose
"Golden House" also made the dome an essential feature of palace
The dual sepulchral and heavenly symbolism was adopted by early
Christians in both the use of domes in architecture and in the
ciborium, a domical canopy like the baldachin used as a ritual
covering for relics or the church altar. The celestial symbolism of
the dome, however, was the preeminent one by the Christian era. In
the early centuries of Islam, domes were closely associated with
royalty. A dome built in front of the mihrab of a mosque, for example,
was at least initially meant to emphasize the place of a prince during
royal ceremonies. Over time such domes became primarily focal points
for decoration or the direction of prayer. The use of domes in
mausoleums can likewise reflect royal patronage or be seen as
representing the honor and prestige that domes symbolized, rather than
having any specific funerary meaning. The wide variety of dome
forms in medieval
Islam reflected dynastic, religious, and social
differences as much as practical building considerations.
See also: Beehive tomb
Also called a corbelled dome, or false dome, these are
different from a 'true dome' in that they consist of purely horizontal
layers. As the layers get higher, each is slightly cantilevered, or
corbeled, toward the center until meeting at the top. A monumental
example is the Mycenaean
Treasury of Atreus
Treasury of Atreus from the late Bronze
A single layer space frame in the form of a dome, a braced dome is a
generic term that includes ribbed, Schwedler, three-way
grid, lamella or Kiewitt, lattice, and geodesic domes.
The different terms reflect different arrangements in the surface
members. Braced domes often have a very low weight and are usually
used to cover spans of up to 150 meters.
Main article: Cloister vault
Called domical vaults (a term sometimes also applied to sail
vaults), polygonal domes, coved domes, gored
domes, segmental domes (a term sometimes also used for saucer
domes), paneled vaults, or pavilion vaults, these are domes
that maintain a polygonal shape in their horizontal cross section. The
earliest known examples date to the first century BC, such as the
Rome from 78 BC. Others include the Baths of Antoninus
Carthage (145–160) and the Palatine Chapel at Aachen (13th –
14th century). The most famous example is the Renaissance
octagonal dome of
Filippo Brunelleschi over the
Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, installed
an octagonal dome above the West front of his plantation house,
Also called domes on pendentives or pendentive domes (a term
also applied to sail vaults), compound domes have pendentives that
support a smaller diameter dome immediately above them, as in the
Hagia Sophia, or a drum and dome, as in many
Renaissance domes, with both forms resulting in greater
One of the earliest types of ribbed vault, the first known examples
are found in the Great
Mosque of Córdoba in the 10th century. Rather
than meeting in the center of the dome, the ribs characteristically
intersect one another off-center, forming an empty polygonal space in
the center. Geometry is a key element of the designs, with the octagon
being perhaps the most popular shape used. Whether the arches are
structural or purely decorative remains a matter of debate. The type
may have an eastern origin, although the issue is also unsettled.
Examples are found in Spain, North Africa, Armenia, Iran, France, and
A corbel dome
A domical vault
A compound dome
A crossed-arch dome
Geodesic domes are the upper portion of geodesic spheres. They are
composed of a framework of triangles in a polyhedron pattern. The
structures are named for geodesics and are based upon geometric shapes
such as icosahedrons, octahedrons or tetrahedrons. Such domes
can be created using a limited number of simple elements and joints
and efficiently resolve a domes internal forces. Their efficiency is
said to increase with size. Although not first invented by
Buckminster Fuller, they are associated with him because he designed
many geodesic domes and patented them in the United States.
The hemispherical dome is half of a sphere. According to E. Baldwin
Smith, it was a shape likely known to the Assyrians, defined by Greek
theoretical mathematicians, and standardized by Roman builders.
Bulbous domes bulge out beyond their base diameters, offering a
profile greater than a hemisphere. An onion dome is a greater than
hemispherical dome with a pointed top in an ogee profile. They are
found in the Near East, Middle East, Persia, and
India and may not
have had a single point of origin. Their appearance in northern
Russian architecture predates the Tatar occupation of
Russia and so is
not easily explained as the result of that influence. They became
popular in the second half of the 15th century in the
Low Countries of
Northern Europe, possibly inspired by the finials of minarets in Egypt
and Syria, and developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the
Netherlands before spreading to Germany, becoming a popular element of
the baroque architecture of Central Europe. German bulbous domes were
also influenced by Russian and Eastern European domes. The
examples found in various European architectural styles are typically
wooden. Examples include Kazan Church in
Kolomenskoye and the
Brighton Pavilion by John Nash. In Islamic architecture, they are
typically made of masonry, rather than timber, with the thick and
heavy bulging portion serving to buttress against the tendency of
masonry domes to spread at their bases. The
Taj Mahal is a famous
An oval dome is a dome of oval shape in plan, profile, or both. The
term comes from the
Latin ovum, meaning "egg". The earliest oval domes
were used by convenience in corbelled stone huts as rounded but
geometrically undefined coverings, and the first examples in Asia
Minor date to around 4000 B.C. The geometry was eventually defined
using combinations of circular arcs, transitioning at points of
tangency. If the Romans created oval domes, it was only in exceptional
circumstances. The Roman foundations of the oval plan Church of St.
Gereon in Cologne point to a possible example. Domes in the Middle
Ages also tended to be circular, though the church of Santo Tomás de
las Ollas in Spain has an oval dome over its oval plan. Other examples
of medieval oval domes can be found covering rectangular bays in
Oval plan churches became a type in the
popular in the
Baroque style. The dome built for the basilica of
Vicoforte by Francesco Gallo was one of the largest and most complex
A geodesic dome
A hemispherical dome
An onion dome
An oval dome
A parabolic dome is a unique structure in which bending stress due to
the uniformly distributed load of its dead load is zero. Hence it was
widely used in buildings in ancient times, before the advent of
composite structures. However, if a point load is applied on the apex
of a parabolic dome, the bending stress becomes infinite. Hence it is
found in most ancient structures, the apex of the dome is stiffened or
the shape modified to avoid the infinite stress.
Also called sail vaults, handkerchief vaults, domical vaults
(a term sometimes also applied to cloister vaults), pendentive
domes (a term that has also been applied to compound domes),
Bohemian vaults, or
Byzantine domes, this type can be thought of
as pendentives that, rather than merely touching each other to form a
circular base for a drum or compound dome, smoothly continue their
curvature to form the dome itself. The dome gives the impression of a
square sail pinned down at each corner and billowing upward. These
can also be thought of as saucer domes upon pendentives.
Also called segmental domes (a term sometimes also used for
cloister vaults), or calottes, these have profiles of less than
half a circle. Because they reduce the portion of the dome in tension,
these domes are strong but have increased radial thrust. Many of
the largest existing domes are of this shape.
Masonry saucer domes, because they exist entirely in compression, can
be built much thinner than other dome shapes without becoming
unstable. The trade-off between the proportionately increased
horizontal thrust at their abutments and their decreased weight and
quantity of materials may make them more economical, but they are more
vulnerable to damage from movement in their supports.
Also called gadrooned, fluted, organ-piped, pumpkin,
melon, ribbed, parachute, scalloped, or lobed
domes, these are a type of dome divided at the base into curved
segments, which follow the curve of the elevation. "Fluted" may
refer specifically to this pattern as an external feature, such as was
common in Mamluk Egypt. The "ribs" of a dome are the radial lines
of masonry that extend from the crown down to the springing. The
central dome of the
Hagia Sophia uses the ribbed method, which
accommodates a ring of windows between the ribs at the base of the
dome. The central dome of
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica also uses this method.
A sail vault
A saucer dome
An umbrella dome
Early history and simple domes
Main article: History of early and simple domes
Apache wigwam, by Edward S. Curtis, 1903
Cultures from pre-history to modern times constructed domed dwellings
using local materials. Although it is not known when the first dome
was created, sporadic examples of early domed structures have been
discovered. The earliest discovered may be four small dwellings made
Mammoth tusks and bones. The first was found by a farmer in
Mezhirich, Ukraine, in 1965 while he was digging in his cellar and
archaeologists unearthed three more. They date from 19,280 –
In modern times, the creation of relatively simple dome-like
structures has been documented among various indigenous peoples around
the world. The wigwam was made by Native Americans using arched
branches or poles covered with grass or hides. The
Efé people of
central Africa construct similar structures, using leaves as
shingles. Another example is the igloo, a shelter built from
blocks of compact snow and used by the
Inuit people, among others. The
Himba people of
Namibia construct "desert igloos" of wattle and daub
for use as temporary shelters at seasonal cattle camps, and as
permanent homes by the poor. Extraordinarily thin domes of
sun-baked clay 20 feet in diameter, 30 feet high, and nearly parabolic
in curve, are known from Cameroon.
The historical development from structures like these to more
sophisticated domes is not well documented. That the dome was known to
Mesopotamia may explain the existence of domes in both
the West in the first millennium BC. Another explanation, however,
is that the use of the dome shape in construction did not have a
single point of origin and was common in virtually all cultures long
before domes were constructed with enduring materials.
Corbelled stone domes have been found from the
Neolithic period in the
ancient Near East, and in the
Middle East to Western Europe from
antiquity.  The kings of Achaemenid Persia held audiences and
festivals in domical tents derived from the nomadic traditions of
central Asia. Simple domical mausoleums existed in the Hellenistic
period. The remains of a large domed circular hall in the Parthian
capital city of Nyssa has been dated to perhaps the first century AD,
showing "...the existence of a monumental domical tradition in Central
Asia that had hitherto been unknown and which seems to have preceded
Roman Imperial monuments or at least to have grown independently from
them." It likely had a wooden dome.
Main article: History of Persian domes
See also: Gonbad
Sheikh Lotfallah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran.
Persian architecture likely inherited an architectural tradition of
dome-building dating back to the earliest Mesopotamian domes. Due
to the scarcity of wood in many areas of the Iranian plateau, domes
were an important part of vernacular architecture throughout Persian
history. The Persian invention of the squinch, a series of
concentric arches forming a half-cone over the corner of a room,
enabled the transition from the walls of a square chamber to an
octagonal base for a dome in a way reliable enough for large
constructions and domes moved to the forefront of Persian architecture
as a result. Pre-Islamic domes in Persia are commonly
semi-elliptical, with pointed domes and those with conical outer
shells being the majority of the domes in the Islamic periods.
The area of north-eastern
Iran was, along with Egypt, one of two areas
notable for early developments in Islamic domed mausoleums, which
appear in the tenth century. The
Samanid Mausoleum in Transoxiana
dates to no later than 943 and is the first to have squinches create a
regular octagon as a base for the dome, which then became the standard
practice. Cylindrical or polygonal plan tower tombs with conical roofs
over domes also exist beginning in the 11th century.
The Seljuq Turks built tower tombs, called "Turkish Triangles", as
well as cube mausoleums covered with a variety of dome forms. Seljuk
domes included conical, semi-circular, and pointed shapes in one or
two shells. Shallow semi-circular domes are mainly found from the
Seljuk era. The double-shell domes were either discontinuous or
continuous. The domed enclosure of the Jameh
Mosque of Isfahan,
built in 1086-7 by Nizam al-Mulk, was the largest masonry dome in the
Islamic world at that time, had eight ribs, and introduced a new form
of corner squinch with two quarter domes supporting a short barrel
vault. In 1088 Tāj-al-Molk, a rival of Nizam al-Mulk, built another
dome at the opposite end of the same mosque with interlacing ribs
forming five-pointed stars and pentagons. This is considered the
landmark Seljuk dome, and may have inspired subsequent patterning and
the domes of the Il-Khanate period. The use of tile and of plain or
painted plaster to decorate dome interiors, rather than brick,
increased under the Seljuks.
Beginning in the Ilkhanate, Persian domes achieved their final
configuration of structural supports, zone of transition, drum, and
shells, and subsequent evolution was restricted to variations in form
and shell geometry. Characteristic of these domes are the use of high
drums and several types of discontinuous double-shells, and the
development of triple-shells and internal stiffeners occurred at this
time. The construction of tomb towers decreased. The 7.5 meter
wide double dome of
Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum
Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum (1351–1352) is the
earliest known example in which the two shells of the dome have
significantly different profiles, which spread rapidly throughout the
region. The development of taller drums also continued into the
Timurid period. The large, bulbous, fluted domes on tall drums
that are characteristic of 15th century Timurid architecture were the
culmination of the Central Asian and Iranian tradition of tall domes
with glazed tile coverings in blue and other colors.
The domes of the
Safavid dynasty (1501–1732) are characterized by a
distinctive bulbous profile and are considered the last generation of
Persian domes. They are generally thinner than earlier domes and are
decorated with a variety of colored glazed tiles and complex vegetal
patterns, and they were influential on those of other Islamic styles,
such as the
Mughal architecture of India. An exaggerated style of
onion dome on a short drum, as can be seen at the Shah Cheragh
(1852–1853), first appeared in the Qajar period. Domes have remained
important in modern mausoleums, and domed cisterns and icehouses
remain common sights in the countryside.
Model of the Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb (25 AD – 220 AD).
Very little has survived of ancient Chinese architecture, due to the
extensive use of timber as a building material. Brick and stone vaults
used in tomb construction have survived, and the corbeled dome was
used, rarely, in tombs and temples. The earliest true domes found
in Chinese tombs were shallow cloister vaults, called simian jieding,
derived from the Han use of barrel vaulting. Unlike the cloister
vaults of western Europe, the corners are rounded off as they
A model of a tomb found with a shallow true dome from the late Han
Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) can be seen at the Guangzhou Museum
(Canton). Another, the Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb, found in Hong Kong
in 1955, has a design common among Eastern
Han Dynasty (25 AD – 220
AD) tombs in South China: a barrel vaulted entrance leading to a domed
front hall with barrel vaulted chambers branching from it in a cross
shape. It is the only such tomb that has been found in Hong Kong and
is exhibited as part of the Hong Kong Museum of History.
Three Kingdoms period (220–280), the "cross-joint dome"
(siyuxuanjinshi) was developed under the Wu and Western Jin dynasties
south of the Yangtze River, with arcs building out from the corners of
a square room until they met and joined at the center. These domes
were stronger, had a steeped angle, and could cover larger areas than
the relatively shallow cloister vaults. Over time, they were made
taller and wider. There were also corbel vaults, called diese,
although these are the weakest type. Some tombs of the Song
Dynasty (960–1279) have beehive domes.
Main article: History of Roman and
See also: List of Roman domes
Giovanni Paolo Pannini of the Pantheon in Rome.
Roman domes are found in baths, villas, palaces, and tombs. Oculi are
common features. They are customarily hemispherical in shape and
partially or totally concealed on the exterior. To buttress the
horizontal thrusts of a large hemispherical masonry dome, the
supporting walls were built up beyond the base to at least the
haunches of the dome, and the dome was then also sometimes covered
with a conical or polygonal roof.
Domes reached monumental size in the Roman Imperial period. Roman
baths played a leading role in the development of domed construction
in general, and monumental domes in particular. Modest domes in baths
dating from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC are seen in Pompeii, in the
cold rooms of the Terme Stabiane and the Terme del Foro.
However, the extensive use of domes did not occur before the 1st
century AD. The growth of domed construction increases under
Nero and the Flavians in the 1st century AD, and during the
2nd century. Centrally-planned halls become increasingly important
parts of palace and palace villa layouts beginning in the 1st century,
serving as state banqueting halls, audience rooms, or throne
rooms. The Pantheon, a temple in
Rome completed by Emperor
Hadrian as part of the Baths of Agrippa, is the most famous, best
preserved, and largest Roman dome. Segmented domes, made of
radially concave wedges or of alternating concave and flat wedges,
Hadrian in the 2nd century and most preserved examples of
this style date from this period.
In the 3rd century, Imperial mausoleums began to be built as domed
rotundas, rather than as tumulus structures or other types, following
similar monuments by private citizens. The technique of building
lightweight domes with interlocking hollow ceramic tubes further
developed in North Africa and Italy in the late third and early fourth
centuries. In the 4th century, Roman domes proliferated due to
changes in the way domes were constructed, including advances in
centering techniques and the use of brick ribbing. The material
of choice in construction gradually transitioned during the 4th and
5th centuries from stone or concrete to lighter brick in thin
shells. Baptisteries began to be built in the manner of domed
mausoleums during the 4th century in Italy. The octagonal Lateran
baptistery or the baptistery of the Holy Sepulchre may have been the
first, and the style spread during the 5th century. By the 5th
century, structures with small-scale domed cross plans existed across
the Christian world.
With the end of the Western Roman Empire, domes became a signature
feature of the church architecture of the surviving Eastern Roman —
or "Byzantine" — Empire. 6th-century church building by the
Emperor Justinian used the domed cross unit on a monumental scale, and
his architects made the domed brick-vaulted central plan standard
throughout the Roman east. This divergence with the Roman west from
the second third of the 6th century may be considered the beginning of
a "Byzantine" architecture. Justinian's
Hagia Sophia was an
original and innovative design with no known precedents in the way it
covers a basilica plan with dome and semi-domes. Periodic earthquakes
in the region have caused three partial collapses of the dome and
"Cross-domed units", a more secure structural system created by
bracing a dome on all four sides with broad arches, became a standard
element on a smaller scale in later
Cross-in-square plan, with a single dome
at the crossing or five domes in a quincunx pattern, became widely
popular in the Middle
Byzantine period (c. 843–1204).
It is the most common church plan from the tenth century until the
fall of Constantinople in 1453. Resting domes on circular or
polygonal drums pierced with windows eventually became the standard
style, with regional characteristics.
Byzantine period, domes were normally hemispherical and had,
with occasional exceptions, windowed drums. All of the surviving
examples in Constantinople are ribbed or pumpkin domes, with the
divisions corresponding to the number of windows. Roofing for domes
ranged from simple ceramic tile to more expensive, more durable, and
more form-fitting lead sheeting. Metal clamps between stone cornice
blocks, metal tie rods, and metal chains were also used to stabilize
domed construction. The technique of using double shells for
domes, although revived in the Renaissance, originated in Byzantine
Arabic and Western European domes
Main article: History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
The Syria and Palestine area has a long tradition of domical
architecture, including wooden domes in shapes described as "conoid",
or similar to pine cones. When the Arab Muslim forces conquered the
region, they employed local craftsmen for their buildings and, by the
end of the 7th century, the dome had begun to become an
architectural symbol of Islam. In addition to religious shrines,
such as the
Dome of the Rock, domes were used over the audience and
throne halls of
Umayyad palaces, and as part of porches, pavilions,
fountains, towers and the calderia of baths. Blending the
architectural features of both
Byzantine and Persian architecture, the
domes used both pendentives and squinches and were made in a variety
of shapes and materials. Although architecture in the region
would decline following the movement of the capital to Iraq under the
Abbasids in 750, mosques built after a revival in the late 11th
century usually followed the
Umayyad model. Early versions of
bulbous domes can be seen in mosaic illustrations in Syria dating to
Umayyad period. They were used to cover large buildings in Syria
after the eleventh century.
Italian church architecture from the late sixth century to the end of
the eighth century was influenced less by the trends of Constantinople
than by a variety of
Byzantine provincial plans. With the
Charlemagne as a new Roman Emperor,
were largely replaced in a revival of earlier Western building
traditions. Occasional exceptions include examples of early quincunx
Milan and near Cassino. Another is the Palatine
Chapel. Its domed octagon design was influenced by Byzantine
models. It was the largest dome north of the Alps at that
Southern Italy and
Sicily served as outposts of
Byzantine architectural influence in Italy.
Mosque of Córdoba contains the first known examples of the
crossed-arch dome type. The use of corner squinches to support
domes was widespread in
Islamic architecture by the 10th and 11th
centuries. After the ninth century, mosques in North Africa often
have a small decorative dome over the mihrab. Additional domes are
sometimes used at the corners of the mihrab wall, at the entrance bay,
or on the square tower minarets. Egypt, along with north-eastern
Iran, was one of two areas notable for early developments in Islamic
mausoleums, beginning in the 10th century. Fatimid mausoleums were
mostly simple square buildings covered by a dome. Domes were smooth or
ribbed and had a characteristic Fatimid "keel" shape profile.
Romanesque architecture are generally found within crossing
towers at the intersection of a church's nave and transept, which
conceal the domes externally. They are typically octagonal in
plan and use corner squinches to translate a square bay into a
suitable octagonal base. They appear "in connection with basilicas
almost throughout Europe" between 1050 and 1100. The Crusades,
beginning in 1095, also appear to have influenced domed architecture
in Western Europe, particularly in the areas around the Mediterranean
Sea. The Knights Templar, headquartered at the site, built a
series of centrally planned churches throughout Europe modeled on the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock also an
influence. In southwest France, there are over 250 domed
Romanesque churches in the
Périgord region alone. The use of
pendentives to support domes in the
Aquitaine region, rather than the
squinches more typical of western medieval architecture, strongly
Byzantine influence. Gothic domes are uncommon due to
the use of rib vaults over naves, and with church crossings usually
focused instead by a tall steeple, but there are examples of small
octagonal crossing domes in cathedrals as the style developed from the
Star-shaped domes found at the Moorish palace of the
Granada, Spain, the Hall of the Abencerrajes (c. 1333–91) and the
Hall of the two Sisters (c. 1333–54), are extraordinarily developed
examples of muqarnas domes. In the first half of the fourteenth
century, stone blocks replaced bricks as the primary building material
in the dome construction of Mamluk Egypt and, over the course of 250
years, around 400 domes were built in Cairo to cover the tombs of
Mamluk sultans and emirs.
Dome profiles were varied, with
"keel-shaped", bulbous, ogee, stilted domes, and others being used. On
the drum, angles were chamfered, or sometimes stepped, externally and
triple windows were used in a tri-lobed arrangement on the faces.
Bulbous cupolas on minarets were used in Egypt beginning around 1330,
spreading to Syria in the following century. In the fifteenth
century, pilgrimages to and flourishing trade relations with the Near
East exposed the
Low Countries of northwest Europe to the use of
bulbous domes in the architecture of the
Orient and such domes
apparently became associated with the city of Jerusalem. Multi-story
spires with truncated bulbous cupolas supporting smaller cupolas or
crowns became popular in the sixteenth century.
Gilded onion domes of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow
Saint Basil's Cathedral
Saint Basil's Cathedral (1555–61) in Moscow, Russia. Its distinctive
onion domes date to the 1680s.
The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture
Russia from other Orthodox nations and Christian
denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches, built just after
the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which has led
some historians to speculate about how Russian pre-Christian pagan
temples might have looked. Examples of these early churches are the
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and the
Desyatinnaya Church in
Kiev (989–996). The number of
domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for
example 13 domes symbolize
Christ with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes
means the same with an additional 12 Prophets of the Old Testament.
The multiple domes of Russian churches were often comparatively
The earliest stone churches in
Byzantine style domes,
however by the
Early Modern era
Early Modern era the onion dome had become the
predominant form in traditional Russian architecture. The onion dome
is a dome whose shape resembles an onion, after which they are named.
Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drums they sit on,
and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous
structure tapers smoothly to a point. Though the earliest preserved
Russian domes of such type date from the 16th century, illustrations
from older chronicles indicate they have existed since the late 13th
century. Like tented roofs—which were combined with, and sometimes
replaced domes in
Russian architecture since the 16th century—onion
domes initially were used only in wooden churches. Builders introduced
them into stone architecture much later, and continued to make their
carcasses of either of wood or metal on top of masonry drums.
Russian domes are often gilded or brightly painted. A dangerous
technique of chemical gilding using mercury had been applied on some
occasions until the mid-19th century, most notably in the giant dome
of Saint Isaac's Cathedral. The more modern and safe method of gold
electroplating was applied for the first time in gilding the domes of
the Cathedral of
Christ the Saviour in Moscow, the tallest Eastern
Orthodox church in the world.
Selimiye Mosque dome in Edirne, Turkey
The rise of the
Ottoman Empire and its spread in Asia Minor and the
Balkans coincided with the decline of the Seljuk Turks and the
Byzantine Empire. Early Ottoman buildings, for almost two centuries
after 1300, were characterized by a blending of Ottoman culture and
indigenous architecture, and the pendentive dome was used throughout
the empire. The
Byzantine dome form was adopted and further
Ottoman architecture made exclusive use of the
semi-spherical dome for vaulting over even very small spaces,
influenced by the earlier traditions of both
Central Asia. The smaller the structure, the simpler the plan,
but mosques of medium size were also covered by single domes. The
earliest Ottoman mosques were single oblong rooms with either simple
tiled pitched roofs of wood or a wooden interior dome. Most of these
wooden domes have been lost to fires and replaced by flat ceilings.
The earliest masonry domes covered square single room mosques, the
archetype of Ottoman architecture. Examples include the
Orhan Gazi in
Karagöz Bey Mosque
Karagöz Bey Mosque in Mostar. This
domed-square unit is the defining element of the three basic Ottoman
mosque plans: the single unit mosque, multi-unit mosque, and eyvan (or
The multi-unit mosque uses several domed-squares of similar size along
the length of a mosque, or across its width, or both, with the central
dome sometimes larger than the others. A style common in the
Bursa period, and known as the "Bursa type", is like a duplication of
the single-domed square, with one long space divided by an arch into
two square bays that are each covered by a dome. A variation of this
type has the room covered by one dome and one semi-dome, with
additional side chambers. A multi-domed style derived from Seljuk
architecture is that of the Ulu Camii, or Great Mosque, which consists
of a number of domes of the same size supported by pillars.
The eyvan mosque type (the eyvan being derived from Seljuk
architecture) uses domed-square units in a variety of sizes, heights,
and details, with only the possible pair of side units being similar
Early experiments with large domes include the domed square mosques of
Mudurnu under Bayezid I, and the later domed
"zawiya-mosques" at Bursa. The
Üç Şerefeli Mosque
Üç Şerefeli Mosque at Edirne
developed the idea of the central dome being a larger version of the
domed modules used throughout the rest of the structure to generate
open space. This idea became important to the Ottoman style as it
Mosque (1501–1506) in
Istanbul begins the Classical
period in Ottoman architecture, in which the great Imperial Mosques,
with variations, resemble the former
Byzantine basilica of Hagia
Sophia in having a large central dome with semi-domes of the same span
to the east and west. Hagia Sophia's central dome arrangement is
faithfully reproduced in three Ottoman mosques in Istanbul: the
Beyazidiye Mosque, the Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, and the Süleymaniye
Mosque. Three other Imperial mosques in
Istanbul also add
semi-domes to the north and south, doing away with the basilica plan:
Sultan Ahmed I Camii, and Yeni Cami. The peak of
this classical period, which lasted into the 17th century, came with
the architecture of Mimar Sinan.  In addition to large Imperial
mosques, he produced hundreds of other monuments, including
medium-sized mosques such as the Mihrimah, Sokollu, and Rüstem Pasha
Mosque and the tomb of Suleiman the Magnificent. Süleymaniye
Mosque, built in Constantinople (modern Istanbul) from 1550 to 1557,
has a main dome 53 meters high with a diameter of
26.5 meters. At the time it was built, the dome was the highest
Ottoman Empire when measured from sea level, but lower from the
floor of the building and smaller in diameter than that of the nearby
Another Classical domed mosque type is, like the
Byzantine church of
Sergius and Bacchus, the domed polygon within a square. Octagons and
hexagons were common, such as those of Üç Şerefeli Mosque
Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. The Selimiye Mosque
was the first structure built by the Ottomans that had a larger dome
than that of the Hagia Sophia. The dome rises above a square bay.
Corner semi-domes convert this into an octagon, which muqarnas
transition to a circular base. The dome has an average internal
diameter of about 31.5 meters, while that of
Hagia Sophia averages
31.3 meters. Designed and built by architect
Mimar Sinan between
1568 and 1574, when he finished it he was 86 years old, and he
considered the mosque his masterpiece.
The first large Imperial
Istanbul in the imported Baroque
style was the
Nuruosmaniye Mosque (1748–1755). One of the finest was
Laleli Mosque of 1759–1764.
Main article: History of Italian
The Cathedral of
Florence with Brunelleschi's dome, Italy
Filippo Brunelleschi's octagonal brick domical vault over Florence
Cathedral was built between 1420 and 1436 and the lantern surmounting
the dome was completed in 1467. The dome is 42 meters wide and made of
two shells. The dome is not itself
Renaissance in style, although
the lantern is closer. A combination of dome, drum, pendentives,
and barrel vaults developed as the characteristic structural forms of
Renaissance churches following a period of innovation in the
later fifteenth century.
Florence was the first Italian city to
develop the new style, followed by
Rome and then Venice.
Brunelleschi's domes at San Lorenzo and the
Pazzi Chapel established
them as a key element of
Renaissance architecture. His plan for
the dome of the
Pazzi Chapel in Florence's Basilica of Santa Croce
(1430–52) illustrates the
Renaissance enthusiasm for geometry and
for the circle as geometry's supreme form. This emphasis on geometric
essentials would be very influential.
De Re Aedificatoria, written by
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti around 1452,
recommends vaults with coffering for churches, as in the Pantheon, and
the first design for a dome at
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica in
Rome is usually
attributed to him, although the recorded architect is Bernardo
Rossellino. This would culminate in Bramante's 1505–06 projects for
a wholly new St. Peter's Basilica, marking the beginning of the
displacement of the Gothic ribbed vault with the combination of dome
and barrel vault, which proceeded throughout the sixteenth
century. Bramante's initial design was for a Greek cross plan
with a large central hemispherical dome and four smaller domes around
it in a quincunx pattern. Work began in 1506 and continued under a
succession of builders over the next 120 years. The dome was
Giacomo della Porta
Giacomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana. The
publication of Sebastiano Serlio's treatise, one of the most popular
architectural treatises ever published, was responsible for the spread
of the oval in late
Baroque architecture throughout
Italy, Spain, France, and central Europe.
The Villa Capra, also known as "La Rotunda", was built by Andrea
Palladio from 1565 to 1569 near Vicenza. Its highly symmetrical square
plan centers on a circular room covered by a dome, and it proved
highly influential on the Georgian architects of 18th century England,
architects in Russia, and architects in America, Thomas Jefferson
among them. Palladio's two domed churches in
Venice are San Giorgio
Maggiore (1565–1610) and
Il Redentore (1577–92), the latter built
in thanksgiving for the end of a bad outbreak of plague in the
city. The spread of the Renaissance-style dome outside of Italy
began with central Europe, although there was often a stylistic delay
of a century or two.
South Asian domes
Main article: History of South Asian domes
Taj Mahal in Agra,
India built by Shah Jahan.
Islamic rule over northern and central
India brought with it the use
of domes constructed with stone, brick and mortar, and iron dowels and
cramps. Centering was made from timber and bamboo. The use of iron
cramps to join together adjacent stones was known in pre-Islamic
India, and was used at the base of domes for hoop reinforcement. The
synthesis of styles created by this introduction of new forms to the
Hindu tradition of trabeate construction created a distinctive
architecture. Domes in pre-Mughal
India have a standard squat
circular shape with a lotus design and bulbous finial at the top,
derived from Hindu architecture. Because the Hindu architectural
tradition did not include arches, flat corbels were used to transition
from the corners of the room to the dome, rather than squinches.
In contrast to Persian and Ottoman domes, the domes of Indian tombs
tend to be more bulbous.
The earliest examples include the half-domes of the late 13th century
tomb of Balban and the small dome of the tomb of Khan Shahid, which
were made of roughly cut material and would have needed covering
surface finishes. Under the
Lodi dynasty there was a large
proliferation of tomb building, with octagonal plans reserved for
royalty and square plans used for others of high rank, and the first
double dome was introduced to
India in this period. The first
major Mughal building is the domed tomb of Humayun, built between 1562
and 1571 by a Persian architect. The central double dome covers an
octagonal central chamber about 15 meters wide and is accompanied by
small domed chattri made of brick and faced with stone. Chatris,
the domed kiosks on pillars characteristic of Mughal roofs, were
adopted from their Hindu use as cenotaphs. The fusion of Persian
and Indian architecture can be seen in the dome shape of the Taj
Mahal: the bulbous shape derives from Persian Timurid domes, and the
finial with lotus leaf base is derived from Hindu temples. The Gol
Gumbaz, or Round Dome, is one of the largest masonry domes in the
world. It has an internal diameter of 41.15 meters and a height of
54.25 meters. The dome was the most technically advanced built in
the Deccan. The last major Islamic tomb built in
India was the
tomb of Safdar Jang (1753–54). The central dome is reportedly
triple-shelled, with two relatively flat inner brick domes and an
outer bulbous marble dome, although it may actually be that the marble
and second brick domes are joined everywhere but under the lotus leaf
finial at the top.
Early modern period
Early modern period domes
Main article: History of early modern period domes
The dome of
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral in London
In the early sixteenth century, the lantern of the Italian dome spread
to Germany, gradually adopting the bulbous cupola from the
Russian architecture strongly influenced the many
bulbous domes of the wooden churches of
Silesia and, in
Bavaria, bulbous domes less resemble Dutch models than Russian ones.
Domes like these gained in popularity in central and southern Germany
and in Austria in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
particularly in the
Baroque style, and influenced many bulbous cupolas
in Poland and Eastern Europe in the
Baroque period. However, many
bulbous domes in eastern Europe were replaced over time in the larger
cities during the second half of the eighteenth century in favor of
hemispherical or stilted cupolas in the French or Italian styles.
The construction of domes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
relied primarily on empirical techniques and oral traditions rather
than the architectural treatises of the times, which avoided practical
details. This was adequate for domes up to medium size, with diameters
in the range of 12 to 20 meters. Materials were considered homogeneous
and rigid, with compression taken into account and elasticity ignored.
The weight of materials and the size of the dome were the key
references. Lateral tensions in a dome were counteracted with
horizontal rings of iron, stone, or wood incorporated into the
Over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
developments in mathematics and the study of statics led to a more
precise formalization of the ideas of the traditional constructive
practices of arches and vaults, and there was a diffusion of studies
on the most stable form for these structures: the catenary curve.
Robert Hooke, who first articulated that a thin arch was comparable to
an inverted hanging chain, may have advised Wren on how to achieve the
crossing dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. Wren's structural system became
the standard for large domes well into the 19th century. The ribs
in Guarino Guarini's San Lorenzo and Il Sidone were shaped as catenary
arches. The idea of a large oculus in a solid dome revealing a
second dome originated with him. He also established the oval
dome as a reconciliation of the longitudinal plan church favored by
the liturgy of the Counter-Reformation and the centralized plan
favored by idealists. Because of the imprecision of oval domes in
Rococo period, drums were problematic and the domes instead often
rested directly on arches or pendentives.
In the eighteenth century, the study of dome structures changed
radically, with domes being considered as a composition of smaller
elements, each subject to mathematical and mechanical laws and easier
to analyse individually, rather than being considered as whole units
unto themselves. Although never very popular in domestic settings,
domes were used in a number of 18th century homes built in the
Neo-Classical style. In the United States, most public buildings
in the late 18th century were only distinguishable from private
residences because they featured cupolas.
Modern period domes
Main article: History of modern period domes
Geodesic domes of the
Eden Project in United Kingdom
The historicism of the 19th century led to many domes being
re-translations of the great domes of the past, rather than further
stylistic developments, especially in sacred architecture. New
production techniques allowed for cast iron and wrought iron to be
produced both in larger quantities and at relatively low prices during
the Industrial Revolution. Russia, which had large supplies of iron,
has some of the earliest examples of iron's architectural use.
Excluding those that simply imitated multi-shell masonry, metal framed
domes such as the elliptical dome of
Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall in London (57
to 67 meters in diameter) and the circular dome of the Halle au Blé
in Paris may represent the century's chief development of the simple
domed form. Cast-iron domes were particularly popular in
The practice of building rotating domes for housing large telescopes
was begun in the 19th century, with early examples using
papier-mâché to minimize weight. Unique glass domes springing
straight from ground level were used for hothouses and winter
gardens. Elaborate covered shopping arcades included large glazed
domes at their cross intersections. The large domes of the 19th
century included exhibition buildings and functional structures such
as gasometers and locomotive sheds. The "first fully triangulated
framed dome" was built in Berlin in 1863 by Johann Wilhelm Schwedler
and, by the start of the 20th century, similarly triangulated frame
domes had become fairly common.
Vladimir Shukhov was also an
early pioneer of what would later be called gridshell structures and
in 1897 he employed them in domed exhibit pavilions at the All-Russia
Industrial and Art Exhibition.
Domes built with steel and concrete were able to achieve very large
spans. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Guastavino
family, a father and son team who worked on the eastern seaboard of
the United States, further developed the masonry dome, using tiles set
flat against the surface of the curve and fast-setting Portland
cement, which allowed mild steel bar to be used to counteract tension
forces. The thin domical shell was further developed with the
Walther Bauersfeld of two planetarium domes in Jena,
Germany in the early 1920s. They consisting of a triangulated frame of
light steel bars and mesh covered by a thin layer of concrete.
These are generally taken to be the first modern architectural thin
shells. These are also considered the first geodesic domes.
Geodesic domes have been used for radar enclosures, greenhouses,
housing, and weather stations. Architectural shells had their
heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, peaking in popularity shortly before
the widespread adoption of computers and the finite element method of
The first permanent air supported membrane domes were the radar domes
designed and built by Walter Bird after World War II. Their low cost
eventually led to the development of permanent versions using
teflon-coated fiberglass and by 1985 the majority of the domed
stadiums around the world used this system.
Buckminster Fuller in 1962, are membrane structures
consisting of radial trusses made from steel cables under tension with
vertical steel pipes spreading the cables into the truss form. They
have been made circular, elliptical, and other shapes to cover
stadiums from Korea to Florida. Tension membrane design has
depended upon computers, and the increasing availability of powerful
computers resulted in many developments being made in the last three
decades of the 20th century. The higher expense of rigid large
span domes made them relatively rare, although rigidly moving panels
is the most popular system for sports stadiums with retractable
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Domes.
List of celebrated domes
List of world's largest domes
List of Domes in France
^ Smith 1950, p. 5.
^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 301.
^ Dodge 1984, p. 265-266.
^ Huerta 2007, p. 212.
^ a b c d e f g h i Hourihane 2012, p. 302.
^ Wright 2009, p. 179-180, 188.
^ a b Dumser 2010, p. 436.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 203.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 114.
^ Technical 1872, p. 252.
^ a b Ching 2011, p. 63.
^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 242.
^ a b Robison 1991, p. 395.
^ Gye 1988, p. 141-142.
^ Fernández & Hernández-Ros 1989.
^ Rovero & Tonietti 2012, p. 183.
^ Blockley 2014, p. 22.
^ Larson & Tyas 2003, p. 32, 38.
^ Gye 1988, p. 142.
^ a b c d e f g Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127.
^ a b Nuttgens 1997, p. 123.
^ a b Ward 1915, p. 2.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 419.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 329.
^ Dodge 1984, p. 271-276, 279.
^ a b c Catholic.
^ a b Fletcher.
^ a b Kayili, p. 9.
^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 13.
^ Baumann & Haggh 1990, p. 208-209.
^ Baumann & Haggh 1990, p. 202.
^ a b c d e f Peterson 1996, p. 68.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 121.
^ MacDonald 1958, p. 2-3, 7.
^ Kuban 1987, p. 73.
^ Giustina 2003, p. 1037.
^ Denny 2010, p. 139.
^ Minke 2012, p. 57-59, 127.
^ Smith 1950, p. 51-53.
^ Grupico 2011, p. 3, 8.
^ Smith 1950, p. 53.
^ Smith 1950, p. 53-56, 79.
^ Grabar 1963, p. 195, 197.
^ Höcker 2000, p. 181, 183.
^ Dror 2011, p. 163.
^ Wright 2009, p. 188.
^ a b c Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-18.
^ Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-18, 24-19.
^ Ramaswamy & Eekhout 2002, p. 141.
^ Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-2, 24-18.
^ Saka 2007, p. 595.
^ a b Moffett, Fazio & Wodehouse 2003.
^ a b Dodge 1984, p. 273.
^ Newman & Pevnser 1972, p. 527.
^ Dien 2007, p. 80.
^ Ward 1915, p. 9.
^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 303.
^ Dodge 1984, p. 268.
^ Sear 1983, p. 79.
^ Como 2013, p. 320.
^ Karydis 2012, p. 362-363.
^ Hassan & Mazloomi 2010, p. 105.
^ Fuentes & Huerta 2010, p. 346-352.
^ a b c Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 131.
^ Ambrose & Tripeny 2011, p. 36.
^ Denny 2010, p. 140.
^ Smith 1950, p. 8, 9.
^ Hamilton 1983, p. 42.
^ Born 1944, p. 220-221.
^ Huerta 2007, p. 231.
^ a b c Bagliani 2009.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 463.
^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 462.
^ Dodge 1984, p. 274.
^ Burckhardt 1987, p. 58.
^ a b Dodge 1984, p. 263.
^ Gye 1988, p. 142-143.
^ a b c d Yaghan 2003, p. 69.
^ Krautheimer 1980, p. 121, 132.
^ Ward 1915, p. 116-117.
^ Palmer, Pettitt & Bahn 2005, p. 24.
^ Wilkie & Morelli 2000.
^ Crandall 2000, p. 34-35.
^ Creswell 1915a, p. 155.
^ Hill 1996, p. 69.
^ Smith 1950, p. 6.
^ Leick 2003, p. 64.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 116.
^ Smith 1950, p. 81-82.
^ a b Grabar 1963, p. 194.
^ Grabar 1963, p. 192.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 99.
^ Spiers 1911, p. 957.
^ a b c d e O'Kane 1995.
^ Creswell 1915a, p. 148.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 113.
^ Grabar 1963, p. 192-194.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 102, 104, 105, 113.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 105, 110.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 106.
^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 102, 108–109.
^ Kuiper 2011, p. 266-267.
^ Dien 2007, p. 79-80.
^ a b Needham & Gwei-Djen 1962, p. 167.
^ lcsd 2014.
^ Tsan-wing & Kin-wah 2001, p. 294.
^ Dien 2007, p. 79.
^ Lehmann 1945, p. 247, 254–255.
^ Smith 1950, p. 9.
^ a b Lehmann 1945, p. 249.
^ Winter 2006, p. 130.
^ Lancaster 2005, p. 49.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 77.
^ Lehmann 1945, p. 255.
^ Lancaster 2005, p. 46, 50.
^ Johnson 2009.
^ McClendon 2005, p. 16.
^ Lancaster 2005, p. 161.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 238.
^ Smith 1950, p. 56.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 239.
^ Spiers 1911, p. 958.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 203, 242.
^ Freely & Çakmak 2004, p. 90-93, 95–96.
^ a b Ousterhout 2008b, p. 358.
^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 202.
^ a b Krautheimer 1986, p. 340.
^ Darling 2004, p. xliii.
^ Rosser 2011, p. 137.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 379.
^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 214.
^ Wittkower 1963, p. 185.
^ Smith 1950, p. 43.
^ Arce 2006, p. 209.
^ Bloom & Blair 2009, p. 111-112.
^ Born 1944, p. 208.
^ a b Krautheimer 1986, p. 402.
^ Dupré 2001, p. 5.
^ Bullough 1991, p. 57, 89.
^ Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 60.
^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 405.
^ Fuentes & Huerta 2010, p. 346-347.
^ Kuban 1985, p. 2-4.
^ Kuiper 2011, p. 165.
^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 172.
^ Porter 1928, p. 48.
^ Jeffery 2010, p. 72.
^ Howard 1991, p. 65, 67.
^ Stewart 2008, p. 202.
^ a b Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 174.
^ Cipriani & Lau 2006, p. 696, 698.
^ Hillenbrand 1994, p. 318.
^ Born 1944, p. 209.
^ Born 1944, p. 209-213.
^ Hassan, Mazloomi & Omer 2010, p. 125-127.
^ a b Kuban 1987, p. 75.
^ Kuban 1987, p. 93-94.
^ Freely 2011, p. 19-20.
^ Hassan & Mazloomi 2010, p. 107.
^ a b c Freely 2011, p. 20.
^ Freely 2011, p. 20-21.
^ Freely 2011, p. 21-22.
^ Kuban 1987, p. 84.
^ Freely 2011, p. 22.
^ Freely 2011, p. 21.
^ Kuban 1987, p. 91.
^ Freely 2011, p. 22-23.
^ Kuban 1987, p. 89.
^ Freely 2011, p. 23.
^ Schütz 2002, p. 356–357.
^ Frankl & Crossley 2000, p. 213.
^ Betts 1993, p. 5.
^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 181.
^ a b c Hourihane 2012, p. 304.
^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 175–176.
^ Betts 1993, p. 5–7.
^ a b Nuttgens 1997, p. 184.
^ Huerta 2007, p. 230–232.
^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 187–189.
^ Melaragno 1991, p. 73.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1941, 1943–1944.
^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 157.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1944, 1946–1947.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1948.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1944, 1948–1949.
^ Peterson 1996, p. 200.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1949-1950.
^ Michell & Zebrowski 1987, p. 15.
^ Tappin 2003, p. 1950-1951.
^ Born 1944, p. 214-215.
^ Born 1944, p. 218-220.
^ Fusco & Villanni 2003, p. 580-581.
^ Mark & Billington 1989, p. 314-315.
^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 210.
^ Wittkower 1999, p. 48.
^ Earls 1971, p. 128.
^ Earls 1971, p. 135-36.
^ Palmer 2009, p. 92-93.
^ Allen 2001, p. 13.
^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 190.
^ Gayle & Gayle 1998, p. 13-14, 18, 26.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 241.
^ Lippincott 2008, p. 26.
^ Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991, p. 126-127.
^ Coleman 2006, p. 32.
^ Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991, p. 126.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 171.
^ a b Dimčić 2011, p. 8.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 129.
^ Mainstone 2001, p. 134.
^ Bradshaw et al., p. 693.
^ Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 131-132.
^ Bradshaw et al., p. 693-694, 697.
^ Bradshaw et al., p. 701-702.
^ Levy & Salvadori 2002, p. 322-323.
^ Bradshaw et al., p. 700, 703.
^ Friedman & Farkas 2011, p. 49.
William C. Allen (2001), Senate Document 106-29: History of the United
States Capitol: A Chronicle of Design, Construction, and Politics,
U.S. Government Printing Office
Ambrose, James; Tripeny, Patrick (2011). Building Structures
(illustrated ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Arce, Ignacio (2006), "
Umayyad Arches, Vaults & Domes: Merging and
Re-creation. Contributions to Early Islamic Construction History
(conference paper)" (PDF), Second International Congress on
Construction History, Queens' College, Cambridge University;
29/03-02/04/2006, pp. 195–220
Ashkan, Maryam; Ahmad, Yahaya (November 2009). "Persian Domes:
History, Morphology, and Typologies". Archnet-IJAR (International
Journal of Architectural Research). 3 (3): 98–115.
Bagliani, Stefano (May 2009). "The Architecture and Mechanics of
Elliptical Domes" (PDF). Proceedings of the Third International
Congress on Construction History, Cottbus. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2013-10-16.
Bardill, Jonathan (2008). "Chapter II.7.1: Building Materials and
Techniques". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haldon, John; Cormack, Robin. The
Oxford Handbook of
Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press.
Barnish, S. J. B. (2007). The Ostrogoths from the Migration Period to
the Sixth Century: an Ethnographic Perspective (Illustrated ed.).
Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-074-0.
Baumann, Dorothea; Haggh, Barbara (May 1990). "Musical Acoustics in
the Middle Ages". Early Music. 18 (2): 199–210.
Betts, Richard J. (March 1993). "Structural Innovation and Structural
Renaissance Architecture". Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians. 52 (1): 5–25. doi:10.2307/990755.
Blockley, David (2014). Structural Engineering: A Very Short
Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 144.
Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S., eds. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia
of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.
Born, Wolfgang (April 1944). "The Introduction of the Bulbous Dome
into Gothic Architecture and its Subsequent Development". Speculum.
Medieval Academy of America. 19 (2): 208–221. doi:10.2307/2849071.
Bradshaw, Richard; Campbell, David; Gargari, Mousa; Mirmiran, Amir;
Tripeny, Patrick (June 1, 2002). "
Special Structures: Past, Present,
and Future" (PDF). Journal of Structural Engineering. Madrid: American
Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 128 (6).
Bullough, Donald A. (1991). Carolingian Renewal: Sources and Heritage.
Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3354-4.
Burckhardt, Jacob (1987). Murray, Peter, ed. The Architecture of the
Italian Renaissance. Translated by James Palmes (illustrated, reprint
ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
The Technical Educator: an Encyclopædia of Technical Education: Vol.
2. Cassell, Petter and Galpin. 1872.
Charlier, Claude (1988), "After a While, Nothing Seems Strange in a
Stadium with a 'Lid'", Smithsonian, retrieved February 28, 2013
Chen, W. F.; Lui, E. M. (2005). Handbook of Structural Engineering (2,
illustrated, revised ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
p. 1768. ISBN 978-1-420-03993-1.
Ching, Francis D. K. (2011). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture (2nd
ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 336.
Cipriani, Barbara; Lau, Wanda W. (2006), "Construction Techniques in
Medieval Cairo: the Domes of Mamluk Mausolea (1250 A.D.-1517 A.D.)"
(PDF), Proceedings of the Second International Congress on
Construction History, Cambridge, UK, pp. 695–716
Coleman, Peter (2006). Shopping Environments (illustrated ed.).
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-750-66001-3.
Como, Mario (2013).
Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions.
Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-30131-5.
Crandall, David P. (2000). The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees: A Year
in the Lives of the Cattle-herding Himba of Namibia. New York, NY:
Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc.
Creswell, K. A. C. (January 1915). "Persian Domes before 1400 A.D.".
The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. The Burlington Magazine
Publications, Ltd. 26 (142): 146–155. JSTOR 859853.
Darling, Janina K. (2004). Architecture of Greece. Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32152-8.
Denny, Mark (2010). Super Structures: The Science of Bridges,
Buildings, Dams, and Other Feats of Engineering. Baltimore, Maryland:
Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9436-7.
Dien, Albert E. (2007). Six Dynasties Civilization (Illustrated ed.).
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07404-8.
Dimčić, Miloš (2011). "Structural Optimization of Grid Shells Based
on Genetic Algorithms". Forschungsbericht 32 (PDF). Stuttgart:
Institut für Tragkonstruktionen und Konstruktives Entwerfen.
Dodge, Hazel (1984). Building Materials and Techniques in the Eastern
Mediterranean from the Hellenistic Period to the Fourth Century AD
(PhD Thesis ed.). Newcastle University.
Dror, Ben-Yosef (2011). "Area F – Soundings in the Fortifications".
In Zertal, Adam. El-Ahwat, A Fortified Site from the Early Iron Age
Near Nahal 'Iron, Israel: Excavations 1993–2000. BRILL.
pp. 162–173. ISBN 978-9-004-17645-4.
Dumser, Elisha Ann (2010). "Dome". In Gagarin, Michael; Fantham,
Elaine. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. 1. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 436–438.
Earls, Michael W. (1971). "The Development of Structural Form in
Franconian Rococo". In Malo, Paul. Essays to D. Kenneth Sargent.
Syracuse, New York: The School of Architecture, Syracuse University.
Fernández, Santiago Huerta; Hernández-Ros, Ricardo Aroca (1989).
"Masonry Domes: A Study on Proportion and Similarity" (PDF). 10 Years
of Progress on Shell and Spatial Structures: 11–15 September 1989.
Madrid: Cedex-Laboratorio Central de Estructuras y Materiales. 1.
Retrieved April 18, 2014.
Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh; Pevsner, Nikolaus, eds. (1991).
Dictionary of Architecture (4th ed.). Penguin Books.
Fletcher, Sir Banister (1996). Dan Cruickshank, ed. Sir Banister
Fletcher's A History of Architecture (illustrated, reprint, 20th
revised ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2267-7.
Frankl, Paul; Crossley, Paul (2000). Gothic Architecture (illustrated,
revised ed.). Yale University Press.
Freely, John; Çakmak, Ahmet S. (2004).
Byzantine Monuments of
Istanbul. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Freely, John (2011). A History of Ottoman Architecture. WIT Press.
Friedman, Noémi; Farkas, György (2011). "Roof Structures in Motion:
On Retractable and Deployable Roof Structures Enabling Quick
Construction or Adaptation to External Excitations" (PDF). Concrete
Structures. pp. 41–50.
Fuentes, P.; Huerta, S. (2010). "Islamic Domes of Crossed-arches:
Origin, Geometry and Structural Behavior". In Chen, Baochun; Wei,
Jiangang. ARCH'10 – 6th International Conference on
October 11–13, 2010 (PDF). Fuzhou, Fujian, China.
pp. 346–353. ISBN 978-953-7621-10-0.
Fusco, Annarosa Cerutti; Villanni, Marcello (2003). "Pietro da
Cortona's Domes between New Experimentations and Construction
Knowledge". In Huerta, S. Proceedings of the First International
Congress on Construction History, Madrid, 20th–24th January 2003
(PDF). Madrid: I. Juan de Herrera. pp. 579–591.
The history of galvanotechnology in
Russia (Russian), archived from
the original on 2012-03-05
Gayle, Margot; Gayle, Carol (1998). Cast-iron architecture in America:
the significance of James Bogardus (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton
& Company. ISBN 978-0-393-73015-9.
Giustina, Irene (2003), "On the art and the culture of domes.
Milan and Lombardy in the late sixteenth and in the
first half of the seventeenth century" (PDF), Proceedings of the First
International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, Spain:
Sociedad Española de Historia de la Construcción,
Grabar, Oleg (December 1963). "The Islamic Dome, Some Considerations".
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 22 (4): 191–198.
Grabar, Oleg (March 1990). "From
Dome of Heaven to Pleasure Dome".
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. University of
California Press. 49 (1): 15–21. doi:10.2307/990496.
Grupico, Theresa (2011). "The
Dome in Christian and Islamic Sacred
Architecture" (PDF). The Forum on Public Policy. The Forum on Public
Policy. 2011 (3): 14. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
Gye, D. H. (1988). "Arches and Domes in Iranian Islamic Buildings: An
Engineer's Perspective". Iran. British Institute of Persian Studies.
26: 129–144. doi:10.2307/4299807. JSTOR 4299807.
Hamilton, George Heard (1983). The Art and Architecture of Russia
(illustrated ed.). Yale University Press.
Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Mazloomi, Mehrdad; Omer, Spahic (2010).
"Sectional Analysis of
Dome Mosques During Ottoman Era"
(PDF). Canadian Social Science. 6 (5): 124–136. Retrieved February
Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Mazloomi, Mehrdad (December 2010). "The
Importance of Plan Unit Design with Reference to Pedentive
Architecture in Early Ottoman Period in Balkan Region and Anatolia".
Review of European Studies. 2 (2): 105–116.
Hill, Donald Routledge (1996). A history of engineering in classical
and medieval times (Illustrated ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Hillenbrand, Robert (1994). Islamic Architecture: Form, Function, and
Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mammoth Camp, retrieved August 15,
Höcker, Christoph (2000). Architecture. Laurence King Publishing.
Hourihane, Colum, ed. (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art
and Architecture. Oxford University Press.
Howard, Deborah (1991). "
Islam in the Middle Ages: Some
Observations on the Question of Architectural Influence".
Architectural History. SAHGB Publications Limited. 34: 59–74.
doi:10.2307/1568594. JSTOR 1568594.
Huerta, Santigo (2007). "
Oval Domes: History, Geometry and Mechanics"
(PDF). Nexus Network Journal. SAHGB Publications Limited. 9 (2):
Jeffery, George (2010). A Brief Description of the Holy Sepulchre
Jerusalem and Other Christian Churches in the Holy City: With Some
Account of the Mediaeval Copies of the Holy Sepulchre Surviving in
Europe (reprint (1919) ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, Mark J. (2009). The Roman Imperial Mausoleum in Late
Antiquity (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Karydis, Nikolaos D. (2012). "The Early
Byzantine Domed Basilicas of
West Asia Minor. An Essay in Graphic Reconstruction" (PDF). Late
Antique Archaeology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, NV. 9
(1): 357–381. doi:10.1163/22134522-12340013. Retrieved May 29,
Kayili, Mutbul (2005). "Acoustic Solutions in Classic Ottoman
Architecture" (PDF). Publication ID 4087. FSTC (Foundation for Science
Technology and Civilisation) Limited: 1–15.
Kern, Chris, Jefferson's
Dome at Monticello, retrieved July 14,
Kies, Lisa, Russian Church Design, archived from the original on July
1, 2012, retrieved February 14, 2014
Kohlmaier, Georg; Von Sartory, Barna (1991). Houses of Glass: a
Nineteenth-Century Building Type. Translated by John C. Harvey
(illustrated ed.). MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61070-4.
Krautheimer, Richard (1980). "Success and Failure in Late Antique
Church Planning". In Weitzmann, Kurt. Age of Spirituality: A
Symposium. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 121–140.
Krautheimer, Richard (1986). Early Christian and Byzantine
Architecture (4 ed.). Yale University Press.
Kruft, Hanno-Walter (1994). History of Architectural Theory
(illustrated, reprint ed.). Princeton Architectural Press.
Kuban, Doğan (1985). Muslim Religious Architecture, Part II. Leiden,
The Netherlands: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07084-2.
Kuban, Doğan (1987). "The Style of Sinan's Domed Structures".
Muqarnas. 4: 72–97. doi:10.2307/1523097. JSTOR 1523097.
Kuiper, Kathleen (2011). The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing
Group. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
Lancaster, Lynne C. (2005). Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial
Rome: Innovations in Context (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84202-0.
Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of
Architectural and Engineering Feats (3rd ed.). ABC-CLIO.
Larson, Olga Popovic; Tyas, Andy (2003). Conceptual Structural Design:
Bridging the Gap Between Architects and Engineers (illustrated,
reprint ed.). Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-72773-235-4.
Lehmann, Karl (1945), "The
Dome of Heaven", in Kleinbauer, W. Eugène,
Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of
Twentieth-Century Writings on the Visual Arts (Medieval Academy
Reprints for Teaching), 25, University of Toronto Press (published
1989), pp. 227–270, ISBN 0-8020-6708-5
Leick, Gwendolyn, ed. (2003), "Dome", A Dictionary of Ancient Near
Eastern Architecture, London and New York: Taylor & Francis,
Hong Kong Museum of History: Branch Museums: "Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb",
Leisure and Cultural Services Department, January 9, 2014, retrieved
February 3, 2014
Levy, Matthys; Salvadori, Mario (2002). Why buildings Fall Down: How
Structures Fail (illustrated, reprint ed.). W. W. Norton &
Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31152-5.
Lippincott, Kristen (2008). DK Eyewitness Books: Astronomy. Penguin.
Lucore, Sandra K. (2009), "Archimedes, the North Baths at Morgantina,
and Early Developments in Vaulted Construction", in Kosso, Cynthia;
Scott, Anne, The nature and function of water, baths, bathing, and
hygiene from antiquity through the Renaissance, Leiden, The
Netherlands: Brill, pp. 43–59,
MacDonald, William (1958). "Some Implications of Later Roman
Construction". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.
Oakland, California: University of California Press. 17 (4): 2–8.
Mainstone, Rowland J. (2001). Developments in Structural Form (2 ed.).
Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-5451-7.
Marche, Jordan (2005). Theaters of Time and Space: American
Planetaria, 1930–1970. Rutgers University Press.
Mark, Robert; Billington, David P. (1989). "Structural Imperative and
the Origin of New Form". Technology and Culture. : The Johns
Hopkins University Press and the Society for the History of
Technology. 30 (2): 300–329. doi:10.2307/3105106.
Marrucchi, Giulia; Belcari, Riccardo (2007). Art of the Middle Ages:
Masterpieces in Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. New York: Barnes
& Noble, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7607-8887-5.
McClendon, Charles B. (2005). The Origins of Medieval Architecture:
Building in Europe, A.D 600–900 (illustrated ed.). Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10688-6.
McVey, Kathleen E. (1983). "The Domed Church as Microcosm: Literary
Roots of an Architectural Symbol". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton
Oaks. 37: 91–121. doi:10.2307/1291479.
Melaragno, Michele G. (1991). An Introduction to Shell Structures: the
Art and Science of Vaulting (softcover ed.). New York, New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 978-1-4757-0225-5.
Michell, George; Zebrowski, Mark (1987). The New Cambridge History of
India: Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56321-5.
Miller, Judith; Clinch, Tim (1998). Classic Style (illustrated ed.).
Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84997-3.
Minke, Gernot (2012). Building with Earth: Design and Technology of a
Sustainable Architecture (3rd; revised ed.). Berlin, Germany: Walter
de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-034-60872-5.
Mitchell, James H. (1985). "The Noble Dome". The Antioch Review.
Antioch Review, Inc. 43 (3): 261–271. doi:10.2307/4611482.
Moffett, Marian; Fazio, Michael W.; Wodehouse, Lawrence (2003). A
World History of Architecture (illustrated ed.). London: Laurence King
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-856-69371-4.
Needham, Joseph; Gwei-Djen, Lu (1962). Science and Civilisation in
China: Physics and Physical Technology, Volume 4. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-07060-7.
"The Catholic Encyclopedia". New Advent. Retrieved October 26,
Newman, John; Pevnser, Nikolaus, eds. (1972). The Buildings of
England: Dorset. Yale University Press.
Nuttgens, Patrick (1997). The Story of Architecture. Hong Kong:
Phaidon Press Limited. ISBN 0-7148-3616-8.
Ochsendork, John; Freeman, Michael (2010). Guastavino Vaulting: The
Art of Structural Tile (illustrated ed.). Princeton Architectural
Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-741-5.
O'Kane, Bernard (1995), Domes, Encyclopædia Iranica, retrieved
November 28, 2010
Ousterhout, Robert G. (2008). Master Builders of Byzantium (paperback
ed.). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Museum of
Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 978-1-934536-03-2.
Ousterhout, Robert (2008). "Chapter II.7.2: Churches and Monasteries".
In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haldon, John; Cormack, Robin. The Oxford
Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press.
Overy, R. J. (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia (illustrated ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Palmer, Douglas; Pettitt, Paul; Bahn, Paul G. (2005). Unearthing the
past: the great archaeological discoveries that have changed history
(Illustrated ed.). Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-1-59228-718-5.
Palmer, Allison Lee (2009). The A to Z of Architecture. Scarecrow
Press. ISBN 978-0-810-87058-1.
Peterson, Andrew (1996). The Dictionary of Islamic Architecture.
Routledge. ISBN 0-203-20387-9.
Pevsner, Nikolaus (1978). Derbyshire. Revised by Elizabeth Williamson
(illustrated, reprint ed.). Yale University Press.
Porter, Arthur Kingsley (1928). Spanish Romanesque Sculpture, Volume 1
(illustrated ed.). Hacker Art Books.
Ramaswany, G. S.; Eekhout, Mick (2002). Analysis, Design and
Construction of Steel Space Frames (illustrated, reprint ed.). London,
UK: Thomas Telford, Ltd. p. 242.
Rasch, Jürgen (1985). "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur.
Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion". Architectura. 15:
Rizzoni, Giovanni (2009). "The Form of Parliaments & European
Identity". In Rorato, Laura; Saunders, Anna. The Essence and the
Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary
European Culture. The Netherlands: Rodopi. pp. 183–198.
Robison, Elwin C. (December 1991). "Optics and Mathematics in the
Domed Churches of Guarino Guarini". Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians. University of California Press. 50 (4):
Rosser, John H. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Byzantium (2 ed.).
Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-87477-0.
Rovero, L.; Tonietti, U. (2012). "Structural behaviour of earthen
corbelled domes in the Aleppo's region". Materials and Structures.
Springer Science+Business Media. 45: 171–184.
Saka, M. P. (2007). "Optimum geometry design of geodesic domes using
harmony search algorithm". Advances in Structural Engineering. 10 (6):
Schütz, Bernhard (2002). Great Cathedrals (illustrated ed.). Harry N.
Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0-810-93297-5.
Sear, Frank (1983). Roman Architecture (revised ed.). Cornell
University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9245-7.
Skempton, A. W. (2002). A biographical dictionary of civil engineers
in Great Britain and Ireland: 1500–1830 (illustrated ed.). Thomas
Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-2939-2.
About Russian Domes and Cupolas, skypalace.org, archived from the
original on 2011-07-28
Smith, Earl Baldwin (1950). The Dome: A Study in the History of Ideas.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Spiers, R. Phené (1911), "Vault", in Chisholm, Hugh, The
Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature,
and General Information. Eleventh Edition., 27, Cambridge, England:
University Press, pp. 956–961
Stephenson, Davis; Hammond, Victoria; Davi, Keith F. (2005). Visions
of Heaven: the
Dome in European Architecture (illustrated ed.).
Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-549-7.
Stewart, Charles Anthony (2008). Domes of Heaven: The Domed Basilicas
of Cyprus (illustrated ed.). ProQuest.
Tabbaa, Yasser (1985). "The
Muqarnas Dome: Its Origin and Meaning".
Muqarnas. BRILL. 3: 61–74. doi:10.2307/1523084.
Tappin, Stuart (2003). "The Structural Development of Masonry Domes in
India". In Huerta, S. Proceedings of the First International Congress
on Construction History, Madrid, 20th–24th January 2003 (PDF).
Madrid: I. Juan de Herrera. pp. 1941–1952.
ISBN 84-9728-070-9. [permanent dead link]
Tsan-wing, NG; Kin-wah, LEUNG (2001). "Deformation Survey for the
Preservation of Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb". The 10th FIG International
Symposium on Deformation Measurements. Session VIII: Structural
Deformations. 19 – 22 March 2001 (PDF). Orange, California, USA.
pp. 294–301. ISBN 978-0-86078-686-3. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 6 February 2004.
Wallis, Kendall (2010). "Bearing Bandmann's Meaning: A Translator's
Introduction by Kendall Willis". In Bandmann, Günter. Early Medieval
Architecture as Bearer of Meaning. Translated by Kendall Wallis.
Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50172-9.
Ward, Clarence (1915). Mediaeval Church Vaulting (illustrated ed.).
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wilkie, David S.; Morelli, Gilda A. (2000). "Forest Foragers: A Day in
the Life of Efe Pygmies in the Democratic Republic of Congo". Cultural
Survival Quarterly. Cambridge, MA: Cultural Survival, Inc. 24 (3).
Retrieved December 7, 2010.
Winter, Frederick E. (2006). Studies in Hellenistic Architecture
(illustrated ed.). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Wittkower, Rudolf (1963), "S. Maria della Salute: Scenographic
Architecture and the Venetian Baroque", in Kleinbauer, W. Eugène,
Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of
Twentieth-Century Writings on the Visual Arts (Medieval Academy
Reprints for Teaching), 25, University of Toronto Press (published
1989), pp. 165–192, ISBN 0-8020-6708-5
Wittkower, Rudolf (1999). Art and Architecture in Italy 1600–1750:
III. Late Baroque. Revised by Joseph Conners and
Jennifer Montagu (6th
ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07941-8.
Wright, G.R.H. (2009). Ancient Building Technology, Volume 3:
Construction (2 Vols) (illustrated ed.). BRILL.
Yaghan, Mohammad Ali Jalal (2003). "Gadrooned-Dome's Muqarnas-Corbel:
Analysis and Decoding Historical Drawings". Architectural Science
Review. 46 (1): 69–88. doi:10.1080/00038628.2003.9696966.
Zagraevsky, Sergey, The shapes of domes of ancient Russian churches
(Russian), RusArch.ru, archived from the original on 2013-01-16
Indonesian / Malaysian
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Dome (Arabic dome /
Onion dome / Persian dome / South Asian dome)
Islamic geometric patterns
Islamic interlace patterns
Aga Khan Award for Architecture
Influences on Western architecture
Part of Islamic arts
BNF: cb119318943 (data)