HOME
The Info List - Dome





A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, snow, stone, wood, brick, concrete, metal, glass, and plastic over the centuries. The symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary, celestial, and governmental traditions that have likewise developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, which may explain the form's spread. They are found in Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, and Chinese architecture
Chinese architecture
in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. Dome
Dome
structures were popular in Byzantine
Byzantine
and medieval Islamic architecture, and there are numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages. The Renaissance
Renaissance
architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern period. Advancements in mathematics, materials, and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types. The domes of the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums, and a variety of functional structures.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Terminology 3 Characteristics

3.1 Internal forces 3.2 Zone of transition 3.3 Acoustics 3.4 Materials 3.5 Symbolism

4 General types

4.1 Beehive dome 4.2 Braced dome 4.3 Cloister vault 4.4 Compound dome 4.5 Crossed-arch dome 4.6 Geodesic
Geodesic
dome 4.7 Hemispherical dome 4.8 Onion
Onion
dome 4.9 Oval
Oval
dome 4.10 Parabolic dome 4.11 Sail dome 4.12 Saucer dome 4.13 Umbrella dome

5 History

5.1 Early history and simple domes 5.2 Persian domes 5.3 Chinese domes 5.4 Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
domes 5.5 Arabic and Western European domes 5.6 Russian domes 5.7 Ottoman domes 5.8 Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
domes 5.9 South Asian domes 5.10 Early modern period
Early modern period
domes 5.11 Modern period domes

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

Etymology[edit] The English word "dome" ultimately derives from the Latin
Latin
domus ("house")—which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or "House of God", regardless of the shape of its roof. This is reflected in the uses of the Italian word duomo, the German/Icelandic/Danish word dom ("cathedral"), and the English word dome as late as 1656, when it meant a "Town-House, Guild-Hall, State-House, and Meeting-House in a city." The French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault, specifically, by 1660. This French definition gradually became the standard usage of the English dome in the eighteenth century as many of the most impressive Houses of God were built with monumental domes, and in response to the scientific need for more technical terms.[1] Terminology[edit]

Comparison of a generic "true" arch (left) and a corbel arch (right).

A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis.[2] The terminology used has been a source of controversy, with inconsistency between scholars and even within individual texts, but the term "dome" may be considered a "blanket-word to describe an hemispherical or similar spanning element."[3] A half-dome or semi-dome is a semi-circular shape often used, especially in apses. Sometimes called "false" domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than the lower one until they meet at the top.[4] A "false" dome may also refer to a wooden dome.[5] "True" domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are also in compression from the surrounding earth.[6] As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the level from which the dome rises. The top of a dome is the "crown". The inner side of a dome is called the "intrados" and the outer side is called the "extrados".[7] The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies roughly halfway between the base and the top.[8] The word "cupola" is another word for "dome", and is usually used for a small dome upon a roof or turret.[9] "Cupola" has also been used to describe the inner side of a dome.[10] Drums, also called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a dome's oculus, supporting a cupola.[11] Characteristics[edit] Internal forces[edit] A masonry dome produces thrusts down and outward. They are thought of in terms of two kinds of forces at right angles from one another. Meridional forces (like the meridians, or lines of longitude, on a globe) are compressive only, and increase towards the base, while hoop forces (like the lines of latitude on a globe) are in compression at the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the top.[12] The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to the weight of its materials.[2] Grounded hemispherical domes generate significant horizontal thrusts at their haunches.[13] Unlike voussoir arches, which require support for each element until the keystone is in place, domes are stable during construction as each level is made a complete and self-supporting ring.[5] The upper portion of a masonry dome is always in compression and is supported laterally, so it does not collapse except as a whole unit and a range of deviations from the ideal in this shallow upper cap are equally stable.[14] Because voussoir domes have lateral support, they can be made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a semicircular arch, and a dome with the profile of an equilateral arch can be thinner still.[15] The optimal shape for a masonry dome of equal thickness provides for perfect compression, with none of the tension or bending forces against which masonry is weak.[13] For a particular material, the optimal dome geometry is called the funicular surface, the comparable shape in three dimensions to a catenary curve for a two-dimensional arch.[16][17] The pointed profiles of many Gothic domes more closely approximate this optimal shape than do hemispheres, which were favored by Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
architects due to the circle being considered the most perfect of forms. Adding a weight to the top of the pointed dome, such as the heavy cupola at the top of Florence
Florence
Cathedral, changes the optimal shape to perfectly match the actual pointed shape of the dome.[18] The outward thrusts in the lower portion of a hemispherical masonry dome can be counteracted with the use of chains incorporated around the circumference or with external buttressing, although cracking along the meridians is natural.[12] For small or tall domes with less horizontal thrust, the thickness of the supporting arches or walls can be enough to resist deformation, which is why drums tend to be much thicker than the domes they support.[19] Zone of transition[edit]

A compound dome (red) with pendentives (yellow) from a sphere of greater radius than the dome.

An example of quadrangular to circle transition – The mosque of Isfahan
Isfahan
international conference center

When the base of the dome does not match the plan of the supporting walls beneath it (for example, a dome's circular base over a square bay), techniques are employed to bridge the two.[20] The simplest technique is to use diagonal lintels across the corners of the walls to create an octagonal base. Another is to use arches to span the corners, which can support more weight.[21] A variety of these techniques use what are called "squinches".[22] A squinch can be a single arch or a set of multiple projecting nested arches placed diagonally over an internal corner.[23] Squinches can take a variety of other forms, as well, including trumpet arches and niche heads, or half-domes.[22] The invention of pendentives superseded the squinch technique.[21] Pendentives
Pendentives
are triangular sections of a sphere, like concave spandrels between arches, and transition from the corners of a square bay to the circular base of a dome. The curvature of the pendentives is that of a sphere with a diameter equal to the diagonal of the square bay.[24] The precise definition of "pendentive" has been a source of contention among academics, including whether or not corbelling is permitted under the definition and whether or not the lower portions of a sail vault should be considered pendentives.[25] Domes with pendentives can be divided into two kinds: simple and compound.[26] In the case of the simple dome, the pendentives are part of the same sphere as the dome itself; however, such domes are rare.[27] In the case of the more common compound dome, the pendentives are part of the surface of a larger sphere below that of the dome itself and form a circular base for either the dome or a drum section.[26] Acoustics[edit] Because domes are concave from below, they can reflect sound and create echoes.[28] A dome may have a "whispering gallery" at its base that at certain places transmits distinct sound to other distant places in the gallery.[11] The half-domes over the apses of Byzantine churches helped to project the chants of the clergy.[29] Although this can complement music, it may make speech less intelligible, leading Francesco Giorgi in 1535 to recommend vaulted ceilings for the choir areas of a church, but a flat ceiling filled with as many coffers as possible for where preaching would occur.[30] Cavities in the form of jars built into the inner surface of a dome may serve to compensate for this interference by diffusing sound in all directions, eliminating echoes while creating a "divine effect in the atmosphere of worship." This technique was written about by Vitruvius
Vitruvius
in his Ten Books on Architecture, which describes bronze and earthenware resonators.[28] The material, shape, contents, and placement of these cavity resonators determine the effect they have: reinforcing certain frequencies or absorbing them.[31] Materials[edit] The earliest domes in the Middle East
Middle East
were built with mud-brick and, eventually, with baked brick and stone. Domes of wood allowed for wide spans due to the relatively light and flexible nature of the material and were the normal method for domed churches by the 7th century, although most domes were built with the other less flexible materials. Wooden domes were protected from the weather by roofing, such as copper or lead sheeting.[32] Domes of cut stone were more expensive and never as large, and timber was used for large spans where brick was unavailable.[33] Roman concrete used an aggregate of stone with a powerful mortar. The aggregate transitioned over the centuries to pieces of fired clay, then to Roman bricks. By the sixth century, bricks with large amounts of mortar were the principle vaulting materials. Pozzolana
Pozzolana
appears to have only been used in central Italy.[34] Brick domes were the favored choice for large-space monumental coverings until the Industrial Age, due to their convenience and dependability.[35] Ties and chains of iron or wood could be used to resist stresses.[36] The new building materials of the 19th century and a better understanding of the forces within structures from the 20th century has opened up new possibilities. Iron and steel beams, steel cables, and pre-stressed concrete have eliminated the need for external buttressing and enabled far thinner domes. Whereas earlier masonry domes may have had a radius to thickness ratio of 50, the ratio for modern domes can be in excess of 800. The lighter weight of these domes has not only permitted far greater spans, but also allowed for the creation of large movable domes over modern sports stadiums.[37] Experimental rammed earth domes were made as part of work on sustainable architecture at the University of Kassel
University of Kassel
in 1983.[38] Symbolism[edit] Main article: Symbolism of domes According to E. Baldwin Smith, from the late Stone Age the dome-shaped tomb was used as a reproduction of the ancestral, god-given shelter made permanent as a venerated home of the dead. The instinctive desire to do this resulted in widespread domical mortuary traditions across the ancient world, from the stupas of India
India
to the tholos tombs of Iberia. By Hellenistic and Roman times, the domical tholos had become the customary cemetery symbol.[39] Domes and tent-canopies were also associated with the heavens in Ancient Persia and the Hellenistic-Roman world. A dome over a square base reflected the geometric symbolism of those shapes. The circle represented perfection, eternity, and the heavens. The square represented the earth. An octagon was intermediate between the two.[40] The distinct symbolism of the heavenly or cosmic tent stemming from the royal audience tents of Achaemenid and Indian rulers was adopted by Roman rulers in imitation of Alexander the Great, becoming the imperial baldachin. This probably began with Nero, whose "Golden House" also made the dome an essential feature of palace architecture.[41] The dual sepulchral and heavenly symbolism was adopted by early Christians in both the use of domes in architecture and in the ciborium, a domical canopy like the baldachin used as a ritual covering for relics or the church altar. The celestial symbolism of the dome, however, was the preeminent one by the Christian era.[42] In the early centuries of Islam, domes were closely associated with royalty. A dome built in front of the mihrab of a mosque, for example, was at least initially meant to emphasize the place of a prince during royal ceremonies. Over time such domes became primarily focal points for decoration or the direction of prayer. The use of domes in mausoleums can likewise reflect royal patronage or be seen as representing the honor and prestige that domes symbolized, rather than having any specific funerary meaning.[43] The wide variety of dome forms in medieval Islam
Islam
reflected dynastic, religious, and social differences as much as practical building considerations.[32] General types[edit] Beehive dome[edit] See also: Beehive tomb Also called a corbelled dome,[44] or false dome,[45] these are different from a 'true dome' in that they consist of purely horizontal layers. As the layers get higher, each is slightly cantilevered, or corbeled, toward the center until meeting at the top. A monumental example is the Mycenaean Treasury of Atreus
Treasury of Atreus
from the late Bronze Age.[46] Braced dome[edit] A single layer space frame in the form of a dome, a braced dome is a generic term that includes ribbed,[47] Schwedler,[47] three-way grid,[47] lamella or Kiewitt,[48] lattice,[49] and geodesic domes.[50] The different terms reflect different arrangements in the surface members. Braced domes often have a very low weight and are usually used to cover spans of up to 150 meters.[51] Cloister vault[edit] Main article: Cloister vault Called domical vaults (a term sometimes also applied to sail vaults),[52][53] polygonal domes,[54] coved domes,[55] gored domes,[56] segmental domes[57] (a term sometimes also used for saucer domes), paneled vaults,[58] or pavilion vaults,[59] these are domes that maintain a polygonal shape in their horizontal cross section. The earliest known examples date to the first century BC, such as the Tabularium
Tabularium
of Rome
Rome
from 78 BC. Others include the Baths of Antoninus in Carthage
Carthage
(145–160) and the Palatine Chapel at Aachen (13th – 14th century).[60] The most famous example is the Renaissance octagonal dome of Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
over the Florence
Florence
Cathedral. Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, installed an octagonal dome above the West front of his plantation house, Monticello.[61] Compound dome[edit] Also called domes on pendentives[62] or pendentive domes[63] (a term also applied to sail vaults), compound domes have pendentives that support a smaller diameter dome immediately above them, as in the Hagia Sophia, or a drum and dome, as in many Renaissance
Renaissance
and post- Renaissance
Renaissance
domes, with both forms resulting in greater height.[26] Crossed-arch dome[edit] One of the earliest types of ribbed vault, the first known examples are found in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Córdoba in the 10th century. Rather than meeting in the center of the dome, the ribs characteristically intersect one another off-center, forming an empty polygonal space in the center. Geometry is a key element of the designs, with the octagon being perhaps the most popular shape used. Whether the arches are structural or purely decorative remains a matter of debate. The type may have an eastern origin, although the issue is also unsettled. Examples are found in Spain, North Africa, Armenia, Iran, France, and Italy.[64]

A corbel dome

A domical vault

A compound dome

A crossed-arch dome

Geodesic
Geodesic
dome[edit] Main article: Geodesic
Geodesic
dome Geodesic
Geodesic
domes are the upper portion of geodesic spheres. They are composed of a framework of triangles in a polyhedron pattern.[65] The structures are named for geodesics and are based upon geometric shapes such as icosahedrons, octahedrons or tetrahedrons.[65][5] Such domes can be created using a limited number of simple elements and joints and efficiently resolve a domes internal forces. Their efficiency is said to increase with size.[66] Although not first invented by Buckminster Fuller, they are associated with him because he designed many geodesic domes and patented them in the United States.[67] Hemispherical dome[edit] The hemispherical dome is half of a sphere. According to E. Baldwin Smith, it was a shape likely known to the Assyrians, defined by Greek theoretical mathematicians, and standardized by Roman builders.[68] Onion
Onion
dome[edit] Main article: Onion
Onion
dome Bulbous domes bulge out beyond their base diameters, offering a profile greater than a hemisphere.[5] An onion dome is a greater than hemispherical dome with a pointed top in an ogee profile.[5] They are found in the Near East, Middle East, Persia, and India
India
and may not have had a single point of origin. Their appearance in northern Russian architecture
Russian architecture
predates the Tatar occupation of Russia
Russia
and so is not easily explained as the result of that influence.[69] They became popular in the second half of the 15th century in the Low Countries
Low Countries
of Northern Europe, possibly inspired by the finials of minarets in Egypt and Syria, and developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Netherlands before spreading to Germany, becoming a popular element of the baroque architecture of Central Europe. German bulbous domes were also influenced by Russian and Eastern European domes.[70] The examples found in various European architectural styles are typically wooden.[5] Examples include Kazan Church in Kolomenskoye
Kolomenskoye
and the Brighton Pavilion by John Nash.[5] In Islamic architecture, they are typically made of masonry, rather than timber, with the thick and heavy bulging portion serving to buttress against the tendency of masonry domes to spread at their bases. The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
is a famous example.[5] Oval
Oval
dome[edit] An oval dome is a dome of oval shape in plan, profile, or both. The term comes from the Latin
Latin
ovum, meaning "egg". The earliest oval domes were used by convenience in corbelled stone huts as rounded but geometrically undefined coverings, and the first examples in Asia Minor date to around 4000 B.C. The geometry was eventually defined using combinations of circular arcs, transitioning at points of tangency. If the Romans created oval domes, it was only in exceptional circumstances. The Roman foundations of the oval plan Church of St. Gereon in Cologne point to a possible example. Domes in the Middle Ages also tended to be circular, though the church of Santo Tomás de las Ollas in Spain has an oval dome over its oval plan. Other examples of medieval oval domes can be found covering rectangular bays in churches. Oval
Oval
plan churches became a type in the Renaissance
Renaissance
and popular in the Baroque
Baroque
style.[71] The dome built for the basilica of Vicoforte
Vicoforte
by Francesco Gallo was one of the largest and most complex ever made.[72]

A geodesic dome

A hemispherical dome

An onion dome

An oval dome

Parabolic dome[edit] A parabolic dome is a unique structure in which bending stress due to the uniformly distributed load of its dead load is zero. Hence it was widely used in buildings in ancient times, before the advent of composite structures. However, if a point load is applied on the apex of a parabolic dome, the bending stress becomes infinite. Hence it is found in most ancient structures, the apex of the dome is stiffened or the shape modified to avoid the infinite stress. Sail dome[edit] Also called sail vaults,[73] handkerchief vaults,[74] domical vaults (a term sometimes also applied to cloister vaults),[53] pendentive domes[75] (a term that has also been applied to compound domes), Bohemian vaults,[76] or Byzantine
Byzantine
domes, this type can be thought of as pendentives that, rather than merely touching each other to form a circular base for a drum or compound dome, smoothly continue their curvature to form the dome itself. The dome gives the impression of a square sail pinned down at each corner and billowing upward.[20] These can also be thought of as saucer domes upon pendentives.[57] Saucer dome[edit] Also called segmental domes[77] (a term sometimes also used for cloister vaults), or calottes,[20] these have profiles of less than half a circle. Because they reduce the portion of the dome in tension, these domes are strong but have increased radial thrust.[77] Many of the largest existing domes are of this shape. Masonry saucer domes, because they exist entirely in compression, can be built much thinner than other dome shapes without becoming unstable. The trade-off between the proportionately increased horizontal thrust at their abutments and their decreased weight and quantity of materials may make them more economical, but they are more vulnerable to damage from movement in their supports.[78] Umbrella dome[edit] Also called gadrooned,[79] fluted,[79] organ-piped,[79] pumpkin,[20] melon,[20] ribbed,[79] parachute,[20] scalloped,[80] or lobed domes,[81] these are a type of dome divided at the base into curved segments, which follow the curve of the elevation.[20] "Fluted" may refer specifically to this pattern as an external feature, such as was common in Mamluk Egypt.[5] The "ribs" of a dome are the radial lines of masonry that extend from the crown down to the springing.[7] The central dome of the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
uses the ribbed method, which accommodates a ring of windows between the ribs at the base of the dome. The central dome of St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
also uses this method.

A sail vault

A saucer dome

An umbrella dome

History[edit] Early history and simple domes[edit] Main article: History of early and simple domes

Apache wigwam, by Edward S. Curtis, 1903

Cultures from pre-history to modern times constructed domed dwellings using local materials. Although it is not known when the first dome was created, sporadic examples of early domed structures have been discovered. The earliest discovered may be four small dwellings made of Mammoth
Mammoth
tusks and bones. The first was found by a farmer in Mezhirich, Ukraine, in 1965 while he was digging in his cellar and archaeologists unearthed three more.[82] They date from 19,280 – 11,700 BC.[83] In modern times, the creation of relatively simple dome-like structures has been documented among various indigenous peoples around the world. The wigwam was made by Native Americans using arched branches or poles covered with grass or hides. The Efé people of central Africa construct similar structures, using leaves as shingles.[84] Another example is the igloo, a shelter built from blocks of compact snow and used by the Inuit
Inuit
people, among others. The Himba people
Himba people
of Namibia
Namibia
construct "desert igloos" of wattle and daub for use as temporary shelters at seasonal cattle camps, and as permanent homes by the poor.[85] Extraordinarily thin domes of sun-baked clay 20 feet in diameter, 30 feet high, and nearly parabolic in curve, are known from Cameroon.[86] The historical development from structures like these to more sophisticated domes is not well documented. That the dome was known to early Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
may explain the existence of domes in both China
China
and the West in the first millennium BC.[87] Another explanation, however, is that the use of the dome shape in construction did not have a single point of origin and was common in virtually all cultures long before domes were constructed with enduring materials.[88] Corbelled stone domes have been found from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period in the ancient Near East, and in the Middle East
Middle East
to Western Europe from antiquity. [89][90] The kings of Achaemenid Persia held audiences and festivals in domical tents derived from the nomadic traditions of central Asia.[91] Simple domical mausoleums existed in the Hellenistic period.[92] The remains of a large domed circular hall in the Parthian capital city of Nyssa has been dated to perhaps the first century AD, showing "...the existence of a monumental domical tradition in Central Asia that had hitherto been unknown and which seems to have preceded Roman Imperial monuments or at least to have grown independently from them."[93] It likely had a wooden dome.[94] Persian domes[edit] Main article: History of Persian domes See also: Gonbad

Sheikh Lotfallah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran.

Persian architecture likely inherited an architectural tradition of dome-building dating back to the earliest Mesopotamian domes.[95] Due to the scarcity of wood in many areas of the Iranian plateau, domes were an important part of vernacular architecture throughout Persian history.[96] The Persian invention of the squinch, a series of concentric arches forming a half-cone over the corner of a room, enabled the transition from the walls of a square chamber to an octagonal base for a dome in a way reliable enough for large constructions and domes moved to the forefront of Persian architecture as a result.[97] Pre-Islamic domes in Persia are commonly semi-elliptical, with pointed domes and those with conical outer shells being the majority of the domes in the Islamic periods.[98] The area of north-eastern Iran
Iran
was, along with Egypt, one of two areas notable for early developments in Islamic domed mausoleums, which appear in the tenth century.[99] The Samanid Mausoleum
Samanid Mausoleum
in Transoxiana dates to no later than 943 and is the first to have squinches create a regular octagon as a base for the dome, which then became the standard practice. Cylindrical or polygonal plan tower tombs with conical roofs over domes also exist beginning in the 11th century.[96] The Seljuq Turks built tower tombs, called "Turkish Triangles", as well as cube mausoleums covered with a variety of dome forms. Seljuk domes included conical, semi-circular, and pointed shapes in one or two shells. Shallow semi-circular domes are mainly found from the Seljuk era. The double-shell domes were either discontinuous or continuous.[100] The domed enclosure of the Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan, built in 1086-7 by Nizam al-Mulk, was the largest masonry dome in the Islamic world at that time, had eight ribs, and introduced a new form of corner squinch with two quarter domes supporting a short barrel vault. In 1088 Tāj-al-Molk, a rival of Nizam al-Mulk, built another dome at the opposite end of the same mosque with interlacing ribs forming five-pointed stars and pentagons. This is considered the landmark Seljuk dome, and may have inspired subsequent patterning and the domes of the Il-Khanate period. The use of tile and of plain or painted plaster to decorate dome interiors, rather than brick, increased under the Seljuks.[96] Beginning in the Ilkhanate, Persian domes achieved their final configuration of structural supports, zone of transition, drum, and shells, and subsequent evolution was restricted to variations in form and shell geometry. Characteristic of these domes are the use of high drums and several types of discontinuous double-shells, and the development of triple-shells and internal stiffeners occurred at this time. The construction of tomb towers decreased.[101] The 7.5 meter wide double dome of Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum
Soltan Bakht Agha Mausoleum
(1351–1352) is the earliest known example in which the two shells of the dome have significantly different profiles, which spread rapidly throughout the region.[102] The development of taller drums also continued into the Timurid period.[96] The large, bulbous, fluted domes on tall drums that are characteristic of 15th century Timurid architecture were the culmination of the Central Asian and Iranian tradition of tall domes with glazed tile coverings in blue and other colors.[32] The domes of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1732) are characterized by a distinctive bulbous profile and are considered the last generation of Persian domes. They are generally thinner than earlier domes and are decorated with a variety of colored glazed tiles and complex vegetal patterns, and they were influential on those of other Islamic styles, such as the Mughal architecture
Mughal architecture
of India.[103] An exaggerated style of onion dome on a short drum, as can be seen at the Shah Cheragh (1852–1853), first appeared in the Qajar period. Domes have remained important in modern mausoleums, and domed cisterns and icehouses remain common sights in the countryside.[96] Chinese domes[edit]

Model of the Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb (25 AD – 220 AD).

Very little has survived of ancient Chinese architecture, due to the extensive use of timber as a building material. Brick and stone vaults used in tomb construction have survived, and the corbeled dome was used, rarely, in tombs and temples.[104] The earliest true domes found in Chinese tombs were shallow cloister vaults, called simian jieding, derived from the Han use of barrel vaulting. Unlike the cloister vaults of western Europe, the corners are rounded off as they rise.[105] A model of a tomb found with a shallow true dome from the late Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) can be seen at the Guangzhou Museum (Canton).[106] Another, the Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb, found in Hong Kong in 1955, has a design common among Eastern Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
(25 AD – 220 AD) tombs in South China: a barrel vaulted entrance leading to a domed front hall with barrel vaulted chambers branching from it in a cross shape. It is the only such tomb that has been found in Hong Kong and is exhibited as part of the Hong Kong Museum of History.[107][108] During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280), the "cross-joint dome" (siyuxuanjinshi) was developed under the Wu and Western Jin dynasties south of the Yangtze River, with arcs building out from the corners of a square room until they met and joined at the center. These domes were stronger, had a steeped angle, and could cover larger areas than the relatively shallow cloister vaults. Over time, they were made taller and wider. There were also corbel vaults, called diese, although these are the weakest type.[109] Some tombs of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) have beehive domes.[106] Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
domes[edit] Main article: History of Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
domes See also: List of Roman domes

Painting by Giovanni Paolo Pannini of the Pantheon in Rome.

Roman domes are found in baths, villas, palaces, and tombs. Oculi are common features.[110] They are customarily hemispherical in shape and partially or totally concealed on the exterior. To buttress the horizontal thrusts of a large hemispherical masonry dome, the supporting walls were built up beyond the base to at least the haunches of the dome, and the dome was then also sometimes covered with a conical or polygonal roof.[111] Domes reached monumental size in the Roman Imperial period.[112] Roman baths played a leading role in the development of domed construction in general, and monumental domes in particular. Modest domes in baths dating from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC are seen in Pompeii, in the cold rooms of the Terme Stabiane and the Terme del Foro.[112][113] However, the extensive use of domes did not occur before the 1st century AD.[114] The growth of domed construction increases under Emperor Nero
Nero
and the Flavians in the 1st century AD, and during the 2nd century. Centrally-planned halls become increasingly important parts of palace and palace villa layouts beginning in the 1st century, serving as state banqueting halls, audience rooms, or throne rooms.[115] The Pantheon, a temple in Rome
Rome
completed by Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
as part of the Baths of Agrippa, is the most famous, best preserved, and largest Roman dome.[116] Segmented domes, made of radially concave wedges or of alternating concave and flat wedges, appear under Hadrian
Hadrian
in the 2nd century and most preserved examples of this style date from this period.[117] In the 3rd century, Imperial mausoleums began to be built as domed rotundas, rather than as tumulus structures or other types, following similar monuments by private citizens.[118] The technique of building lightweight domes with interlocking hollow ceramic tubes further developed in North Africa and Italy in the late third and early fourth centuries.[119] In the 4th century, Roman domes proliferated due to changes in the way domes were constructed, including advances in centering techniques and the use of brick ribbing.[120] The material of choice in construction gradually transitioned during the 4th and 5th centuries from stone or concrete to lighter brick in thin shells.[121] Baptisteries began to be built in the manner of domed mausoleums during the 4th century in Italy. The octagonal Lateran baptistery or the baptistery of the Holy Sepulchre may have been the first, and the style spread during the 5th century.[122] By the 5th century, structures with small-scale domed cross plans existed across the Christian world.[123] With the end of the Western Roman Empire, domes became a signature feature of the church architecture of the surviving Eastern Roman — or "Byzantine" — Empire.[124] 6th-century church building by the Emperor Justinian used the domed cross unit on a monumental scale, and his architects made the domed brick-vaulted central plan standard throughout the Roman east. This divergence with the Roman west from the second third of the 6th century may be considered the beginning of a "Byzantine" architecture.[125] Justinian's Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
was an original and innovative design with no known precedents in the way it covers a basilica plan with dome and semi-domes. Periodic earthquakes in the region have caused three partial collapses of the dome and necessitated repairs.[126] "Cross-domed units", a more secure structural system created by bracing a dome on all four sides with broad arches, became a standard element on a smaller scale in later Byzantine
Byzantine
church architecture.[127][128] The Cross-in-square
Cross-in-square
plan, with a single dome at the crossing or five domes in a quincunx pattern, became widely popular in the Middle Byzantine
Byzantine
period (c. 843–1204).[129][130][127] It is the most common church plan from the tenth century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.[131] Resting domes on circular or polygonal drums pierced with windows eventually became the standard style, with regional characteristics.[132] In the Byzantine
Byzantine
period, domes were normally hemispherical and had, with occasional exceptions, windowed drums. All of the surviving examples in Constantinople are ribbed or pumpkin domes, with the divisions corresponding to the number of windows. Roofing for domes ranged from simple ceramic tile to more expensive, more durable, and more form-fitting lead sheeting. Metal clamps between stone cornice blocks, metal tie rods, and metal chains were also used to stabilize domed construction.[133] The technique of using double shells for domes, although revived in the Renaissance, originated in Byzantine practice.[134] Arabic and Western European domes[edit] Main article: History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes

The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem

The Syria and Palestine area has a long tradition of domical architecture, including wooden domes in shapes described as "conoid", or similar to pine cones. When the Arab Muslim forces conquered the region, they employed local craftsmen for their buildings and, by the end of the 7th century, the dome had begun to become an architectural symbol of Islam.[135] In addition to religious shrines, such as the Dome
Dome
of the Rock, domes were used over the audience and throne halls of Umayyad
Umayyad
palaces, and as part of porches, pavilions, fountains, towers and the calderia of baths. Blending the architectural features of both Byzantine
Byzantine
and Persian architecture, the domes used both pendentives and squinches and were made in a variety of shapes and materials.[136] Although architecture in the region would decline following the movement of the capital to Iraq under the Abbasids in 750, mosques built after a revival in the late 11th century usually followed the Umayyad
Umayyad
model.[137] Early versions of bulbous domes can be seen in mosaic illustrations in Syria dating to the Umayyad
Umayyad
period. They were used to cover large buildings in Syria after the eleventh century.[138] Italian church architecture from the late sixth century to the end of the eighth century was influenced less by the trends of Constantinople than by a variety of Byzantine
Byzantine
provincial plans.[139] With the crowning of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as a new Roman Emperor, Byzantine
Byzantine
influences were largely replaced in a revival of earlier Western building traditions. Occasional exceptions include examples of early quincunx churches at Milan
Milan
and near Cassino.[139] Another is the Palatine Chapel. Its domed octagon design was influenced by Byzantine models.[140][141] It was the largest dome north of the Alps at that time.[142] Venice, Southern Italy
Southern Italy
and Sicily
Sicily
served as outposts of Middle Byzantine
Byzantine
architectural influence in Italy.[143] The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Córdoba contains the first known examples of the crossed-arch dome type.[144] The use of corner squinches to support domes was widespread in Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
by the 10th and 11th centuries.[129] After the ninth century, mosques in North Africa often have a small decorative dome over the mihrab. Additional domes are sometimes used at the corners of the mihrab wall, at the entrance bay, or on the square tower minarets.[145] Egypt, along with north-eastern Iran, was one of two areas notable for early developments in Islamic mausoleums, beginning in the 10th century.[92] Fatimid mausoleums were mostly simple square buildings covered by a dome. Domes were smooth or ribbed and had a characteristic Fatimid "keel" shape profile.[146] Domes in Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
are generally found within crossing towers at the intersection of a church's nave and transept, which conceal the domes externally.[147] They are typically octagonal in plan and use corner squinches to translate a square bay into a suitable octagonal base.[27] They appear "in connection with basilicas almost throughout Europe" between 1050 and 1100.[148] The Crusades, beginning in 1095, also appear to have influenced domed architecture in Western Europe, particularly in the areas around the Mediterranean Sea.[149] The Knights Templar, headquartered at the site, built a series of centrally planned churches throughout Europe modeled on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
also an influence.[150] In southwest France, there are over 250 domed Romanesque churches in the Périgord
Périgord
region alone.[151] The use of pendentives to support domes in the Aquitaine
Aquitaine
region, rather than the squinches more typical of western medieval architecture, strongly implies a Byzantine
Byzantine
influence.[52] Gothic domes are uncommon due to the use of rib vaults over naves, and with church crossings usually focused instead by a tall steeple, but there are examples of small octagonal crossing domes in cathedrals as the style developed from the Romanesque.[152] Star-shaped domes found at the Moorish palace of the Alhambra
Alhambra
in Granada, Spain, the Hall of the Abencerrajes (c. 1333–91) and the Hall of the two Sisters (c. 1333–54), are extraordinarily developed examples of muqarnas domes.[152] In the first half of the fourteenth century, stone blocks replaced bricks as the primary building material in the dome construction of Mamluk Egypt and, over the course of 250 years, around 400 domes were built in Cairo to cover the tombs of Mamluk sultans and emirs.[153] Dome
Dome
profiles were varied, with "keel-shaped", bulbous, ogee, stilted domes, and others being used. On the drum, angles were chamfered, or sometimes stepped, externally and triple windows were used in a tri-lobed arrangement on the faces.[154] Bulbous cupolas on minarets were used in Egypt beginning around 1330, spreading to Syria in the following century.[155] In the fifteenth century, pilgrimages to and flourishing trade relations with the Near East exposed the Low Countries
Low Countries
of northwest Europe to the use of bulbous domes in the architecture of the Orient
Orient
and such domes apparently became associated with the city of Jerusalem. Multi-story spires with truncated bulbous cupolas supporting smaller cupolas or crowns became popular in the sixteenth century.[156] Russian domes[edit]

Gilded onion domes of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow Kremlin.

Saint Basil's Cathedral
Saint Basil's Cathedral
(1555–61) in Moscow, Russia. Its distinctive onion domes date to the 1680s.

The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture that distinguishes Russia
Russia
from other Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches, built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which has led some historians to speculate about how Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked. Examples of these early churches are the 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
(989) and the 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church
Desyatinnaya Church
in Kiev
Kiev
(989–996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ
Christ
with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes means the same with an additional 12 Prophets of the Old Testament. The multiple domes of Russian churches were often comparatively smaller than Byzantine
Byzantine
domes.[157][158] The earliest stone churches in Russia
Russia
featured Byzantine
Byzantine
style domes, however by the Early Modern era
Early Modern era
the onion dome had become the predominant form in traditional Russian architecture. The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion, after which they are named. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drums they sit on, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure tapers smoothly to a point. Though the earliest preserved Russian domes of such type date from the 16th century, illustrations from older chronicles indicate they have existed since the late 13th century. Like tented roofs—which were combined with, and sometimes replaced domes in Russian architecture
Russian architecture
since the 16th century—onion domes initially were used only in wooden churches. Builders introduced them into stone architecture much later, and continued to make their carcasses of either of wood or metal on top of masonry drums.[159] Russian domes are often gilded or brightly painted. A dangerous technique of chemical gilding using mercury had been applied on some occasions until the mid-19th century, most notably in the giant dome of Saint Isaac's Cathedral. The more modern and safe method of gold electroplating was applied for the first time in gilding the domes of the Cathedral of Christ
Christ
the Saviour in Moscow, the tallest Eastern Orthodox church in the world.[160] Ottoman domes[edit]

Selimiye Mosque
Selimiye Mosque
dome in Edirne, Turkey

The rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and its spread in Asia Minor and the Balkans
Balkans
coincided with the decline of the Seljuk Turks and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Early Ottoman buildings, for almost two centuries after 1300, were characterized by a blending of Ottoman culture and indigenous architecture, and the pendentive dome was used throughout the empire.[161] The Byzantine
Byzantine
dome form was adopted and further developed.[32] Ottoman architecture
Ottoman architecture
made exclusive use of the semi-spherical dome for vaulting over even very small spaces, influenced by the earlier traditions of both Byzantine
Byzantine
Anatolia
Anatolia
and Central Asia.[162] The smaller the structure, the simpler the plan, but mosques of medium size were also covered by single domes.[163] The earliest Ottoman mosques were single oblong rooms with either simple tiled pitched roofs of wood or a wooden interior dome. Most of these wooden domes have been lost to fires and replaced by flat ceilings. The earliest masonry domes covered square single room mosques, the archetype of Ottoman architecture.[164] Examples include the Mosque
Mosque
of Orhan Gazi in Gebze
Gebze
and Karagöz Bey Mosque
Karagöz Bey Mosque
in Mostar.[165] This domed-square unit is the defining element of the three basic Ottoman mosque plans: the single unit mosque, multi-unit mosque, and eyvan (or "iwan") mosque.[166] The multi-unit mosque uses several domed-squares of similar size along the length of a mosque, or across its width, or both, with the central dome sometimes larger than the others.[166] A style common in the Bursa period, and known as the "Bursa type", is like a duplication of the single-domed square, with one long space divided by an arch into two square bays that are each covered by a dome. A variation of this type has the room covered by one dome and one semi-dome, with additional side chambers. A multi-domed style derived from Seljuk architecture is that of the Ulu Camii, or Great Mosque, which consists of a number of domes of the same size supported by pillars.[167] The eyvan mosque type (the eyvan being derived from Seljuk architecture) uses domed-square units in a variety of sizes, heights, and details, with only the possible pair of side units being similar sizes.[166] Early experiments with large domes include the domed square mosques of Çine
Çine
and Mudurnu
Mudurnu
under Bayezid I, and the later domed "zawiya-mosques" at Bursa. The Üç Şerefeli Mosque
Üç Şerefeli Mosque
at Edirne developed the idea of the central dome being a larger version of the domed modules used throughout the rest of the structure to generate open space. This idea became important to the Ottoman style as it developed.[162] The Beyazidiye Mosque
Mosque
(1501–1506) in Istanbul
Istanbul
begins the Classical period in Ottoman architecture, in which the great Imperial Mosques, with variations, resemble the former Byzantine
Byzantine
basilica of Hagia Sophia in having a large central dome with semi-domes of the same span to the east and west.[168] Hagia Sophia's central dome arrangement is faithfully reproduced in three Ottoman mosques in Istanbul: the Beyazidiye Mosque, the Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, and the Süleymaniye Mosque.[169] Three other Imperial mosques in Istanbul
Istanbul
also add semi-domes to the north and south, doing away with the basilica plan: Şehzade Camii, Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed I Camii, and Yeni Cami.[170] The peak of this classical period, which lasted into the 17th century, came with the architecture of Mimar Sinan. [171] In addition to large Imperial mosques, he produced hundreds of other monuments, including medium-sized mosques such as the Mihrimah, Sokollu, and Rüstem Pasha Mosque
Mosque
and the tomb of Suleiman the Magnificent.[172] Süleymaniye Mosque, built in Constantinople (modern Istanbul) from 1550 to 1557, has a main dome 53 meters high with a diameter of 26.5 meters. At the time it was built, the dome was the highest in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
when measured from sea level, but lower from the floor of the building and smaller in diameter than that of the nearby Hagia Sophia. Another Classical domed mosque type is, like the Byzantine
Byzantine
church of Sergius and Bacchus, the domed polygon within a square. Octagons and hexagons were common, such as those of Üç Şerefeli Mosque (1437–1447) and Selimiye Mosque
Selimiye Mosque
in Edirne.[173] The Selimiye Mosque was the first structure built by the Ottomans that had a larger dome than that of the Hagia Sophia. The dome rises above a square bay. Corner semi-domes convert this into an octagon, which muqarnas transition to a circular base. The dome has an average internal diameter of about 31.5 meters, while that of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
averages 31.3 meters.[174] Designed and built by architect Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
between 1568 and 1574, when he finished it he was 86 years old, and he considered the mosque his masterpiece. The first large Imperial Mosque
Mosque
of Istanbul
Istanbul
in the imported Baroque style was the Nuruosmaniye Mosque
Nuruosmaniye Mosque
(1748–1755). One of the finest was the Laleli Mosque
Laleli Mosque
of 1759–1764.[175] Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
domes[edit] Main article: History of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
domes

The Cathedral of Florence
Florence
with Brunelleschi's dome, Italy

Filippo Brunelleschi's octagonal brick domical vault over Florence Cathedral was built between 1420 and 1436 and the lantern surmounting the dome was completed in 1467. The dome is 42 meters wide and made of two shells.[176] The dome is not itself Renaissance
Renaissance
in style, although the lantern is closer.[177] A combination of dome, drum, pendentives, and barrel vaults developed as the characteristic structural forms of large Renaissance
Renaissance
churches following a period of innovation in the later fifteenth century.[178] Florence
Florence
was the first Italian city to develop the new style, followed by Rome
Rome
and then Venice.[179] Brunelleschi's domes at San Lorenzo and the Pazzi Chapel
Pazzi Chapel
established them as a key element of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture.[180] His plan for the dome of the Pazzi Chapel
Pazzi Chapel
in Florence's Basilica of Santa Croce (1430–52) illustrates the Renaissance
Renaissance
enthusiasm for geometry and for the circle as geometry's supreme form. This emphasis on geometric essentials would be very influential.[181] De Re Aedificatoria, written by Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
around 1452, recommends vaults with coffering for churches, as in the Pantheon, and the first design for a dome at St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome
Rome
is usually attributed to him, although the recorded architect is Bernardo Rossellino. This would culminate in Bramante's 1505–06 projects for a wholly new St. Peter's Basilica, marking the beginning of the displacement of the Gothic ribbed vault with the combination of dome and barrel vault, which proceeded throughout the sixteenth century.[182] Bramante's initial design was for a Greek cross plan with a large central hemispherical dome and four smaller domes around it in a quincunx pattern. Work began in 1506 and continued under a succession of builders over the next 120 years.[183] The dome was completed by Giacomo della Porta
Giacomo della Porta
and Domenico Fontana.[183] The publication of Sebastiano Serlio's treatise, one of the most popular architectural treatises ever published, was responsible for the spread of the oval in late Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
architecture throughout Italy, Spain, France, and central Europe.[184] The Villa Capra, also known as "La Rotunda", was built by Andrea Palladio from 1565 to 1569 near Vicenza. Its highly symmetrical square plan centers on a circular room covered by a dome, and it proved highly influential on the Georgian architects of 18th century England, architects in Russia, and architects in America, Thomas Jefferson among them. Palladio's two domed churches in Venice
Venice
are San Giorgio Maggiore (1565–1610) and Il Redentore
Il Redentore
(1577–92), the latter built in thanksgiving for the end of a bad outbreak of plague in the city.[185] The spread of the Renaissance-style dome outside of Italy began with central Europe, although there was often a stylistic delay of a century or two.[186] South Asian domes[edit] Main article: History of South Asian domes

The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in Agra, India
India
built by Shah Jahan.

Islamic rule over northern and central India
India
brought with it the use of domes constructed with stone, brick and mortar, and iron dowels and cramps. Centering was made from timber and bamboo. The use of iron cramps to join together adjacent stones was known in pre-Islamic India, and was used at the base of domes for hoop reinforcement. The synthesis of styles created by this introduction of new forms to the Hindu tradition of trabeate construction created a distinctive architecture.[187] Domes in pre-Mughal India
India
have a standard squat circular shape with a lotus design and bulbous finial at the top, derived from Hindu architecture. Because the Hindu architectural tradition did not include arches, flat corbels were used to transition from the corners of the room to the dome, rather than squinches.[32] In contrast to Persian and Ottoman domes, the domes of Indian tombs tend to be more bulbous.[188] The earliest examples include the half-domes of the late 13th century tomb of Balban and the small dome of the tomb of Khan Shahid, which were made of roughly cut material and would have needed covering surface finishes.[189] Under the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
there was a large proliferation of tomb building, with octagonal plans reserved for royalty and square plans used for others of high rank, and the first double dome was introduced to India
India
in this period.[190] The first major Mughal building is the domed tomb of Humayun, built between 1562 and 1571 by a Persian architect. The central double dome covers an octagonal central chamber about 15 meters wide and is accompanied by small domed chattri made of brick and faced with stone.[191] Chatris, the domed kiosks on pillars characteristic of Mughal roofs, were adopted from their Hindu use as cenotaphs.[192] The fusion of Persian and Indian architecture can be seen in the dome shape of the Taj Mahal: the bulbous shape derives from Persian Timurid domes, and the finial with lotus leaf base is derived from Hindu temples.[32] The Gol Gumbaz, or Round Dome, is one of the largest masonry domes in the world. It has an internal diameter of 41.15 meters and a height of 54.25 meters.[193] The dome was the most technically advanced built in the Deccan.[194] The last major Islamic tomb built in India
India
was the tomb of Safdar Jang (1753–54). The central dome is reportedly triple-shelled, with two relatively flat inner brick domes and an outer bulbous marble dome, although it may actually be that the marble and second brick domes are joined everywhere but under the lotus leaf finial at the top.[195] Early modern period
Early modern period
domes[edit] Main article: History of early modern period domes

The dome of St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
in London

In the early sixteenth century, the lantern of the Italian dome spread to Germany, gradually adopting the bulbous cupola from the Netherlands.[196] Russian architecture
Russian architecture
strongly influenced the many bulbous domes of the wooden churches of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Silesia
Silesia
and, in Bavaria, bulbous domes less resemble Dutch models than Russian ones. Domes like these gained in popularity in central and southern Germany and in Austria in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly in the Baroque
Baroque
style, and influenced many bulbous cupolas in Poland and Eastern Europe in the Baroque
Baroque
period. However, many bulbous domes in eastern Europe were replaced over time in the larger cities during the second half of the eighteenth century in favor of hemispherical or stilted cupolas in the French or Italian styles.[197] The construction of domes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries relied primarily on empirical techniques and oral traditions rather than the architectural treatises of the times, which avoided practical details. This was adequate for domes up to medium size, with diameters in the range of 12 to 20 meters. Materials were considered homogeneous and rigid, with compression taken into account and elasticity ignored. The weight of materials and the size of the dome were the key references. Lateral tensions in a dome were counteracted with horizontal rings of iron, stone, or wood incorporated into the structure.[198] Over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, developments in mathematics and the study of statics led to a more precise formalization of the ideas of the traditional constructive practices of arches and vaults, and there was a diffusion of studies on the most stable form for these structures: the catenary curve.[72] Robert Hooke, who first articulated that a thin arch was comparable to an inverted hanging chain, may have advised Wren on how to achieve the crossing dome of St. Paul's Cathedral. Wren's structural system became the standard for large domes well into the 19th century.[199] The ribs in Guarino Guarini's San Lorenzo and Il Sidone were shaped as catenary arches.[200] The idea of a large oculus in a solid dome revealing a second dome originated with him.[201] He also established the oval dome as a reconciliation of the longitudinal plan church favored by the liturgy of the Counter-Reformation and the centralized plan favored by idealists.[202] Because of the imprecision of oval domes in the Rococo
Rococo
period, drums were problematic and the domes instead often rested directly on arches or pendentives.[203] In the eighteenth century, the study of dome structures changed radically, with domes being considered as a composition of smaller elements, each subject to mathematical and mechanical laws and easier to analyse individually, rather than being considered as whole units unto themselves.[72] Although never very popular in domestic settings, domes were used in a number of 18th century homes built in the Neo-Classical style.[204] In the United States, most public buildings in the late 18th century were only distinguishable from private residences because they featured cupolas.[205] Modern period domes[edit] Main article: History of modern period domes

Geodesic
Geodesic
domes of the Eden Project
Eden Project
in United Kingdom

The historicism of the 19th century led to many domes being re-translations of the great domes of the past, rather than further stylistic developments, especially in sacred architecture.[206] New production techniques allowed for cast iron and wrought iron to be produced both in larger quantities and at relatively low prices during the Industrial Revolution. Russia, which had large supplies of iron, has some of the earliest examples of iron's architectural use.[207] Excluding those that simply imitated multi-shell masonry, metal framed domes such as the elliptical dome of Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in London (57 to 67 meters in diameter) and the circular dome of the Halle au Blé in Paris may represent the century's chief development of the simple domed form.[208] Cast-iron domes were particularly popular in France.[180] The practice of building rotating domes for housing large telescopes was begun in the 19th century, with early examples using papier-mâché to minimize weight.[209] Unique glass domes springing straight from ground level were used for hothouses and winter gardens.[210] Elaborate covered shopping arcades included large glazed domes at their cross intersections.[211] The large domes of the 19th century included exhibition buildings and functional structures such as gasometers and locomotive sheds.[212] The "first fully triangulated framed dome" was built in Berlin in 1863 by Johann Wilhelm Schwedler and, by the start of the 20th century, similarly triangulated frame domes had become fairly common.[213][214] Vladimir Shukhov
Vladimir Shukhov
was also an early pioneer of what would later be called gridshell structures and in 1897 he employed them in domed exhibit pavilions at the All-Russia Industrial and Art Exhibition.[214] Domes built with steel and concrete were able to achieve very large spans.[180] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Guastavino family, a father and son team who worked on the eastern seaboard of the United States, further developed the masonry dome, using tiles set flat against the surface of the curve and fast-setting Portland cement, which allowed mild steel bar to be used to counteract tension forces.[215] The thin domical shell was further developed with the construction by Walther Bauersfeld of two planetarium domes in Jena, Germany in the early 1920s. They consisting of a triangulated frame of light steel bars and mesh covered by a thin layer of concrete.[216] These are generally taken to be the first modern architectural thin shells.[217] These are also considered the first geodesic domes.[65] Geodesic
Geodesic
domes have been used for radar enclosures, greenhouses, housing, and weather stations.[218] Architectural shells had their heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, peaking in popularity shortly before the widespread adoption of computers and the finite element method of structural analysis.[219] The first permanent air supported membrane domes were the radar domes designed and built by Walter Bird after World War II. Their low cost eventually led to the development of permanent versions using teflon-coated fiberglass and by 1985 the majority of the domed stadiums around the world used this system.[220] Tensegrity
Tensegrity
domes, patented by Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
in 1962, are membrane structures consisting of radial trusses made from steel cables under tension with vertical steel pipes spreading the cables into the truss form. They have been made circular, elliptical, and other shapes to cover stadiums from Korea to Florida.[221] Tension membrane design has depended upon computers, and the increasing availability of powerful computers resulted in many developments being made in the last three decades of the 20th century.[222] The higher expense of rigid large span domes made them relatively rare, although rigidly moving panels is the most popular system for sports stadiums with retractable roofing.[223][224] See also[edit]

Architecture portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Domes.

Cupola Vault (architecture) Rotunda (architecture) Monolithic dome List of celebrated domes List of world's largest domes List of Domes in France Copper domes Helix Dome
Dome
car

References[edit]

^ Smith 1950, p. 5. ^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 301. ^ Dodge 1984, p. 265-266. ^ Huerta 2007, p. 212. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hourihane 2012, p. 302. ^ Wright 2009, p. 179-180, 188. ^ a b Dumser 2010, p. 436. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 203. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 114. ^ Technical 1872, p. 252. ^ a b Ching 2011, p. 63. ^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 242. ^ a b Robison 1991, p. 395. ^ Gye 1988, p. 141-142. ^ Fernández & Hernández-Ros 1989. ^ Rovero & Tonietti 2012, p. 183. ^ Blockley 2014, p. 22. ^ Larson & Tyas 2003, p. 32, 38. ^ Gye 1988, p. 142. ^ a b c d e f g Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127. ^ a b Nuttgens 1997, p. 123. ^ a b Ward 1915, p. 2. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 419. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 329. ^ Dodge 1984, p. 271-276, 279. ^ a b c Catholic. ^ a b Fletcher. ^ a b Kayili, p. 9. ^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 13. ^ Baumann & Haggh 1990, p. 208-209. ^ Baumann & Haggh 1990, p. 202. ^ a b c d e f Peterson 1996, p. 68. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 121. ^ MacDonald 1958, p. 2-3, 7. ^ Kuban 1987, p. 73. ^ Giustina 2003, p. 1037. ^ Denny 2010, p. 139. ^ Minke 2012, p. 57-59, 127. ^ Smith 1950, p. 51-53. ^ Grupico 2011, p. 3, 8. ^ Smith 1950, p. 53. ^ Smith 1950, p. 53-56, 79. ^ Grabar 1963, p. 195, 197. ^ Höcker 2000, p. 181, 183. ^ Dror 2011, p. 163. ^ Wright 2009, p. 188. ^ a b c Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-18. ^ Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-18, 24-19. ^ Ramaswamy & Eekhout 2002, p. 141. ^ Chen & Lui 2005, p. 24-2, 24-18. ^ Saka 2007, p. 595. ^ a b Moffett, Fazio & Wodehouse 2003. ^ a b Dodge 1984, p. 273. ^ Newman & Pevnser 1972, p. 527. ^ Dien 2007, p. 80. ^ Ward 1915, p. 9. ^ a b Hourihane 2012, p. 303. ^ Dodge 1984, p. 268. ^ Sear 1983, p. 79. ^ Como 2013, p. 320. ^ Kern. ^ Karydis 2012, p. 362-363. ^ Hassan & Mazloomi 2010, p. 105. ^ Fuentes & Huerta 2010, p. 346-352. ^ a b c Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 131. ^ Ambrose & Tripeny 2011, p. 36. ^ Denny 2010, p. 140. ^ Smith 1950, p. 8, 9. ^ Hamilton 1983, p. 42. ^ Born 1944, p. 220-221. ^ Huerta 2007, p. 231. ^ a b c Bagliani 2009. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 127, 463. ^ Fleming, Honour & Pevsner 1991, p. 462. ^ Dodge 1984, p. 274. ^ Burckhardt 1987, p. 58. ^ a b Dodge 1984, p. 263. ^ Gye 1988, p. 142-143. ^ a b c d Yaghan 2003, p. 69. ^ Krautheimer 1980, p. 121, 132. ^ Ward 1915, p. 116-117. ^ Hitchcock. ^ Palmer, Pettitt & Bahn 2005, p. 24. ^ Wilkie & Morelli 2000. ^ Crandall 2000, p. 34-35. ^ Creswell 1915a, p. 155. ^ Hill 1996, p. 69. ^ Smith 1950, p. 6. ^ Leick 2003, p. 64. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 116. ^ Smith 1950, p. 81-82. ^ a b Grabar 1963, p. 194. ^ Grabar 1963, p. 192. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 99. ^ Spiers 1911, p. 957. ^ a b c d e O'Kane 1995. ^ Creswell 1915a, p. 148. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 113. ^ Grabar 1963, p. 192-194. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 102, 104, 105, 113. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 105, 110. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 106. ^ Ashkan & Ahmad 2009, p. 102, 108–109. ^ Kuiper 2011, p. 266-267. ^ Dien 2007, p. 79-80. ^ a b Needham & Gwei-Djen 1962, p. 167. ^ lcsd 2014. ^ Tsan-wing & Kin-wah 2001, p. 294. ^ Dien 2007, p. 79. ^ Lehmann 1945, p. 247, 254–255. ^ Smith 1950, p. 9. ^ a b Lehmann 1945, p. 249. ^ Winter 2006, p. 130. ^ Lancaster 2005, p. 49. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 77. ^ Lehmann 1945, p. 255. ^ Lancaster 2005, p. 46, 50. ^ Johnson 2009. ^ McClendon 2005, p. 16. ^ Lancaster 2005, p. 161. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 238. ^ Smith 1950, p. 56. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 239. ^ Spiers 1911, p. 958. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 203, 242. ^ Freely & Çakmak 2004, p. 90-93, 95–96. ^ a b Ousterhout 2008b, p. 358. ^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 202. ^ a b Krautheimer 1986, p. 340. ^ Darling 2004, p. xliii. ^ Rosser 2011, p. 137. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 379. ^ Ousterhout 2008a, p. 214. ^ Wittkower 1963, p. 185. ^ Smith 1950, p. 43. ^ Arce 2006, p. 209. ^ Bloom & Blair 2009, p. 111-112. ^ Born 1944, p. 208. ^ a b Krautheimer 1986, p. 402. ^ Dupré 2001, p. 5. ^ Bullough 1991, p. 57, 89. ^ Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 60. ^ Krautheimer 1986, p. 405. ^ Fuentes & Huerta 2010, p. 346-347. ^ Kuban 1985, p. 2-4. ^ Kuiper 2011, p. 165. ^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 172. ^ Porter 1928, p. 48. ^ Jeffery 2010, p. 72. ^ Howard 1991, p. 65, 67. ^ Stewart 2008, p. 202. ^ a b Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 174. ^ Cipriani & Lau 2006, p. 696, 698. ^ Hillenbrand 1994, p. 318. ^ Born 1944, p. 209. ^ Born 1944, p. 209-213. ^ Kies. ^ skypalace. ^ Zagraevsky. ^ galteh. ^ Hassan, Mazloomi & Omer 2010, p. 125-127. ^ a b Kuban 1987, p. 75. ^ Kuban 1987, p. 93-94. ^ Freely 2011, p. 19-20. ^ Hassan & Mazloomi 2010, p. 107. ^ a b c Freely 2011, p. 20. ^ Freely 2011, p. 20-21. ^ Freely 2011, p. 21-22. ^ Kuban 1987, p. 84. ^ Freely 2011, p. 22. ^ Freely 2011, p. 21. ^ Kuban 1987, p. 91. ^ Freely 2011, p. 22-23. ^ Kuban 1987, p. 89. ^ Freely 2011, p. 23. ^ Schütz 2002, p. 356–357. ^ Frankl & Crossley 2000, p. 213. ^ Betts 1993, p. 5. ^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 181. ^ a b c Hourihane 2012, p. 304. ^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 175–176. ^ Betts 1993, p. 5–7. ^ a b Nuttgens 1997, p. 184. ^ Huerta 2007, p. 230–232. ^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 187–189. ^ Melaragno 1991, p. 73. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1941, 1943–1944. ^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 157. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1944, 1946–1947. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1948. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1944, 1948–1949. ^ Peterson 1996, p. 200. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1949-1950. ^ Michell & Zebrowski 1987, p. 15. ^ Tappin 2003, p. 1950-1951. ^ Born 1944, p. 214-215. ^ Born 1944, p. 218-220. ^ Fusco & Villanni 2003, p. 580-581. ^ Mark & Billington 1989, p. 314-315. ^ Nuttgens 1997, p. 210. ^ Wittkower 1999, p. 48. ^ Earls 1971, p. 128. ^ Earls 1971, p. 135-36. ^ Palmer 2009, p. 92-93. ^ Allen 2001, p. 13. ^ Stephenson, Hammond & Davi 2005, p. 190. ^ Gayle & Gayle 1998, p. 13-14, 18, 26. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 241. ^ Lippincott 2008, p. 26. ^ Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991, p. 126-127. ^ Coleman 2006, p. 32. ^ Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991, p. 126. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 171. ^ a b Dimčić 2011, p. 8. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 129. ^ Mainstone 2001, p. 134. ^ Bradshaw et al., p. 693. ^ Langmead & Garnaut 2001, p. 131-132. ^ Bradshaw et al., p. 693-694, 697. ^ Bradshaw et al., p. 701-702. ^ Levy & Salvadori 2002, p. 322-323. ^ Bradshaw et al., p. 700, 703. ^ Charlier. ^ Friedman & Farkas 2011, p. 49.

Bibliography[edit]

William C. Allen (2001), Senate Document 106-29: History of the United States Capitol: A Chronicle of Design, Construction, and Politics, U.S. Government Printing Office  Ambrose, James; Tripeny, Patrick (2011). Building Structures (illustrated ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-54260-6.  Arce, Ignacio (2006), " Umayyad
Umayyad
Arches, Vaults & Domes: Merging and Re-creation. Contributions to Early Islamic Construction History (conference paper)" (PDF), Second International Congress on Construction History, Queens' College, Cambridge University; 29/03-02/04/2006, pp. 195–220  Ashkan, Maryam; Ahmad, Yahaya (November 2009). "Persian Domes: History, Morphology, and Typologies". Archnet-IJAR (International Journal of Architectural Research). 3 (3): 98–115.  Bagliani, Stefano (May 2009). "The Architecture and Mechanics of Elliptical Domes" (PDF). Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Construction History, Cottbus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-16.  Bardill, Jonathan (2008). "Chapter II.7.1: Building Materials and Techniques". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haldon, John; Cormack, Robin. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine
Byzantine
Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925246-6.  Barnish, S. J. B. (2007). The Ostrogoths from the Migration Period to the Sixth Century: an Ethnographic Perspective (Illustrated ed.). Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-074-0.  Baumann, Dorothea; Haggh, Barbara (May 1990). "Musical Acoustics in the Middle Ages". Early Music. 18 (2): 199–210. doi:10.1093/em/xviii.2.199.  Betts, Richard J. (March 1993). "Structural Innovation and Structural Design in Renaissance
Renaissance
Architecture". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 52 (1): 5–25. doi:10.2307/990755. JSTOR 990755.  Blockley, David (2014). Structural Engineering: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-19-165208-0.  Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S., eds. (2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.  Born, Wolfgang (April 1944). "The Introduction of the Bulbous Dome into Gothic Architecture and its Subsequent Development". Speculum. Medieval Academy of America. 19 (2): 208–221. doi:10.2307/2849071. JSTOR 2849071.  Bradshaw, Richard; Campbell, David; Gargari, Mousa; Mirmiran, Amir; Tripeny, Patrick (June 1, 2002). " Special
Special
Structures: Past, Present, and Future" (PDF). Journal of Structural Engineering. Madrid: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 128 (6). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:6(691).  Bullough, Donald A. (1991). Carolingian Renewal: Sources and Heritage. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3354-4.  Burckhardt, Jacob (1987). Murray, Peter, ed. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Translated by James Palmes (illustrated, reprint ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-08049-9.  The Technical Educator: an Encyclopædia of Technical Education: Vol. 2. Cassell, Petter and Galpin. 1872.  Charlier, Claude (1988), "After a While, Nothing Seems Strange in a Stadium with a 'Lid'", Smithsonian, retrieved February 28, 2013  Chen, W. F.; Lui, E. M. (2005). Handbook of Structural Engineering (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 1768. ISBN 978-1-420-03993-1.  Ching, Francis D. K. (2011). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture (2nd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-118-16049-7.  Cipriani, Barbara; Lau, Wanda W. (2006), "Construction Techniques in Medieval Cairo: the Domes of Mamluk Mausolea (1250 A.D.-1517 A.D.)" (PDF), Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Construction History, Cambridge, UK, pp. 695–716  Coleman, Peter (2006). Shopping Environments (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-750-66001-3.  Como, Mario (2013). Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-30131-5.  Crandall, David P. (2000). The Place of Stunted Ironwood Trees: A Year in the Lives of the Cattle-herding Himba of Namibia. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN 978-0-82641-270-6.  Creswell, K. A. C. (January 1915). "Persian Domes before 1400 A.D.". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd. 26 (142): 146–155. JSTOR 859853.  Darling, Janina K. (2004). Architecture of Greece. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32152-8.  Denny, Mark (2010). Super Structures: The Science of Bridges, Buildings, Dams, and Other Feats of Engineering. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9436-7.  Dien, Albert E. (2007). Six Dynasties Civilization (Illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07404-8.  Dimčić, Miloš (2011). "Structural Optimization of Grid Shells Based on Genetic Algorithms". Forschungsbericht 32 (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Tragkonstruktionen und Konstruktives Entwerfen. ISBN 978-3-922302-32-2.  Dodge, Hazel (1984). Building Materials and Techniques in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Hellenistic Period to the Fourth Century AD (PhD Thesis ed.). Newcastle University.  Dror, Ben-Yosef (2011). "Area F – Soundings in the Fortifications". In Zertal, Adam. El-Ahwat, A Fortified Site from the Early Iron Age Near Nahal 'Iron, Israel: Excavations 1993–2000. BRILL. pp. 162–173. ISBN 978-9-004-17645-4.  Dumser, Elisha Ann (2010). "Dome". In Gagarin, Michael; Fantham, Elaine. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 436–438. ISBN 978-0-195-17072-6.  Earls, Michael W. (1971). "The Development of Structural Form in Franconian Rococo". In Malo, Paul. Essays to D. Kenneth Sargent. Syracuse, New York: The School of Architecture, Syracuse University. pp. 127–139.  Fernández, Santiago Huerta; Hernández-Ros, Ricardo Aroca (1989). "Masonry Domes: A Study on Proportion and Similarity" (PDF). 10 Years of Progress on Shell and Spatial Structures: 11–15 September 1989. Madrid: Cedex-Laboratorio Central de Estructuras y Materiales. 1. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  Fleming, John; Honour, Hugh; Pevsner, Nikolaus, eds. (1991). Dictionary of Architecture (4th ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051241-1.  Fletcher, Sir Banister (1996). Dan Cruickshank, ed. Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture (illustrated, reprint, 20th revised ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2267-7.  Frankl, Paul; Crossley, Paul (2000). Gothic Architecture (illustrated, revised ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08799-4.  Freely, John; Çakmak, Ahmet S. (2004). Byzantine
Byzantine
Monuments of Istanbul. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77257-5.  Freely, John (2011). A History of Ottoman Architecture. WIT Press. ISBN 978-1-84564-506-9.  Friedman, Noémi; Farkas, György (2011). "Roof Structures in Motion: On Retractable and Deployable Roof Structures Enabling Quick Construction or Adaptation to External Excitations" (PDF). Concrete Structures. pp. 41–50.  Fuentes, P.; Huerta, S. (2010). "Islamic Domes of Crossed-arches: Origin, Geometry and Structural Behavior". In Chen, Baochun; Wei, Jiangang. ARCH'10 – 6th International Conference on Arch
Arch
Bridges, October 11–13, 2010 (PDF). Fuzhou, Fujian, China. pp. 346–353. ISBN 978-953-7621-10-0.  Fusco, Annarosa Cerutti; Villanni, Marcello (2003). "Pietro da Cortona's Domes between New Experimentations and Construction Knowledge". In Huerta, S. Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, 20th–24th January 2003 (PDF). Madrid: I. Juan de Herrera. pp. 579–591. ISBN 84-9728-070-9.  The history of galvanotechnology in Russia
Russia
(Russian), archived from the original on 2012-03-05  Gayle, Margot; Gayle, Carol (1998). Cast-iron architecture in America: the significance of James Bogardus (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-73015-9.  Giustina, Irene (2003), "On the art and the culture of domes. Construction in Milan
Milan
and Lombardy in the late sixteenth and in the first half of the seventeenth century" (PDF), Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Historia de la Construcción, pp. 1033–1042  Grabar, Oleg (December 1963). "The Islamic Dome, Some Considerations". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 22 (4): 191–198. doi:10.2307/988190.  Grabar, Oleg (March 1990). "From Dome
Dome
of Heaven to Pleasure Dome". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. University of California Press. 49 (1): 15–21. doi:10.2307/990496. JSTOR 990496.  Grupico, Theresa (2011). "The Dome
Dome
in Christian and Islamic Sacred Architecture" (PDF). The Forum on Public Policy. The Forum on Public Policy. 2011 (3): 14. Retrieved November 16, 2014.  Gye, D. H. (1988). "Arches and Domes in Iranian Islamic Buildings: An Engineer's Perspective". Iran. British Institute of Persian Studies. 26: 129–144. doi:10.2307/4299807. JSTOR 4299807.  Hamilton, George Heard (1983). The Art and Architecture of Russia (illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05327-2.  Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Mazloomi, Mehrdad; Omer, Spahic (2010). "Sectional Analysis of Pendentive
Pendentive
Dome
Dome
Mosques During Ottoman Era" (PDF). Canadian Social Science. 6 (5): 124–136. Retrieved February 22, 2015.  Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Mazloomi, Mehrdad (December 2010). "The Importance of Plan Unit Design with Reference to Pedentive Dome
Dome
Mosque Architecture in Early Ottoman Period in Balkan Region and Anatolia". Review of European Studies. 2 (2): 105–116. doi:10.5539/res.v2n2p105.  Hill, Donald Routledge (1996). A history of engineering in classical and medieval times (Illustrated ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15291-4.  Hillenbrand, Robert (1994). Islamic Architecture: Form, Function, and Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10133-3.  Hitchcock, Don, Mezhirich
Mezhirich
Mammoth
Mammoth
Camp, retrieved August 15, 2009  Höcker, Christoph (2000). Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 978-1-856-69159-8.  Hourihane, Colum, ed. (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5.  Howard, Deborah (1991). " Venice
Venice
and Islam
Islam
in the Middle Ages: Some Observations on the Question of Architectural Influence". Architectural History. SAHGB Publications Limited. 34: 59–74. doi:10.2307/1568594. JSTOR 1568594.  Huerta, Santigo (2007). " Oval
Oval
Domes: History, Geometry and Mechanics" (PDF). Nexus Network Journal. SAHGB Publications Limited. 9 (2): 211–248. doi:10.1007/978-3-7643-8699-3_4.  Jeffery, George (2010). A Brief Description of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Other Christian Churches in the Holy City: With Some Account of the Mediaeval Copies of the Holy Sepulchre Surviving in Europe (reprint (1919) ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-01604-9.  Johnson, Mark J. (2009). The Roman Imperial Mausoleum in Late Antiquity (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51371-5.  Karydis, Nikolaos D. (2012). "The Early Byzantine
Byzantine
Domed Basilicas of West Asia Minor. An Essay in Graphic Reconstruction" (PDF). Late Antique Archaeology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, NV. 9 (1): 357–381. doi:10.1163/22134522-12340013. Retrieved May 29, 2015.  Kayili, Mutbul (2005). "Acoustic Solutions in Classic Ottoman Architecture" (PDF). Publication ID 4087. FSTC (Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation) Limited: 1–15.  Kern, Chris, Jefferson's Dome
Dome
at Monticello, retrieved July 14, 2009  Kies, Lisa, Russian Church Design, archived from the original on July 1, 2012, retrieved February 14, 2014  Kohlmaier, Georg; Von Sartory, Barna (1991). Houses of Glass: a Nineteenth-Century Building Type. Translated by John C. Harvey (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61070-4.  Krautheimer, Richard (1980). "Success and Failure in Late Antique Church Planning". In Weitzmann, Kurt. Age of Spirituality: A Symposium. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 121–140. ISBN 0-87099-229-5.  Krautheimer, Richard (1986). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (4 ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05294-7.  Kruft, Hanno-Walter (1994). History of Architectural Theory (illustrated, reprint ed.). Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-568-98010-2.  Kuban, Doğan (1985). Muslim Religious Architecture, Part II. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07084-2.  Kuban, Doğan (1987). "The Style of Sinan's Domed Structures". Muqarnas. 4: 72–97. doi:10.2307/1523097. JSTOR 1523097.  Kuiper, Kathleen (2011). The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.  Lancaster, Lynne C. (2005). Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84202-0.  Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats (3rd ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-112-0.  Larson, Olga Popovic; Tyas, Andy (2003). Conceptual Structural Design: Bridging the Gap Between Architects and Engineers (illustrated, reprint ed.). Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-72773-235-4.  Lehmann, Karl (1945), "The Dome
Dome
of Heaven", in Kleinbauer, W. Eugène, Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of Twentieth-Century Writings on the Visual Arts (Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching), 25, University of Toronto Press (published 1989), pp. 227–270, ISBN 0-8020-6708-5  Leick, Gwendolyn, ed. (2003), "Dome", A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture, London and New York: Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-203-19965-7  Hong Kong Museum of History: Branch Museums: "Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb", Leisure and Cultural Services Department, January 9, 2014, retrieved February 3, 2014  Levy, Matthys; Salvadori, Mario (2002). Why buildings Fall Down: How Structures Fail (illustrated, reprint ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31152-5.  Lippincott, Kristen (2008). DK Eyewitness Books: Astronomy. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-756-64349-2.  Lucore, Sandra K. (2009), "Archimedes, the North Baths at Morgantina, and Early Developments in Vaulted Construction", in Kosso, Cynthia; Scott, Anne, The nature and function of water, baths, bathing, and hygiene from antiquity through the Renaissance, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, pp. 43–59, ISBN 978-9-004-17357-6  MacDonald, William (1958). "Some Implications of Later Roman Construction". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Oakland, California: University of California Press. 17 (4): 2–8. JSTOR 987944.  Mainstone, Rowland J. (2001). Developments in Structural Form (2 ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-5451-7.  Marche, Jordan (2005). Theaters of Time and Space: American Planetaria, 1930–1970. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-813-53766-5.  Mark, Robert; Billington, David P. (1989). "Structural Imperative and the Origin of New Form". Technology and Culture. : The Johns Hopkins University Press and the Society for the History of Technology. 30 (2): 300–329. doi:10.2307/3105106. JSTOR 3105106.  Marrucchi, Giulia; Belcari, Riccardo (2007). Art of the Middle Ages: Masterpieces in Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7607-8887-5.  McClendon, Charles B. (2005). The Origins of Medieval Architecture: Building in Europe, A.D 600–900 (illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10688-6.  McVey, Kathleen E. (1983). "The Domed Church as Microcosm: Literary Roots of an Architectural Symbol". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks. 37: 91–121. doi:10.2307/1291479.  Melaragno, Michele G. (1991). An Introduction to Shell Structures: the Art and Science of Vaulting (softcover ed.). New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 978-1-4757-0225-5.  Michell, George; Zebrowski, Mark (1987). The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56321-5.  Miller, Judith; Clinch, Tim (1998). Classic Style (illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84997-3.  Minke, Gernot (2012). Building with Earth: Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture (3rd; revised ed.). Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-034-60872-5.  Mitchell, James H. (1985). "The Noble Dome". The Antioch Review. Antioch Review, Inc. 43 (3): 261–271. doi:10.2307/4611482. JSTOR 4611482.  Moffett, Marian; Fazio, Michael W.; Wodehouse, Lawrence (2003). A World History of Architecture (illustrated ed.). London: Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 978-1-856-69371-4.  Needham, Joseph; Gwei-Djen, Lu (1962). Science and Civilisation in China: Physics and Physical Technology, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-07060-7.  "The Catholic Encyclopedia". New Advent. Retrieved October 26, 2010.  Newman, John; Pevnser, Nikolaus, eds. (1972). The Buildings of England: Dorset. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09598-2.  Nuttgens, Patrick (1997). The Story of Architecture. Hong Kong: Phaidon Press Limited. ISBN 0-7148-3616-8.  Ochsendork, John; Freeman, Michael (2010). Guastavino Vaulting: The Art of Structural Tile (illustrated ed.). Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-741-5.  O'Kane, Bernard (1995), Domes, Encyclopædia Iranica, retrieved November 28, 2010  Ousterhout, Robert G. (2008). Master Builders of Byzantium (paperback ed.). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 978-1-934536-03-2.  Ousterhout, Robert (2008). "Chapter II.7.2: Churches and Monasteries". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Haldon, John; Cormack, Robin. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine
Byzantine
Studies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925246-6.  Overy, R. J. (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia
Russia
(illustrated ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.  Palmer, Douglas; Pettitt, Paul; Bahn, Paul G. (2005). Unearthing the past: the great archaeological discoveries that have changed history (Illustrated ed.). Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-1-59228-718-5.  Palmer, Allison Lee (2009). The A to Z of Architecture. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-87058-1.  Peterson, Andrew (1996). The Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-20387-9.  Pevsner, Nikolaus (1978). Derbyshire. Revised by Elizabeth Williamson (illustrated, reprint ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-140-71008-3.  Porter, Arthur Kingsley (1928). Spanish Romanesque Sculpture, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Hacker Art Books.  Ramaswany, G. S.; Eekhout, Mick (2002). Analysis, Design and Construction of Steel Space Frames (illustrated, reprint ed.). London, UK: Thomas Telford, Ltd. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-727-73014-5.  Rasch, Jürgen (1985). "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion". Architectura. 15: 117–139.  Rizzoni, Giovanni (2009). "The Form of Parliaments & European Identity". In Rorato, Laura; Saunders, Anna. The Essence and the Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary European Culture. The Netherlands: Rodopi. pp. 183–198. ISBN 978-9-042-02571-4.  Robison, Elwin C. (December 1991). "Optics and Mathematics in the Domed Churches of Guarino Guarini". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. University of California Press. 50 (4): 384–401. doi:10.2307/990663.  Rosser, John H. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Byzantium (2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-810-87477-0.  Rovero, L.; Tonietti, U. (2012). "Structural behaviour of earthen corbelled domes in the Aleppo's region". Materials and Structures. Springer Science+Business Media. 45: 171–184. doi:10.1617/s11527-011-9758-1.  Saka, M. P. (2007). "Optimum geometry design of geodesic domes using harmony search algorithm". Advances in Structural Engineering. 10 (6): 595–606.  Schütz, Bernhard (2002). Great Cathedrals (illustrated ed.). Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0-810-93297-5.  Sear, Frank (1983). Roman Architecture (revised ed.). Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9245-7.  Skempton, A. W. (2002). A biographical dictionary of civil engineers in Great Britain and Ireland: 1500–1830 (illustrated ed.). Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-7277-2939-2.  About Russian Domes and Cupolas, skypalace.org, archived from the original on 2011-07-28  Smith, Earl Baldwin (1950). The Dome: A Study in the History of Ideas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03875-9.  Spiers, R. Phené (1911), "Vault", in Chisholm, Hugh, The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information. Eleventh Edition., 27, Cambridge, England: University Press, pp. 956–961  Stephenson, Davis; Hammond, Victoria; Davi, Keith F. (2005). Visions of Heaven: the Dome
Dome
in European Architecture (illustrated ed.). Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-549-7.  Stewart, Charles Anthony (2008). Domes of Heaven: The Domed Basilicas of Cyprus (illustrated ed.). ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-75556-2.  Tabbaa, Yasser (1985). "The Muqarnas
Muqarnas
Dome: Its Origin and Meaning". Muqarnas. BRILL. 3: 61–74. doi:10.2307/1523084.  Tappin, Stuart (2003). "The Structural Development of Masonry Domes in India". In Huerta, S. Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, 20th–24th January 2003 (PDF). Madrid: I. Juan de Herrera. pp. 1941–1952. ISBN 84-9728-070-9. [permanent dead link] Tsan-wing, NG; Kin-wah, LEUNG (2001). "Deformation Survey for the Preservation of Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb". The 10th FIG International Symposium on Deformation Measurements. Session VIII: Structural Deformations. 19 – 22 March 2001 (PDF). Orange, California, USA. pp. 294–301. ISBN 978-0-86078-686-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2004.  Wallis, Kendall (2010). "Bearing Bandmann's Meaning: A Translator's Introduction by Kendall Willis". In Bandmann, Günter. Early Medieval Architecture as Bearer of Meaning. Translated by Kendall Wallis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50172-9.  Ward, Clarence (1915). Mediaeval Church Vaulting (illustrated ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-404-06836-3.  Wilkie, David S.; Morelli, Gilda A. (2000). "Forest Foragers: A Day in the Life of Efe Pygmies in the Democratic Republic of Congo". Cultural Survival Quarterly. Cambridge, MA: Cultural Survival, Inc. 24 (3). Retrieved December 7, 2010.  Winter, Frederick E. (2006). Studies in Hellenistic Architecture (illustrated ed.). Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-3914-9.  Wittkower, Rudolf (1963), "S. Maria della Salute: Scenographic Architecture and the Venetian Baroque", in Kleinbauer, W. Eugène, Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of Twentieth-Century Writings on the Visual Arts (Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching), 25, University of Toronto Press (published 1989), pp. 165–192, ISBN 0-8020-6708-5  Wittkower, Rudolf (1999). Art and Architecture in Italy 1600–1750: III. Late Baroque. Revised by Joseph Conners and Jennifer Montagu (6th ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07941-8.  Wright, G.R.H. (2009). Ancient Building Technology, Volume 3: Construction (2 Vols) (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-9-004-17745-1.  Yaghan, Mohammad Ali Jalal (2003). "Gadrooned-Dome's Muqarnas-Corbel: Analysis and Decoding Historical Drawings". Architectural Science Review. 46 (1): 69–88. doi:10.1080/00038628.2003.9696966.  Zagraevsky, Sergey, The shapes of domes of ancient Russian churches (Russian), RusArch.ru, archived from the original on 2013-01-16 

v t e

Islamic architecture

categories

Arabic architecture Berber architecture Iranian architecture Islamic architecture Mughal architecture Ottoman architecture

styles

Abbasid Anatolia
Anatolia
Beyliks Ayyubid Azeri Bengali Chinese Fatimid Indo-Islamic Indonesian / Malaysian Isfahani Khorasani Mamluk Modern Moorish Moroccan Mudéjar Mughal Ottoman Pakistani Razi Seljuk Somali Sudano-Sahelian Tatar Timurid Umayyad Vernacular Persian Yemenite

elements

structural

Ablaq Chahartaq Chhajja Hasht-Bihisht Hypostyle Iwan Jharokha Kucheh Liwan Mashrabiya Moroccan riad Qadad Riwaq Sahn Semi-dome Shabestan Squinch Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Windcatcher

Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem

arch styles

Discharging arch Four-centred arch Horseshoe arch Multifoil arch Ogee
Ogee
arch Pointed arch

roof styles

Dome
Dome
(Arabic dome / Onion dome
Onion dome
/ Persian dome / South Asian dome) Guldasta Tajug

religious objects

Bedug Dikka Gonbad Hussainiya Imamzadeh Kiswah Loudspeakers Maqsurah Mihrab Minaret Minbar Müezzin mahfili Qibla Zarih

decorations

Alfiz Arabesque Banna'i Girih Girih
Girih
tiles Islamic calligraphy Islamic geometric patterns Islamic interlace patterns Jali Mocárabe Mosque
Mosque
lamp Muqarnas Nagash painting Qashani Shabaka Socarrat Yeseria Zellige

rooms

Andaruni Harem Qa’a Zenana

garden

Bagh Charbagh Islamic garden Mughal gardens Ottoman gardens Paradise garden Persian gardens Reflecting pool

outdoor objects

Chhatri Eidgah Howz Shading Umbrellas Mechouar Sebil Shadirvan

types

religious

Dargah Gongbei Jama Masjid Jama'at Khana Khanqah Külliye Madrasa Maqam Maqbara Mazar Mosque Musalla Qubba Rauza Surau Tekyeh Türbe Zawiya

civilian

Baradari Bazaar Caravanserai Dar al-Shifa Ghorfa Kasbah Mahal Medina quarter Souq Turkish bath Well house

military

Albarrana tower Alcazaba Alcázar Amsar Bab Kasbah Ksar Qalat Ribat

resources

Aga Khan Award for Architecture ArchNet

influences

Indo-Saracenic Revival Influences on Western architecture Moorish Revival

Part of Islamic arts

Authority control

LCCN: sh85038905 GND: 4166190-4 BNF: cb119318943 (data) B

.