HOME
The Info List - Doha


--- Advertisement ---



Doha
Doha
(Arabic: الدوحة‎, ad-Dawḥa or ad-Dōḥa, pronounced [adˈdawħa]) is the capital city and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha
Doha
has a population of 1,351,000 in a city proper with the population close to 1.5 million.[1] The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
in the east of the country. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 50% of the nation's population living in Doha
Doha
or its surrounding suburbs, and it is also the economic centre of the country. Doha
Doha
was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda. It was officially declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate.[2] As the commercial capital of Qatar
Qatar
and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha
Doha
is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha
Doha
accommodates Education City, an area devoted to research and education. The city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
negotiations. It was also selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games
2011 Pan Arab Games
and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup. In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha.[3] Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. In May 2015, Doha
Doha
was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, La Paz, Durban, Havana, Beirut
Beirut
and Kuala Lumpur.[4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Establishment of Al Bidda 2.2 Formation of Doha 2.3 Arrival of Al Thani 2.4 20th century 2.5 Post-independence

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity and languages 4.2 Religion

5 Administration

5.1 Districts

6 Economy 7 Infrastructure

7.1 Architecture 7.2 Atmosphere 7.3 Planned communities

8 Transportation 9 Education 10 Sports

10.1 Football 10.2 Basketball 10.3 Volleyball 10.4 Other sports 10.5 Stadiums and sport complexes

11 Culture

11.1 Arts 11.2 Media 11.3 Film

12 Twin towns and sister cities 13 Gallery 14 See also 15 References 16 External links

Etymology[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The name "Doha" may have originated from the Arabic
Arabic
Ad-Dawḥa, "the big tree".[5] The reference might be to a prominent tree that stood at the site where the original fishing village arose, on the eastern coast of the Qatar
Qatar
peninsula. Alternatively, it may have been derived from "dohat" — Arabic
Arabic
for bay or gulf — referring to the Doha
Doha
Bay area surrounding the Corniche.[6][not in citation given] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Doha and Al Bidda

Satellite view of Doha

Establishment of Al Bidda[edit] The city of Doha
Doha
was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda
Al Bidda
was made in 1681, by the Carmelite
Carmelite
Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda
Al Bidda
are alluded to.[7][8] Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as 'Guttur'.[7][9] David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda
Al Bidda
in 1801. He refers to the town as 'Bedih' and describes the geography and defensive structures in the area.[10] He stated that the town had recently been settled by the Sudan
Sudan
tribe (Al-Suwaidi), whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat
Muscat
upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance.[11][12] In 1820, British surveyor R.H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town. He wrote:[11][13]

Guttur – Or Ul Budee [Al‐Bidda], once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries [forts] near the sea shore; but containing no fresh water they are incapable of defence except against sudden incursions of Bedouins, another Ghurry is situated two miles inland and has fresh water with it. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, and if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men.

The same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company
East India Company
and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
settlements (some of which were later known as the Trucial Coast). It acknowledged British authority in the Persian Gulf and sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain
Bahrain
became a party to the treaty, and it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain
Bahrain
by the British, was also a party to it.[14] Qatar, however, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag.[15] As punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company
East India Company
vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast.[16] Formation of Doha[edit] Doha
Doha
was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda
Al Bidda
sometime during the 1820s.[17] In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, who was also the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe.[17][18] MacLeod noted that Al Bidda
Al Bidda
was the only substantial trading port in the peninsula during this time. Following the founding of Doha, written records often conflated Al Bidda
Al Bidda
and Doha
Doha
due to the extremely close proximity of the two settlements.[17] Later that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements. Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda
Al Bidda
in the written description.[19][20]

Al Bidda: View from the bay, 1823

In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy. He had murdered a native of Bahrain, prompting the Al Khalifa sheikh to imprison him. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit
Fuwayrit
and Ar Ru'ays. This incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town.[21][22] With essentially no effective ruler, Al Bidda
Al Bidda
and Doha
Doha
became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws.[23] In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A.H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan
Sudan
tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and also arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir and his associates. Despite the compliance, the British demanded a fine of 300 German krones in compensation for the damages incurred by pirates off the coast of Al Bidda; namely for the piracies committed by bin Jabir. In February 1841, British naval squadrons arrived in Al Bidda
Al Bidda
and ordered Al-Suwaidi to meet the British demand, threatening consequences if he declined. Al-Suwaidi ultimately declined on the basis that he was uninvolved in bin Jabir's actions. On 26 February, the British fired on Al Bidda, striking a fort and several houses. Al-Suwaidi then paid the fine in full following threats of further action by the British.[23][24] Isa bin Tarif, a powerful tribal chief from the Al Bin Ali tribe, moved to Doha
Doha
in May 1843. He subsequently evicted the ruling Sudan tribe and installed the Al-Maadeed and Al-Kuwari tribes in positions of power.[25] Bin Tarif had been loyal to the Al Khalifa, however, shortly after the swearing in of a new ruler in Bahrain, bin Tarif grew increasingly suspicious of the ruling Al Khalifa and switched his allegiance to the deposed ruler of Bahrain, Abdullah bin Khalifa, whom he had previously assisted in deposing of. Bin Tarif died in the Battle of Fuwayrit
Fuwayrit
against the ruling family of Bahrain
Bahrain
in 1847.[25] Arrival of Al Thani[edit] The Al Thani migrated to Doha
Doha
from Fuwayrit
Fuwayrit
shortly after Bin Tarif's death in 1847 under the leadership of Mohammed bin Thani.[26][27] In the proceeding years, the Al Thani assumed control of the town. At various times, they swapped allegiances between the two prevailing powers in the area: the Al Khalifa and the Saudis.[26] In 1867, a large number of ships and troops were sent from Bahrain
Bahrain
to assault the towns Al Wakrah
Al Wakrah
and Doha
Doha
over a series of disputes. Abu Dhabi joined on Bahrain's behalf due to the conception that Al Wakrah served as a refuge for fugitives from Oman. Later that year, the combined forces sacked the two Qatari
Qatari
towns with around 2,700 men in what would come to be known as the Qatari–Bahraini War.[28][29] A British record later stated "that the towns of Doha
Doha
and Wakrah were, at the end of 1867 temporarily blotted out of existence, the houses being dismantled and the inhabitants deported".[30]

Doha
Doha
in January 1904

The joint Bahraini- Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
incursion and subsequent Qatari counterattack prompted the British political agent, Colonel Lewis Pelly, to impose a settlement in 1868. Pelly's mission to Bahrain
Bahrain
and Qatar
Qatar
and the peace treaty that resulted were milestones in Qatar's history. It implicitly recognized the distinctness of Qatar
Qatar
from Bahrain
Bahrain
and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani as an important representative of the peninsula's tribes.[31]

Doha's coastline in 1904

Shortly after the war, the Ottomans took up a rather nominal control of the country, constructing a base in Doha, with the acquiescence of Jassim Al Thani who wished to consolidate his control of the area. Prior to this, the town of Doha
Doha
served as a stronghold for Bedouin fighters who resisted Ottoman rule.[32] By December 1871, Jassim Al Thani authorized the Ottomans to send 100 troops and equipment to Al Bidda.[33] Major Ömer Bey compiled a report on Al Bidda
Al Bidda
in January 1872, stating that it was an "administrative centre" with around 1,000 houses and 4,000 inhabitants.[34] Disagreement over tribute and interference in internal affairs arose, eventually leading to the Battle of Al Wajbah in March 1893. Al Bidda fort served as the final point of retreat for Ottoman troops. While they were garrisoned in the fort, their corvette fired indiscriminately at the townspeople, killing a number of civilians.[35] The Ottomans eventually surrendered after Jassim Al Thani's troops cut off the town's water supply.[36] An Ottoman report compiled the same year reported that Al Bidda
Al Bidda
and Doha
Doha
had a combined population of 6,000 inhabitants, jointly referring to both towns by the name of 'Katar'. Doha
Doha
was classified as the eastern section of Katar.[34][37] The Ottomans held a passive role in Qatar's politics from the 1890s onward until fully relinquishing control during the beginning of the first World War.[14] 20th century[edit]

An old district in Doha

Pearling had come to play a pivotal commercial role in Doha
Doha
by the 20th century. The population increased to around 12,000 inhabitants in the first half of the 20th century due to the flourishing pearl trade.[38] A British political resident noted that should the supply of pearls drop, Qatar
Qatar
would 'practically cease to exist'.[39] In 1907, the city accommodated 350 pearling boats with a combined crew size of 6,300 men. By this time, the average prices of pearls had more than doubled since 1877.[40] The pearl market collapsed that year, forcing Jassim Al Thani to sell the country's pearl harvest at half its value. The aftermath of the collapse resulted in the establishment of the country's first custom house in Doha.[39] In April 1913, the Ottomans agreed to a British request that they withdraw all their troops from Qatar. Ottoman presence in the peninsula ceased, when in August 1915, the Ottoman fort in Al Bidda was evacuated shortly after the start of World War I.[41] One year later, Qatar
Qatar
agreed to be a British protectorate with Doha
Doha
as its official capital.[42][43] Buildings at the time were simple dwellings of one or two rooms, built from mud, stone and coral. Oil
Oil
concessions in the 1920s and 1930s, and subsequent oil drilling in 1939, heralded the beginning of slow economic and social progress in the country. However, revenues were somewhat diminished due to the devaluation of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
brought on by introduction of the cultured pearl and the Great Depression.[44] The collapse of the pearl trade caused a significant population drop throughout the entire country.[38] It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the country saw significant monetary returns from oil drilling.[14]

Doha
Doha
in the 1980s

Qatar
Qatar
was not long in exploiting the new-found wealth from oil concessions, and slum areas were quickly razed to be replaced by more modern buildings. The first formal boys' school was established in Doha
Doha
in 1952, followed three years later by the establishment of a girls' school.[45] Historically, Doha
Doha
had been a commercial port of local significance. However, the shallow water of the bay prevented bigger ships from entering the port until the 1970s, when its deep-water port was completed. Further changes followed with extensive land reclamation, which led to the development of the crescent-shaped bay.[46] From the 1950s to 1970s, the population of Doha
Doha
grew from around 14,000 inhabitants to over 83,000, with foreign immigrants constituting about two-thirds of the overall population.[47] Post-independence[edit] Qatar
Qatar
officially declared its independence in 1971, with Doha
Doha
as its capital city.[2] In 1973, the University of Qatar
Qatar
was opened by emiri decree,[48] and in 1975 the Qatar
Qatar
National Museum opened in what was originally the ruler's palace.[49] During the 1970s, all old neighborhoods in Doha
Doha
were razed and the inhabitants moved to new suburban developments, such as Al Rayyan, Madinat Khalifa and Al Gharafa. The metropolitan area's population grew from 89,000 in the 1970s to over 434,000 in 1997. Additionally, land policies resulted in the total land area increasing to over 7,100 hectares by 1995, an increase from 130 hectares in the middle of the 20th century.[50]

Recent developments in Doha

In 1983, a hotel and conference center was developed at the north end of the Corniche. The 15-storey Sheraton hotel structure in this center would serve as the tallest structure in Doha
Doha
until the 1990s.[50] In 1993, the Qatar
Qatar
Open became the first major sports event to be hosted in the city.[51] Two years later, Qatar
Qatar
stepped in to host the FIFA World Youth Championship, with all the matches being played in Doha-based stadiums.[52]

Doha's West Bay area in 2015

The Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Arabic
Arabic
news channel began broadcasting from Doha
Doha
in 1996.[53] In the late 1990s, the government planned the construction of Education City, a 2,500 hectare Doha-based complex mainly for educational institutes.[54] Since the start of the 21st century, Doha attained significant media attention due to the hosting of several global events and the inauguration of a number of architectural mega-projects.[55] One of the largest projects launched by the government was The Pearl-Qatar, an artificial island off the coast of West Bay, which launched its first district in 2004.[56] In 2006, Doha was selected to host the Asian Games, leading to the development of a 250-hectare sporting complex known as Aspire Zone.[51] During this time, new cultural attractions were constructed in the city, with older ones being restored. In 2006, the government launched a restoration program to preserve Souq Waqif's architectural and historical identity. Parts constructed after the 1950s were demolished whereas older structures were refurbished. The restoration was completed in 2008.[57] Katara Cultural Village was opened in the city in 2010 and has hosted the Doha Tribeca Film Festival since then.[58] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Qatar

View of Doha
Doha
from the International Space Station, 2010

Doha
Doha
is located on the central-east portion of Qatar, bordered by the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
on its coast. Its elevation is 10 m (33 ft).[59] Doha
Doha
is highly urbanized. Land reclamation
Land reclamation
off the coast has added 400 hectares of land and 30 km of coastline.[60] Half of the 22 km² of surface area which Hamad International Airport was constructed on was reclaimed land.[61] The geology of Doha is primarily composed of weathered unconformity on the top of the Eocene
Eocene
period Dammam Formation, forming dolomitic limestone.[62]

The Pearl, a man-made island off the coast of Doha

The Pearl is an artificial island in Doha
Doha
with a surface area of nearly 400 ha (1,000 acres)[63] The total project has been estimated to cost $15 billion upon completion.[64] Other islands off Doha's coast include Palm Tree Island, Shrao's Island, Al Safia Island, and Alia Island.[65] Climate[edit] Doha
Doha
has a hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh). Summer is very long, from May to September, when its average high temperatures surpass 38 °C (100 °F) and often approach 45 °C (113 °F). Humidity is usually the lowest in May and June. Dewpoints can surpass 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Throughout the summer, the city averages almost no precipitation, and less than 20 mm (0.79 in) during other months.[66] Rainfall is scarce, at a total of 75 mm (2.95 in) per year, falling on isolated days mostly between October to March. Winters are cool and the temperature rarely drops below 7 °C (45 °F).[67]

Climate data for Doha
Doha
(1962–2013, extremes 1962–2013)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.2 (88.2) 36.0 (96.8) 39.0 (102.2) 46.0 (114.8) 47.7 (117.9) 49.0 (120.2) 50.4 (122.7) 48.3 (118.9) 45.5 (113.9) 43.4 (110.1) 38.0 (100.4) 32.7 (90.9) 50.4 (122.7)

Average high °C (°F) 22.0 (71.6) 23.4 (74.1) 27.3 (81.1) 32.5 (90.5) 38.8 (101.8) 41.6 (106.9) 41.9 (107.4) 40.9 (105.6) 38.9 (102) 35.4 (95.7) 29.6 (85.3) 24.4 (75.9) 33.05 (91.49)

Daily mean °C (°F) 17.5 (63.5) 18.5 (65.3) 21.7 (71.1) 26.4 (79.5) 31.8 (89.2) 34.5 (94.1) 35.3 (95.5) 34.8 (94.6) 32.8 (91) 29.5 (85.1) 24.6 (76.3) 19.6 (67.3) 27.3 (81.1)

Average low °C (°F) 13.5 (56.3) 14.4 (57.9) 17.3 (63.1) 21.4 (70.5) 26.1 (79) 28.5 (83.3) 30.2 (86.4) 30.0 (86) 27.7 (81.9) 24.6 (76.3) 20.4 (68.7) 15.6 (60.1) 22.5 (72.5)

Record low °C (°F) 3.8 (38.8) 5.0 (41) 8.2 (46.8) 10.5 (50.9) 15.2 (59.4) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 22.4 (72.3) 20.3 (68.5) 16.6 (61.9) 11.8 (53.2) 6.4 (43.5) 3.8 (38.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.2 (0.52) 17.1 (0.673) 16.1 (0.634) 8.7 (0.343) 3.6 (0.142) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.1 (0.043) 3.3 (0.13) 12.1 (0.476) 75.2 (2.961)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.1 1.8 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.3 8.8

Average relative humidity (%) 71 70 63 52 44 41 49 55 62 63 66 71 59

Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9 224.0 241.8 273.0 325.5 342.0 325.5 328.6 306.0 303.8 276.0 241.8 3,432.9

Mean daily sunshine hours 7.9 8.0 7.8 9.1 10.5 11.4 10.5 10.6 10.2 9.8 9.2 7.8 9.4

Source #1: NOAA[67]

Source #2: Qatar
Qatar
Meteorological Department (Climate Normals 1962–2013)[68]

Doha
Doha
mean sea temperature[69]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

20.5 °C (68.9 °F) 19.1 °C (66.4 °F) 20.9 °C (69.6 °F) 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) 28.2 °C (82.8 °F) 30.9 °C (87.6 °F) 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) 33.1 °C (91.6 °F) 31.0 °C (87.8 °F) 27.4 °C (81.3 °F) 23.1 °C (73.6 °F)

Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Qatar

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1820[11] 250 —    

1893[34] 6,000 +2300.0%

1970[70] 80,000 +1233.3%

1986[2] 217,294 +171.6%

2001[71] 299,300 +37.7%

2004[2] 339,847 +13.5%

2005[72][73] 400,051 +17.7%

2010[74] 796,947 +99.2%

Total population of the Doha
Doha
metropolitan area[75]

Year Metro population

1997 434,000[50]

2004 644,000[76]

2008 998,651[77]

A significant portion of Qatar's population resides within the confines of Doha
Doha
and its metropolitan area.[78] The district with the highest population density is the central area of Al Najada, which also accommodates the highest total population in the country. The population density across the greater Doha
Doha
region ranges from 20,000 people per km² to 25 people per km².[79] Ethnicity and languages[edit] The population of Doha
Doha
is overwhelmingly composed of expatriates, with Qatari
Qatari
nationals forming a minority. The largest portion of expatriates in Qatar
Qatar
are from South-East and South Asian countries, mainly India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines, and Bangladesh with large numbers of expatriates also coming from the Levant
Levant
Arab countries, North Africa, and East Asia. Doha
Doha
is also home to a large number of expatriates from Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia.[80]

Bilingual
Bilingual
traffic sign in Doha

Arabic
Arabic
is the official language of Qatar. English is commonly used as a second language,[81] and a rising lingua franca, especially in commerce.[82] As there is a large expatriate population in Doha, languages such as Malayalam, Tagalog, Spanish, French, Urdu and Hindi are widely spoken.[80] In 2004, the Foreign Ownership of Real Estate Law was passed, permitting non- Qatari
Qatari
citizens to buy land in designated areas of Doha, including the West Bay Lagoon, the Qatar
Qatar
Pearl, and the new Lusail
Lusail
City.[55] Prior to this, expatriates were prohibited from owning land in Qatar. Ownership by foreigners in Qatar
Qatar
entitles them to a renewable residency permit, which allows them to live and work in Qatar.[78]

Registered live births in Doha
Doha
by nationality[75][83]

Year Qatari Non-Qatari Total

2001 2,080 3,619 5,699

2002 1,875 3,657 5,532

2003 2,172 4,027 6,199

2004 2,054 3,760 5,814

2005 1,767 3,899 5,666

2006 1,908 4,116 6,024

2007 1,913 4,708 6,621

2008 1,850 5,283 7,133

2009 2,141 5,979 8,120

2010[84] 1,671 5,919 7,590

2011[85] 1,859 6,580 8,439

Each month, thousands immigrate to Qatar, and as a result, Doha
Doha
has witnessed explosive growth rates in population. Doha's population currently stands at around one million,[77] with the population of the city more than doubling from 2000 to 2010. Due to the high influx of expatriates, the Qatari
Qatari
housing market saw a shortage of supply which led to a rise in prices and increased inflation. The gap in the housing market between supply and demand has narrowed, however, and property prices have fallen in some areas following a period which saw rents triple in some areas.[86] According to Qatar
Qatar
Chamber, expatriate workers have remitted $60bn between 2006 and 2012. 54 percent of the workers' remittances of $60bn were routed to Asian countries, followed by Arab
Arab
nations that accounted for nearly half that volume (28 percent). India
India
was the top destination of the remittances, followed by the Philippines, while the US, Egypt
Egypt
and the neighbouring UAE trailed.[87] Religion[edit] The majority of residents in Doha
Doha
are Muslim.[88] Catholics account for over 90% of the 150,000 Christian population in Doha.[89] Following decrees by the Emir
Emir
for the allocation of land to churches, the first Catholic church, Our Lady of the Rosary, was opened in Doha in March 2008. The church structure is discreet and Christian symbols are not displayed on the outside of the building.[90] Several other churches exist in Doha, including the [1] St.Isaac and St. George Greek Orthodox Church of Qatar
Qatar
the Syro-Malabar Church, Malankara Orthodox Church, Mar Thoma Church (affiliated with the Anglicans, but not part of the Communion), CSI Church, Syro-Malankara Church and a Pentecostal church. A majority of mosques are either Muwahhid or Sunni-oriented.[91] Administration[edit] Districts[edit] Main article: List of communities in Doha At the turn of the 20th century, Doha
Doha
was divided into 9 main districts.[92] In the 2010 census, there were more than 60 districts recorded in Doha
Doha
Municipality.[93] Some of the districts of Doha include:

Doha's Al Dafna
Al Dafna
area

Al Bidda
Al Bidda
(البدع) Al Dafna
Al Dafna
(الدفنة) Al Ghanim
Al Ghanim
(الغانم) Al Markhiya (المرخية) Al Sadd (السد) Al Waab
Al Waab
(الوعب) Bin Mahmoud
Bin Mahmoud
(فريج بن محمود) Madinat Khalifa (مدينة خليفة) Musheireb (مشيرب) Najma (نجمه) Old Airport (المطار القديم) Qutaifiya (القطيفية) Ras Abu Aboud
Ras Abu Aboud
(راس أبو عبود) Rumeilah (الرميلة) Umm Ghuwailina (ام غو يلينه) West Bay (الخليج الغربي)

Shortly after Qatar
Qatar
gained independence, many of the districts of old Doha
Doha
including Al Najada, Al Asmakh and Old Al Hitmi
Al Hitmi
faced gradual decline and as a result much of their historical architecture has been demolished.[94] Instead, the government shifted their focus toward the Doha Bay
Doha Bay
area, which housed districts such as Al Dafna
Al Dafna
and West Bay.[94] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Qatar

Commercial district in Doha

Doha
Doha
is the economic centre of Qatar. The city is the headquarters of numerous domestic and international organizations, including the country's largest oil and gas companies, Qatar
Qatar
Petroleum, Qatargas
Qatargas
and RasGas. Doha's economy is built primarily on the revenue the country has made from its oil and natural gas industries.[95] Beginning in the late 20th century, the government launched numerous initiatives to diversify the country's economy in order to decrease its dependence on oil and gas resources. Doha
Doha
International Airport was constructed in a bid to solidify the city's diversification into the tourism industry.[95] This was replaced by Hamad International Airport in 2014. The new airport is almost twice the size of the former and features two of the longest runways in the world.[96] As a result of Doha's rapid population boom and increased housing demands, real estate prices have raised significantly.[97] Real estate prices experienced a further spike after Qatar
Qatar
won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[98] Al Asmakh, a Qatari
Qatari
real estate firm, released a report in 2014 which revealed substantial increases in real estate prices following a peak in 2008. Prices increased 5 to 10% in the first quarter of 2014 from the end of 2013.[97][99] A 2015 study conducted by Numbeo, a crowd-sourced database, named Doha
Doha
as the 10th most expensive city to live in globally.[100] This rate of growth has led to the development of planned communities in and around the city.[101] Thirty-nine new hotels were under construction in 2011.[102] Doha
Doha
was included in Fortune's 15 best new cities for business in 2011.[103] Infrastructure[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Qatar Architecture[edit]

Museum of Islamic Arts Park in West Bay, Doha

Most traditional architecture in the Old Doha
Doha
districts have been demolished to make space for new buildings.[94] As a result, a number of schemes have been taken to preserve the city's cultural and architectural heritage, such as the Qatar
Qatar
Museums Authority's 'Al Turath al Hai' ('living heritage') initiative.[104] Katara Cultural Village is a small village in Doha
Doha
launched by sheikh Tamim Al Thani to preserve the cultural identity of the country.[105]

Skyline of Doha
Doha
near the Doha
Doha
Corniche

In 2011, more than 50 towers were under construction in Doha,[102] the largest of which was the Doha
Doha
Convention Center Tower.[106] Constructions were suspended in 2012 following concerns that the tower would impede flight traffic.[107] In 2014, Abdullah Al Attiyah, a senior government official, announced that Qatar
Qatar
would be spending $65bn on new infrastructure projects in upcoming years in preparation for the 2022 World Cup as well as progressing towards its objectives set out in the Qatar
Qatar
National Vision 2030.[108] Atmosphere[edit] Due to excessive heat from the sun during the summer, some Doha-based building companies have implemented various forms of cooling technology to alleviate the extremely torrid climatic conditions. This can include creating optical phenomena such as shadows, as well as more expensive techniques like ventilation, coolants, refrigerants, cryogenics, and dehumidifiers.[109] Discussions regarding temperature control have also been features of various scheduled events involving large crowds.[110] There are other initiatives that attempt to counter the heat by altering working hours, weather alteration methods such as cloud seeding,[111][112] and using whiter and brighter construction materials to increase the albedo effects.[113] Nonetheless, despite these measures, Doha
Doha
and other areas of Qatar
Qatar
could become uninhabitable for humans due to climate change by the 2070s.[114]

Al Waab
Al Waab
City

Planned communities[edit] One of the largest projects underway in Qatar
Qatar
is Lusail
Lusail
City, a planned community north of Doha
Doha
which is estimated to be completed by 2020 at a cost of approximately $45bn. It is designed to accommodate 450,000 people.[115] Al Waab
Al Waab
City, another planned community under development, is estimated to cost QR15 bn.[116] In addition to housing 8,000 individuals, it will also have shopping malls, educational, and medical facilities.[116] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Doha

Dukhan Highway

Since 2004, Doha
Doha
has been undergoing a huge expansion to its transportation network, including the addition of new highways, the opening of a new airport in 2014, and the currently ongoing construction of an 85 km metro system. This has all been as a result of Doha's massive growth in a short period of time, which has resulted in congestion on its roads. The first phase of the metro system is expected to be operational by 2019.[117] In 2015, the Public Works Authority declared their plan to construct a free-flowing road directly linking Al-Wakrah
Al-Wakrah
and Mesaieed
Mesaieed
to Doha
Doha
in order to decrease traffic congestion in the city. It is set for completion by 2018.[118]

Education[edit] See also: Education in Qatar, Education City, and List of schools in Qatar

Education City

Doha
Doha
is the educational center of the country and contains the highest preponderance of schools and colleges.[70] In 1952, the first formal boys' school was opened in Doha. This was proceeded by the opening of the first formal girls' school three years later.[119] The first university in the state, Qatar
Qatar
University, was opened in 1973.[120] It provided separate faculties for both men and women.[121] Education City, a 14 km2 education complex launched by non-profit organization Qatar
Qatar
Foundation, began construction in 2000.[122] It houses eight universities, the country's top high school, and offices for Al Jazeera's children television channel.[122] In 2009, the government launched the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE), a global forum that brings together education stakeholders, opinion leaders and decision makers from all over the world to discuss educational issues.[123] The first edition was held in Doha
Doha
in November 2009.[124] Some of the universities in Doha
Doha
include:

Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar Hamad Bin Khalifa University Cornell University[125] Harvard University[125] Yale University[125] HEC Paris Northwestern University in Qatar Texas A&M University at Qatar UCL Qatar[126] Virginia Commonwealth University Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar CHN University College of the North Atlantic Qatar
Qatar
University Qatar
Qatar
Faculty of Islamic Studies University of Calgary

Sports[edit] Football[edit] Football is the most popular sport in Doha. There are six Doha-based sports clubs with football teams currently competing in the Qatar Stars League, the country's top football league. They are Al Ahli, Al Arabi, Al Sadd, Al Sailiya, Al-Duhail and Qatar
Qatar
SC.[127] Al Sadd, Al Arabi and Qatar
Qatar
SC are the three most successful teams in the league's history.[128] Numerous football tournaments have been hosted in Doha. The most prestigious tournaments include the 1988 and 2011 editions of the AFC Asian Cup[129] and the 1995 FIFA World Youth Championship.[52] In December 2010, Qatar
Qatar
won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[130] Three of the nine newly announced stadiums will be constructed in Doha, including Sports City Stadium, Doha
Doha
Port Stadium, and Qatar
Qatar
University Stadium. Additionally, the Khalifa International Stadium is set to undergo an expansion.[131] Basketball[edit] Doha
Doha
was the host of the official 2005 FIBA Asia Championship, where Qatar's national basketball team
Qatar's national basketball team
finished 3rd, its best performance to date, and subsequently qualified for the Basketball World Cup.[132] The majority of the teams that make up the official Qatari
Qatari
Basketball League are based in Doha. Volleyball[edit] Doha
Doha
four times was the host of the official FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Doha
Doha
one time Host Asian Volleyball Championship.[133] Other sports[edit] In 2001, Qatar
Qatar
became the first country in the Middle East
Middle East
to hold a women's tennis tournament: Qatar
Qatar
holds both the Qatar
Qatar
Open for Women and the ladies ITF (International Tennis Federation) tournament. Since 2008, the Sony Ericsson Championships (equivalent to the ATP's season-ending Championships) has taken place in Doha, in the Khalifa International Tennis Complex, and features record prize money of $4.45 million, including a check of $1,485,000 for the winner, which represents the largest single guaranteed payout in women's tennis.[134]

Powerboat races in Doha
Doha
Bay

Doha
Doha
hosted the 15th Asian Games, held in December 2006, spending a total of $2.8 billion for its preparation.[135] The city also hosted the 3rd West Asian Games in December 2005.[136] Doha
Doha
was expected to host the 2011 Asian Indoor Games; but the Qatar
Qatar
Olympic Committee cancelled the event.[137] The city submitted a bid for the 2016 Olympics.[138] On June 4, 2008, the city was eliminated from the shortlist for the 2016 Olympic Games. On August 26, 2011 it was confirmed that Doha
Doha
would bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[139] Doha
Doha
however failed to become a Candidate City for the 2020 Games.[140] The MotoGP
MotoGP
motorcycling grand prix of Doha
Doha
is held annually at Losail International Circuit, located just outside the city boundaries.[141] The city is also the location of the Grand Prix of Qatar
Qatar
for the F1 Powerboat World Championship, annually hosting a round in Doha Bay.[142] Beginning in November 2009, Doha
Doha
has been host of The Oryx Cup World Championship, a hydroplane boat race in the H1 Unlimited season. The races take place in Doha
Doha
Bay.[143] In April 2012 Doha
Doha
was awarded the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships[144] and the 2012 World Squash Championships.[145] Stadiums and sport complexes[edit]

An indoor stadium in Aspire Academy

Aspire Academy
Aspire Academy
was launched in 2004 with the aim of creating world-class athletes. It is situated in the Doha Sports City
Doha Sports City
Complex, which also accommodates the Khalifa International Stadium, the Hamad Aquatic Centre, the Aspire Tower and the Aspire Dome. The latter has hosted more than 50 sporting events since its inception, including some events during the 2006 Asian Games.[146] Sporting venues in Doha
Doha
and its suburbs include:

Hamad bin Khalifa Stadium – Al-Ahli Stadium Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium
Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium
(Al Sadd Stadium) Al-Arabi Stadium – Grand Hamad Stadium Hamad Aquatic Centre Khalifa International Stadium
Khalifa International Stadium
– Main venue for the 2006 Asian Games. Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex Qatar
Qatar
Sports Club Stadium

Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Qatar

The Museum of Islamic Art in Doha

Doha
Doha
was chosen as the Arab
Arab
Capital of Culture in 2010.[147] Cultural weeks organized by the Ministry of Culture, which featured both Arab and non- Arab
Arab
cultures, were held in Doha
Doha
from April to June to celebrate the city's selection.[148] Arts[edit] The Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the best museums in the region.[149] This, and several other Qatari museums located in the city, like the Arab
Arab
Museum of Modern Art, falls under the Qatar
Qatar
Museums Authority (QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the sister of the emir of Qatar.[150]

Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Arabic
Arabic
Building

Media[edit] Qatar's first radio station, Mosque Radio, began broadcasting in the 1960s from Doha.[151] The multinational media conglomerate Al Jazeera Media Network is based in Doha
Doha
with its wide variety of channels of which Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Arabic, Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
English, Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Documentary Channel, Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Mubasher, beIN Sports Arabia and other operations are based in the TV Roundabout in the city.[152] Al-Kass Sports Channel's headquarters is also located in Doha.[153] Film[edit] The Doha Film Institute (DFI) is an organisation established in 2010 to oversee film initiatives and create a sustainable film industry in Qatar. DFI was founded by H.E. Sheikha Al Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani.[154] The Doha Tribeca Film Festival (DTFF), partnered with the American-based Tribeca Film Festival, was held annually in Doha
Doha
from 2009 to 2012.[155] Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Tirana, Albania[citation needed] Algiers, Algeria[citation needed] Amman, Jordan
Jordan
(since 1995)[citation needed] Beijing, China
China
(since 2008)[156] Bosaso, Somalia
Somalia
(since 1994)[citation needed] Manama, Bahrain[citation needed] Marbella, Spain[citation needed] Port Louis, Mauritius[citation needed] Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom[citation needed] Tbilisi, Georgia (since 2012)[citation needed] Tunis, Tunisia[citation needed]

Gallery[edit] Click on the thumbnail to enlarge.

Street in Souq Waqif, Doha

Old minaret next to Souq Waqif

Camels next to Al Koot Fort

Doha
Doha
Marina, shot in 2007

Emiri Diwan, Al Bidda

Post-modern buildings in Doha

Msheireb Enrichment Centre moored off Doha
Doha
Corniche

Aspire Park, Al Waab

Doha
Doha
skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art

Doha
Doha
skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art

Doha
Doha
skyline at night

Doha
Doha
Corniche

Al Bidda
Al Bidda
Park

Aerial view of Doha

Suburbs
Suburbs
in Doha

See also[edit]

Doha
Doha
Declaration Doha Development Round
Doha Development Round
of World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) talks Qatar
Qatar
National Day which is held in Doha
Doha
every year on December 18

References[edit]

^ a b " Doha
Doha
municipality accounts for 40% of Qatar
Qatar
population". Gulf Times. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2015.  ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Britannica. " Doha
Doha
– Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "Welcome to the 20th World Petroleum Congress". 20wpc.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ Tejada, Ariel Paolo (9 May 2015). " Vigan
Vigan
declared 'Wonder City'". Manila: The Philippine STAR. Retrieved 19 September 2015.  ^ Graham, Helga (1978). Arabian time machine: self-portrait of an oil state. William Heinemann Ltd. p. 26. ISBN 978-0434303502. The word Doha
Doha
itself is said to mean 'the place of the big tree', as eloquent a comment as any on the sparsity of the vegetation in Qatar, indeed throughout the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
generally, in former times.  ^ Fahmy, Heba (4 April 2015). "What's in a name? The meanings of Qatar districts, explained". Doha
Doha
News. Retrieved 6 April 2015.  ^ a b "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 1. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Billecocq, Xavier Beguin (2003). Le Qatar
Qatar
et les Français: cinq siècles de récits de voyage et de textes d'érudition. Collection Relations Internationales & Culture. ISBN 9782915273007.  ^ Rahman, Habibur (2006). The Emergence Of Qatar. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 978-0710312136.  ^ Carter, Robert. "Origins of Doha
Doha
Season 1 Archive Report". academia.edu. p. 11. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ a b c "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 2. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Al-Qasimi, Sultan Mohammed (1995). The journals of David Seton in the Gulf 1800-1809. Exeter University Press.  ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 36. ^ a b c Toth, Anthony. "Qatar: Historical Background." A Country Study: Qatar
Qatar
(Helen Chapin Metz, editor). Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Federal Research Division (January 1993). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 3. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ "'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [793] (948/1782)". qdl.qa. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ a b c "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 4. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 63. ^ "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 5. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Brucks, G.B. (1985). Memoir descriptive of the Navigation of the Gulf of Persia in R.H. Thomas (ed) Selections from the records of the Bombay Government No XXIV (1829). New York: Oleander press.  ^ Zahlan, Rosemarie Said (1979). The creation of Qatar
Qatar
(print ed.). Barnes & Noble Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-0064979658.  ^ "'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [794] (949/1782)". qdl.qa. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ a b "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ H. Rahman (2006), pp. 90–92. ^ a b "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 6. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ a b "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 7. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ "Line of succession: The Al Thani rule in Qatar". Gulf News. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ "'A collection of treaties, engagements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries [...] Vol XI containing the treaties, & c., relating to Aden and the south western coast of Arabia, the Arab principalities in the Persian Gulf, Muscat
Muscat
(Oman), Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Province' [113v] (235/822)". Qatar
Qatar
Digital Library. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ "' File
File
19/243 IV Zubarah' [8r] (15/322)". Qatar
Qatar
Digital Library. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ "'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [801] (956/1782)". Qatar
Qatar
Digital Library. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 123. ^ H. Rahman (2006), pp. 138–139. ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 140. ^ a b c Kurşun, Zekeriya (2002). The Ottomans in Qatar : a history of Anglo-Ottoman conflicts in the Persian Gulf. Istanbul : Isis Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 9789754282139.  ^ Zahlan, Rosemarie Said (1979). The creation of Qatar
Qatar
(print ed.). Barnes & Noble Books. p. 53. ISBN 978-0064979658.  ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 152. ^ "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 11. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ a b Florian Wiedmann, Ashraf M. Salama, Alain Thierstein. "Urban evolution of the city of Doha: an investigation into the impact of economic transformations on urban structures" (PDF). p. 38. Retrieved 14 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Althani, Mohamed (2013). Jassim the Leader: Founder of Qatar. Profile Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-1781250709.  ^ Casey, Paula; Vine, Peter (1991). The heritage of Qatar
Qatar
(print ed.). Immel Publishing. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0907151500.  ^ M. Althani (2013), p, 134. ^ H. Rahman (2006), p. 291. ^ "Historical references to Doha
Doha
and Bidda before 1850" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. p. 16. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ "Pearl Diving in Qatar". USA Today. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ Abu Saud, Abeer (1984). Qatari
Qatari
Women: Past and Present. Longman Group. p. 173. ISBN 978-0582783720.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
in perspective: an orientation guide" (PDF). Defense League Institute Foreign Language Center. 2010. p. 8.  ^ Florian Wiedmann, Ashraf M. Salama, Alain Thierstein. "Urban evolution of the city of Doha: an investigation into the impact of economic transformations on urban structures" (PDF). p. 41. Retrieved 14 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Our history". Qatar
Qatar
University. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ "Qatar's National Museum eyeing 2016 opening". Doha
Doha
News. 6 July 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ a b c Florian Wiedmann, Ashraf M. Salama, Alain Thierstein. "Urban evolution of the city of Doha: an investigation into the impact of economic transformations on urban structures" (PDF). pp. 44–45. Retrieved 14 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Florian Wiedmann, Ashraf M. Salama, Alain Thierstein. "Urban evolution of the city of Doha: an investigation into the impact of economic transformations on urban structures" (PDF). p. 47. Retrieved 14 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b "FIFA World Youth Championship Qatar
Qatar
1995 - matches". FIFA. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ "AL JAZEERA TV: The History of the Controversial Middle East
Middle East
News Station Arabic
Arabic
News Satellite Channel History of the Controversial Station". Allied-media. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ Florian Wiedmann, Ashraf M. Salama, Alain Thierstein. "Urban evolution of the city of Doha: an investigation into the impact of economic transformations on urban structures" (PDF). p. 49. Retrieved 14 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Wiedmann, Florian; Salama, Ashraf M (2013). Demystifying Doha: On Architecture and Urbanism in an Emerging City. Ashgate. ISBN 9781409466345.  ^ Khalil Hanware (21 March 2005). "Pearl- Qatar
Qatar
Towers Lure International Investors". Jeddah: Arab
Arab
News. Retrieved 11 October 2015.  ^ Exell, Karen; Rico, Trinidad (2014). Cultural Heritage in the Arabian Peninsula: Debates, Discourses and Practices. Ashgate. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4094-7009-0.  ^ Elspeth Black. "Katara: The Cultural Village". The Culture Trip. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ "Map of Doha, Qatar". Climatemps.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ "New land by the sea: Economically and socially, land reclamation pays" (PDF). International Association of Dredging Companies. p. 4. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ "DEME: Doha
Doha
Airport Built on Reclaimed Land Becomes Fully Operational". Dredging Today. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Ed Blinkhorn (April 2015). "Geophysical GPR Survey" (PDF). The Origins of Doha
Doha
Project. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Ron Gluckman (May 2008). "Artificial Islands: In Dubai, a world, and universe of new real estate". Gluckman. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ "Say Hello To Pearl Qatar
Qatar
– The World's Most Luxurious Artificial Island". Wonderful Engineering. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
islands". Online Qatar. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ " Doha
Doha
weather information". Wunderground.com. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ a b " Doha International Airport
Doha International Airport
Climate Normals 1962-1992". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 29, 2016.  ^ "Climate Information For Doha". Qatar
Qatar
Meteorological Department. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Monthly Doha
Doha
water temperature chart". Seatemperatures.org. Retrieved 2014-01-20.  ^ a b Abdulla Juma Kobaisi. "The Development of Education in Qatar, 1950–1970" (PDF). Durham University. p. 11. Retrieved 17 June 2015.  ^ "Doha". Tiscali.co.uk. 1984-02-21. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "Sheraton Doha
Doha
Hotel & Resort Hotel discount bookings in Qatar". Hotelrentalgroup.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ "hotelsdoha.eu". hotelsdoha.eu. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
population statistics". geohive.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ a b "Population statistics". Qatar
Qatar
Information Exchange. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. 2006. p. 61.  ^ a b " Doha
Doha
2016 Summer Olympic Games Bid". Gamesbids.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ a b Marco Dilenge. "Dubai and Doha: Unparalleled Expansion" (PDF). Crown Records Management UK. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ "Facts and figures". lusail.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ a b Humaira Tasnim, Abhay Valiyaveettil, Dr. Ingmar Weber, Venkata Kiran Garimella. "Socio-geographic map of Doha". Qatar
Qatar
Computing Research Institute. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual
Bilingual
Education. Multilingual Matters. p. 429. ISBN 978-1853593628.  ^ Guttenplan, D. D. (11 June 2012). "Battling to Preserve Arabic
Arabic
From English's Onslaught". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 November 2013.  ^ "WELCOME TO Qatar
Qatar
Statistics Authority WEBSITE :". Qsa.gov.qa. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Births and deaths in 2010" (PDF). Qatar
Qatar
Information Exchange. Qatar Statistics Authority. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "Births and deaths in 2011" (PDF). Qatar
Qatar
Information Exchange. Qatar Statistics Authority. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "Breaking News, UAE, GCC, Middle East, World News and Headlines - Emirates 24/7". Business24-7.ae. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Expatriates
Expatriates
Remit $60bn in 7 years".  ^ "Religious demography of Qatar" (PDF). US Department of State. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Shabina Khatri (20 June 2008). " Qatar
Qatar
opens first church, quietly". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Sonia Verma (14 March 2008). " Qatar
Qatar
hosts its first Christian church". The Times. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ Oman
Oman
Economic and Development Strategy Handbook, International Business Publications, USA - 2009, page 40 ^ Jaidah, Ibrahim; Bourennane, Malika (2010). The History of Qatari Architecture 1800-1950. Skira. p. 25. ISBN 978-8861307933.  ^ "Census 2010". Qatar
Qatar
Statistics Authority. 2010. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ a b c Djamel Bouassa. "Al Asmakh historic district in Doha, Qatar: from an urban slum to living heritage". academia.edu. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ a b Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 138. ISBN 978-1576079195. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Marco Rinaldi (5 May 2014). " Hamad International Airport
Hamad International Airport
by Hok". aasarchitecture.com. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ a b Peter Kovessy (23 June 2014). "Reports: Housing supply not keeping up with population rise". Doha
Doha
News. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Rohan Soman (13 May 2013). "Real estate prices in Qatar
Qatar
skyrocket". BQ Doha. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
Real Estate Report Q1 2014" (PDF). Al Asmakh Real Estate Firm. 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ Neha Batia (5 July 2015). " Doha
Doha
city rents are world's tenth most expensive". Construction Week Online. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "Falling oil prices and real estate markets". BQ Doha. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ a b Bullivant, Lucy (2012). Masterplanning Futures. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-0415554473.  ^ Dawsey, Josh. "Global 500 2011: 15 best new cities for business - FORTUNE on CNNMoney". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "The Winners of the Old Doha
Doha
Prize Competition Announced". Marhaba. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "About us". Katara. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ "The World's Tallest Buildings". Bloomberg. 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "Flight concerns stop 550m Doha
Doha
tower development". Construction Week Online. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ " Doha
Doha
rolling out the dough for Qatar
Qatar
infrastructure, set to launch new projects worth $65 billion". Al Bawaba. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ Air Conditioning: A Practical Introduction - Page 106, David V. Chadderton - 2014 ^ The Report: Qatar
Qatar
2012 - Page 187, Oxford Business Group ^ Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
- Page 237, 2007 ^ Sixth Conference on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification, p 307, 1977 ^ Hegazy, Ahmed (2016). Plant Ecology in the Middle East. p. 205.  ^ https://www.inverse.com/article/7472-qatar-could-become-too-hot-for-humans-just-50-years-after-the-2022-world-cup ^ Tony Manfred (22 September 2014). " Qatar
Qatar
Is Building A $45 Billion City From Scratch For The World Cup That It Might Lose". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ a b " Al Waab
Al Waab
City Phase 1 Opens". Qatar
Qatar
Today Online. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ William Skidmore (24 October 2012). "Qatar's key infrastructure projects". Construction Week Online. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ "Ashghal unveils QR10bn projects for Mesaieed
Mesaieed
and Al Wakra". The Peninsula Qatar. 9 April 2015. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ Abu Saud, Abeer (1984). Qatari
Qatari
Women: Past and Present. Longman Group. p. 173. ISBN 978-0582783720.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
University". Qatar
Qatar
e-government. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Abu Saud (1973), p. 173 ^ a b Simeon Kerr (20 October 2013). "Doha's Education City
Education City
is a boost for locals". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ " World Innovation Summit for Education
World Innovation Summit for Education
(WISE) 2014". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2015.  ^ "The 2009 World Innovation Summit for Education
World Innovation Summit for Education
(WISE) convened November 16-18, in Doha, Qatar
Qatar
under the theme "Global Education: Working Together for Sustainable Achievements"". WISE Qatar. Retrieved 25 June 2015.  ^ a b c "While U.S. universities see dollar signs in Qatari partnerships, some cry foul". Gulf News Journal. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ UCL Qatar ^ " Qatar
Qatar
Stars League 2014/2015 » Teams". worldfootball.net. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
Stars League » Champions". worldfootball.net. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " AFC Asian Cup
AFC Asian Cup
history". AFC Asian Cup. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ "2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup
2022 FIFA World Cup
Hosts Announced". BBC News. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " 2022 FIFA World Cup
2022 FIFA World Cup
Bid Evaluation Report: Qatar" (PDF). FIFA. 2010-12-05.  ^ 2005 FIBA Asia Championship, ARCHIVE.FIBA.com, Retrieved 5 June 2016. ^ Qatar
Qatar
Volleyball Association - QVA ^ ""Season to End in Doha
Doha
2008–2010" on the Sony Ericsson WTA Tour website". Sonyericssonwtatour.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ Patrick Dixon. "The Future Of Qatar
Qatar
- Rapid Growth". globalchange.com. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " Doha
Doha
2005: 3rd West Asian Games". Olympic Council of Asia. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
Participates in 4th Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games This Week". Marhaba. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ "Information on 2016 Olympic Games Bids". Gamesbids.com. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ " Doha
Doha
to bid for 2020 Olympics". Espn.go.com. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "IOC selects three cities as Candidates for the 2020 Olympic Games". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "About the circuit". MotoGP. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ "Power boats". Oryx in-flight magazine. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ "2014 Oryx Cup
Oryx Cup
Dates Announced". H1 Unlimited. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ " Doha
Doha
awarded 2014 World Short Course Swimming Championships". Insidethegames.biz. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ " Doha
Doha
picked to host 2012 World Squash Championships". Insidethegames.biz. 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "The Aspire Dome, centre stage for Doha
Doha
2010". IAAF Athletics. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2015.  ^ "Irina Bokova receives the Prize ' Doha
Doha
2010 Arab
Arab
Capital of Culture'". UNESCO. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2015.  ^ "Doha, 2010 Arab
Arab
culture capital, to host Arab
Arab
and non- Arab
Arab
cultural weeks". Habib Toumi. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2015.  ^ "Art in Qatar: A Smithsonian in the sand". The Economist. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "QMA Board of Trustees". Qatar
Qatar
Museums Authority. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger (2013). News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab
Arab
and Muslim Countries. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 31. ISBN 978-1441174666.  ^ "Company Overview of Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Media Network". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ "Al Kass Selects BFE as Integrator". finance.yahoo.com. Marketwired. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ "Article in Variety Arabia". Tradearabia.com. 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ "Whatever happened to the Qatari
Qatari
film industry?". theguardian.com. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2015.  ^ "Sister cities". eBeijing. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Doha.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Doha.

Doha
Doha
travel guide from Wikivoyage Projects in Doha
Doha
and Major Construction and Architectural Developments Information and History of Doha

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Arab
Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Capitals of Arab
Arab
countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Arab
Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Arab
Arab
Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab
Arab
Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait City
Kuwait City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

v t e

Municipalities of Qatar

Al Daayen Ad Dawhah Al Khor Al Wakrah Al Rayyan
Al Rayyan
(2015 without Al-Shahaniya) Al-Shahaniya Al Shamal Umm Salal Al-Shahaniya
Al-Shahaniya
(new in 2015)

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136649381 LCCN: n81076793 GND: 4219005-8 SELIBR: 143052 BNF:

.