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The Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
(DLR) is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England.[2][3] It reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham
Lewisham
across the River Thames, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, and east to Beckton, London City Airport, and to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal south of the river. The system uses minimal staffing on trains and at major interchange stations; the four below-ground stations are staffed to comply with underground station fire and safety requirements. Similar proposals have been made for the Tube.[4] The DLR is operated under a franchise awarded by Transport for London to KeolisAmey Docklands, a joint venture between transport operator Keolis
Keolis
and infrastructure specialists Amey plc. It was previously run for over 17 years by Serco
Serco
Docklands,[5] part of the Serco Group.[6][7] The system is owned by Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
Ltd,[8] part of the London Rail
London Rail
division of Transport for London. In 2016/17, the DLR carried 122.3 million passengers.[1] It has been extended several times and further extensions are under consideration.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins and development 1.2 Initial system (1987–1990) 1.3 First stage extensions (1991–1994) 1.4 Second stage extensions (1996–1999) 1.5 Third stage extensions and enhancements (2004–2009) 1.6 Stratford International
Stratford International
to Canning Town extension (2011)

2 Current system

2.1 Stations 2.2 Fares and ticketing 2.3 Performance 2.4 Rolling stock

2.4.1 Future rolling stock

2.5 Depots 2.6 Signalling technology

3 Recent developments

3.1 Upgrading entire system to three-car trains 3.2 Stratford International
Stratford International
extension 3.3 Relocation of Pudding Mill Lane station

4 Proposed developments

4.1 Dagenham Dock extension 4.2 Thames Wharf station 4.3 Connaught Road/Silvertown Interchange station 4.4 Victoria/Charing Cross extensions 4.5 Euston/St Pancras extension 4.6 Lewisham
Lewisham
to Catford/ Lewisham
Lewisham
to Beckenham
Beckenham
Junction extension 4.7 Lewisham
Lewisham
to Bromley North extension 4.8 Gallions Reach Crossing
Gallions Reach Crossing
& Thamesmead
Thamesmead
Extension 4.9 Replacement of Tower Gateway station
Tower Gateway station
with interchange at Tower Hill

5 Accidents and incidents

5.1 Overrun of station buffers 5.2 Collision at West India
India
Quay bridge 5.3 South Quay bombing

6 Management 7 In media 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 External links

History[edit] Origins and development[edit]

Tower Gateway station
Tower Gateway station
was the DLR's original link to central London.

The docks immediately east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised.[9] They had been connected to the national railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway (L&BR), which was closed in 1966 for lack of traffic.[10] The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex, finally rendered them redundant, and in 1980 the government gained control of the now-derelict area. As early as 1972, consideration was given to how to redevelop the moribund Docklands. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands
London Docklands
Study Team to consider the issue. They proposed, among other recommendations, that a "minitram" people-mover system capable of carrying up to 20 people in each unit should be constructed to connect the Docklands with the planned Fleet line tube railway terminus at Fenchurch Street railway station. The Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark
Southwark
and Tower Hamlets
Tower Hamlets
in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill Underground station or at Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive. Nonetheless, in 1976 another report proposed a conventional tube railway for the area and London Transport obtained Parliamentary powers to build a line from Charing Cross railway station
Charing Cross railway station
to Fenchurch Street, Surrey Docks (now Surrey Quays railway station), the Isle of Dogs, North Greenwich
Greenwich
and Custom House to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal. This was intended to be the second stage of the Fleet line – which had been renamed the Jubilee line, the first stage of which opened in 1979 from Stanmore to Charing Cross. However, when the Conservative Party came to power in May 1979 under Margaret Thatcher, the plans to extend the Jubilee line
Jubilee line
were halted and the new government insisted that a lower-cost option should be pursued.[11] The government created the London Docklands
London Docklands
Development Corporation (LDDC) in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands. The need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of exclusively light rail options. The core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London and south along the former London & Blackwall Railway line through the Isle of Dogs. Three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill, Minories and Aldgate East. The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, but this would have been a very costly venture. The Minories option, a high-level station virtually on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus.[11] Aldgate East would have been perhaps the most ambitious of all of the options, as it originally envisaged a low-level connection with the District line
District line
that would have allowed DLR trains to run on Underground tracks to a variety of central London destinations. However, it quickly became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground.[12] Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town (today's Island Gardens station) and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. A "western" route would have run from the Westferry station alongside West Ferry Road via Cuba Street, then either terminating at Tiller Road or continuing over Millwall Docks Cut to a terminus at Cubitt Town. The "central" option required the West India Docks
West India Docks
to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, through what was at the time an area of derelict warehouses.[12] Ultimately this latter option was chosen, though the 1981 London Transport report warned that without extensive development around Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
the area would be "very isolated with poor traffic prospects" – as indeed it was, for a number of years.[13] The contract for the initial system was awarded to GEC Mowlem
Mowlem
in 1984[14] and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million.[15] The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 July 1987, and passenger services began on 31 August.[14] Initial system (1987–1990)[edit]

A first generation DLR EMU crosses West India
India
Dock, September 1987.

The initial system comprised two routes, from Tower Gateway and Stratford to Island Gardens. It was mainly elevated on disused railway viaducts or new concrete viaducts, and adopted disused surface railway formations between Poplar and Stratford. The trains were fully automated, controlled by computer, and had no driver; a Passenger Service Agent (PSA) on each train, originally referred to as a "Train Captain", was responsible for patrolling the train, checking tickets, making announcements and controlling the doors. PSAs could take control of the train in circumstances including equipment failure and emergencies.[16][17] A total of eleven EMUs supplied by Linke-Hofmann-Busche comprised the first generation of the Docklands Light Railway rolling stock.[18] The system was lightweight, with stations designed for trains of only a single articulated vehicle. The three branches totalled 8 miles (13 km), had 15 stations, and were connected by a flat triangular junction near Poplar. Services ran from Tower Gateway to Island Gardens and from Stratford to Island Gardens; the north side of the junction was used only for access to the depot at Poplar.[2][14][19] The stations were mostly of a common design and constructed from standard components. A common feature was a short half-cylindrical glazed blue canopy. All stations were above ground and were generally unstaffed, although later extension included stations below ground which were required by law to be staffed in case of evacuation. First stage extensions (1991–1994)[edit]

The view from Tower Gateway looking east prior to rebuilding shows Fenchurch Street approach tracks to the left and the DLR line in the centre. Just visible in the distance is a DLR train that has emerged from the tunnel to Bank to the right.

The initial system had a relatively low capacity, but the Docklands area very quickly developed into a major financial centre and employment zone, increasing traffic. In particular Tower Gateway, at the edge of the City of London, attracted criticism for its poor connections, as it did not connect directly with the nearby Tower Hill Underground station or Fenchurch Street railway station. The criticism arose partly because the system usage was higher than expected.[20] Plans were developed, before the system opened, to extend it to Bank in the west and Beckton
Beckton
in the east.[21] Stations and trains were extended to two-unit length, and the system was expanded into the heart of the City of London
City of London
to Bank through a tunnel, which opened in 1991.[22] This extension left Tower Gateway on a stub. The original trains were not suitable for use underground due to a lack of fire-proofing.[18] They were operated for a time on the above-ground sections only, and were later sold. As the Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
office complex grew, Canary Wharf DLR station
Canary Wharf DLR station
was redeveloped from a small wayside station to a large one with six platforms serving three tracks and a large overall roof, fully integrated into the malls below the office towers.[23] The east of Docklands needed better transport connections to encourage development, and a fourth branch, towards Beckton, was planned, with several route options available.[24] A route from Poplar via Canning Town and the north side of the Royal Docks
Royal Docks
complex was chosen, and opened in 1994.[14] Initially it was thought the line was likely to be underutilised, due to the sparse development in the area.[25] As part of this extension, one side of the original flat triangular junction was replaced by a grade-separated junction west of Poplar. Poplar was rebuilt to give cross-platform interchange between the Stratford and Beckton
Beckton
lines, with a new grade-separated junction built east of the station at the divergence of the Stratford and Beckton
Beckton
lines. Second stage extensions (1996–1999)[edit]

DLR platforms at Greenwich, a northbound train approaching; view from southbound platform

Early on, Lewisham
Lewisham
London Borough Council commissioned a feasibility study into extending the system under the River Thames. This led the council to advocate an extension via Greenwich
Greenwich
and Deptford, terminating at Lewisham
Lewisham
railway station.[26] The ambitions of the operators were supported by politicians in Parliament, including the future Labour Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott, and Lord Whitty; and by 1996 construction work had begun.[23][27][28] The Lewisham
Lewisham
extension opened on 3 December 1999.[29] It left the Island Gardens route south of the Crossharbour turn-back sidings, and dropped gently to Mudchute, where a street-level station replaced the high-level one on the former London & Blackwall Railway viaduct. The line then entered a tunnel, following the route of the viaduct to a shallow subsurface station at Island Gardens, accessible by stairs or a lift. It crossed under the Thames to Cutty Sark in the centre of Greenwich, and surfaced at Greenwich
Greenwich
railway station, with cross-platform interchange between the northbound track and the London-bound main line. The line snaked on a concrete viaduct to Deptford
Deptford
Bridge, before descending to Elverson Road at street level, close to Lewisham
Lewisham
town centre, terminating in two platforms between and below the main-line platforms at Lewisham
Lewisham
railway station, with buses stopping outside the station. The extension quickly proved profitable.[30] Third stage extensions and enhancements (2004–2009)[edit]

Route of Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal extension.

The next developments were aided by a five-year programme of investment for public transport across London that was unveiled by Mayor of London
Mayor of London
Ken Livingstone
Ken Livingstone
on 12 October 2004.[31] On 2 December 2005, an eastward branch along the approximate route of the former Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway on the southern side of the Royal Docks
Royal Docks
complex opened from Canning Town to King George V via London City Airport.[32] A further extension from King George V to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal opened on 10 January 2009, providing interchange with the North Kent
Kent
main line, close to the planned future stop on the Crossrail
Crossrail
line to Abbey Wood via West India
India
and Royal Docks,[2] met by Private Finance Initiative funding.[33] Construction began in June 2005, the same month that the contracts were finalised,[34] and the tunnels were completed on 23 July 2007,[35] and formally opened by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London on 12 January 2009.[36] Following completion, the project was shortlisted for the 2009 Prime Minister's Better Public Building Award.[37] The original Tower Gateway station was closed in mid-2008 for complete reconstruction. The two terminal tracks either side of a narrow island platform were replaced by a single track between two platforms, one for arriving passengers and the other for departing (Spanish solution). It reopened on 2 March 2009.[38][39] As part of an upgrade to allow three-car trains, strengthening work was necessary at the Delta Junction north of West India
India
Quay.[40] It was decided to include this in a plan for further grade separation to eliminate the conflict between services to Stratford and from Bank. A new timetable was introduced, with improved frequencies at peak hours. The new grade-separated route from Bank to Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
is used throughout the day, bypassing West India
India
Quay station until mid-evening.[41] Work on this project proceeded concurrently with the three-car upgrade work and the 'diveunder' (sometimes referred to as a flyunder but DLR have coined the term in this instance 'diveunder'), and the improved timetable came into use on 24 August 2009.[42] Stratford International
Stratford International
to Canning Town extension (2011)[edit]

The Stratford International
Stratford International
DLR forecourt, soon after opening in 2011

In addition to the three-car station extensions, part of which was funded from the 2012 Olympics budget, a line was opened from Canning Town to Stratford and Stratford International
Stratford International
railway station along the former North London Line
North London Line
of the national railway system, with additional stations. It parallels the London Underground
London Underground
Jubilee line for much of its length. A substantial multi-level flying junction was built south of Canning Town to enable trains from Bank/Poplar and Stratford International
Stratford International
to operate to either of the eastern termini at Beckton
Beckton
and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal. There are through trains between all these points, with different patterns at different times of the day. The extension suffered some delay in opening, being completed in August 2011. It provides a direct link between two of the major Olympics locations: the Stadium and Park at Stratford and the ExCeL adjacent to Custom House on the Beckton
Beckton
line. Current system[edit]

Play media

Shadwell, with train entering the station

The DLR has 38 kilometres (24 mi) of tracks,[43] with 45 stations.[44] There are six branches: to Lewisham
Lewisham
in the south, Stratford and Stratford International
Stratford International
in the north, Beckton
Beckton
and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal in the east, and Central London in the west, splitting to Bank and Tower Gateway.[45] Although the layout allows many different routes, the five following are operated in normal service:[46]

Bank to Lewisham Bank to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal Stratford to Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
(extended to Lewisham
Lewisham
in the Monday to Friday morning peak) Stratford International
Stratford International
to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal Tower Gateway to Beckton

There is capability for an additional shuttle from Canning Town to Prince Regent when exhibitions are in progress at the ExCeL exhibition centre. At terminal stations trains reverse direction in the platforms except at Bank where there is a reversing headshunt in the tunnel beyond the station. Many peak-hour trains on the Lewisham
Lewisham
route from Stratford turn back at Canary Wharf. During service disruption or planned engineering work, trains can also turn back at Crossharbour and Mudchute. Trains serve every station on the route, but trains from Bank to Lewisham
Lewisham
do not call at West India
India
Quay because they are routed along the diveunder track to avoid junction conflicts. During long-term works for extension projects, other routes may be operated at weekends, such as Beckton
Beckton
to Lewisham
Lewisham
if the Bank branch is closed.

The London, Tilbury and Southend Railway
London, Tilbury and Southend Railway
(foreground), operated by c2c, runs alongside the DLR (behind the fence) from Limehouse to Tower Gateway.

The northern, southern and south-eastern branches terminate at the National Rail
National Rail
stations at Stratford, Stratford International, Lewisham and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal. Other interchanges with National Rail
National Rail
are at Limehouse, Greenwich
Greenwich
and West Ham, while out of station interchanges for Oyster card
Oyster card
holders exist between Shadwell DLR station
Shadwell DLR station
and London Overground's station of the same name, and between Fenchurch Street and the DLR's western termini Tower Gateway and Bank.[47] Between Limehouse and Tower Gateway, the DLR runs parallel to the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway.

Stations[edit]

An eastbound train leaving Westferry Station.

Main article: List of Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
stations Most stations are elevated, with others at street level, in cutting or underground. Access to the platforms is mostly by staircase and lift, with escalators at some stations. From the outset the system has been fully accessible to wheelchairs; much attention was paid to quick and effective accessibility for all passengers.[48] The stations have high platforms matching the floor height of the cars, allowing level access for passengers with wheelchairs or pushchairs. Most stations are of a modular design dating back to the initial system, extended and improved with two side platforms, each with separate access from the street, and platform canopies, although few examples remain of the original, distinctive rounded roof design. Stations are unstaffed, except the underground stations at Bank, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Stratford International
Stratford International
and Woolwich Arsenal for safety reasons, a few of the busier interchange stations, and City Airport, which has a ticket office for passengers unfamiliar with the system. Canning Town, Custom House and Prince Regent are normally staffed on the platform whenever there is a significant exhibition at the ExCeL exhibition centre. On 3 July 2007, DLR officially launched[49] an art programme called DLR Art,[50] similar to that on the London Underground, Art on the Underground. Alan Williams was appointed to produce the first temporary commission, called "Sidetrack", which portrays the ordinary and extraordinary sights, often unfamiliar to passengers, on the system and was displayed throughout the network.[51] Fares and ticketing[edit]

A train awaits departure from Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal.

The system is part of the London fare zone system, and Travelcards that cover the appropriate zones are valid. There are one-day and season DLR-only "Rover" tickets, plus a one-day DLR "Rail and River Rover" ticket for the DLR and City Cruises
City Cruises
river boats. Oyster pay-as-you-go is also available;[52] or NFC enabled bank card holders (contactless) passengers need to touch both in and out on the platform readers or pass through the automatic gates. Tickets can be purchased from ticket machines at the entrance to the platforms, and are required before entering the platform. There are no ticket barriers at DLR-only stations,[53] and correct ticketing is enforced by random on-train inspections by the PSA. Passengers without a correct ticket, pay-as-you-go Oyster users or a contactless bank card who have failed to touch in at the start of the journey may be liable to a £80 penalty fare or prosecution for fare evasion. There are barriers at Bank, Canning Town, Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal, West Ham and Stratford, where the DLR platforms are within a London Underground
London Underground
or National Rail barrier line. Performance[edit] Within a year of launch, annual passenger numbers were 17 million.[54] This increased to 64 million in 2009,[54][55] to more than 80 million in 2011,[56] and most recently to 110.2 million annual passengers in Fiscal Year 2014.[57] While the first five years were plagued by unreliability and operational problems,[58] the system has now become highly reliable.[58] In 2008, 87% of the population of North Woolwich
Woolwich
were in favour of the DLR.[59] The Parliamentary Transport Select Committee has reviewed light rail.[60] Due to the success of the DLR, proposals for similar systems elsewhere have emerged. The North and West London Light Railway
North and West London Light Railway
is a plan for an orbital railway serving the other side of London.[61] The DLR has been successful, as have other recent light rail systems.[62] However, the DLR has been criticised for having been designed with insufficient capacity to meet the demand that quickly arose.[26] The level of demand was underestimated.[20][23] In 1989 such criticism was aimed at GEC, a major contractor for construction. Until 1 July 2013, the only bicycles that were allowed were folding ones.[63] DLR stated that this is because if evacuation is required, they would slow down the process. DLR cars, especially older rolling stock, were not designed with bicycles in mind – if they were allowed, they might obstruct doors and emergency exits.[64] As of January 2014 full-size bicycles are now carried on DLR at off-peak hours and weekends (except Bank Station, where bicycles are not permitted for safety reasons).[65] Rolling stock[edit]

A B2007 rolling stock at Poplar DLR station

Main article: Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
rolling stock The DLR is operated by 145[66] high-floor bi-directional single-articulated Electric Multiple Units
Electric Multiple Units
(EMUs). Each car has four doors on each side, and two or three cars make up a train.[2] There are no cabs because normal operations are automated, and a small driver's console is concealed behind a locked panel at each end, from which the PSA can drive the car.[67] Consoles at each door opening allow the PSA to control door closure and make announcements whilst patrolling the train. With the absence of a driver's position, the fully glazed car ends provide a forward and rear view for passengers. The top speed is 62 miles per hour (100 km/h). Despite having high floors and being automated, the cars are derived from a German light-rail design intended for street running. All cars look similar but there have been several different types, some still in service, others sold to other operators. B2007 units were purchased from Bombardier in 2005 and delivered between 2007 and 2010.[68] Future rolling stock[edit] In 2017, TfL opened bidding for new trains to run on the DLR. It will order 43 new trains, which will increase capacity by 30% when they are introduced in 2022. The contract will be awarded in 2018 and the trains will feature charging points and air-conditioning.[69] Depots[edit] There are operating and maintenance depots at Poplar, now secondary to the larger site at Beckton, built on the site of the Beckton
Beckton
Gas Works in 1996 and accessed via a spur at Gallions Reach.[70] Rolling stock is kept at both locations, which have maintenance workshops and extensive open-air carriage sidings. The Poplar depot, which is also the operating headquarters of Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
Ltd, Keolis
Keolis
Amey Docklands Ltd and the Emirates Air-Line cable car, houses diesel locomotives used for track maintenance. Poplar depot is alongside the north side of the Stratford line east of the station, and Beckton depot is to the east of the line on a long spur north-east of Gallions Reach. Beckton
Beckton
Depot has the only level crossing on DLR. It is an AHB type and the barriers are down unless a user wants to cross, much like Appleford but AHB styled.[citation needed] One of the diesel locos stabled at Poplar is 1979 GEC Traction 0-4-0, one of three built for Shotton Steelworks. Since they were used at the steelworks, one has been scrapped, one has recently been acquired by the Yorkshire Wolds Railway and the third is now at Poplar named "Kevin Keaney". Its original nickname was "Sooty" because of the amount of exhaust this old engine produced. Signalling technology[edit] Originally the DLR used signalling based on a fixed-block technology developed by GEC-General Signal and General Railway Signal. This was replaced in 1994 with a moving-block TBTC (Transmission Based Train Control) system developed by Alcatel, called SelTrac.[71] The SelTrac system was bought by Thales in 2007 and updates are provided by Thales Rail Signalling Solutions. The same technology is used by rapid transit systems including Vancouver's SkyTrain, Toronto's SRT, San Francisco's Municipal Railway (MUNI) and Hong Kong's MTR. The SelTrac S40 system has also been adopted by the London Underground
London Underground
Jubilee line and Northern line. Transmissions occur via an inductive loop cable between each train's Vehicle On-Board Controller (VOBC) and the control centre (VCC, SMC) at Beckton. If this link is broken and communication is lost between the VOBC
VOBC
and VCC, SMC, the train stops until it is authorised to move again. If the whole system fails the train can run in restricted manual at 12 miles per hour (19 km/h) for safety until the system is restored and communication is re-established. Emergency brakes can be applied if the train breaks the speed limit during manual control or overshoots a fixed stopping point, or if it leaves the station when the route has not been set.[2] Recent developments[edit] With the development of the eastern Docklands as part of the Thames Gateway initiative and London’s staging of the 2012 Summer Olympics, several extensions and enhancements have recently been undertaken.[72] Upgrading entire system to three-car trains[edit]

Cutty Sark station, southbound platform 1 looking south

Capacity has been increased by upgrading for three-car trains. The alternative of more frequent trains was rejected as the signalling changes needed would have cost no less than upgrading to longer trains and with fewer benefits.[73] The railway was built for single-car operation, and the upgrade required both strengthening viaducts to take heavier trains and lengthening many pre-extension platforms[74] which were not originally built to take three-car trains. The extra capacity was useful for the 2012 Summer Olympics, which increased the use of London's transport network.[75] The main contractor for the expansion and alteration works was Taylor Woodrow.[76] Elverson Road, Royal Albert, Gallions Reach
Gallions Reach
and Cutty Sark have not been extended for three-car trains; such extension may be impossible in some cases. Selective door operation is used, with emergency walkways in case a door fails to remain shut. Cutty Sark station is underground, and both costs and the risk to nearby historic buildings prevent platform extension. The tunnel has an emergency walkway. Additional work beyond that needed to take the three-car trains was also carried out at some stations. This included replacing canopies with more substantial ones along the full platform length. A new South Quay station has been built 200 metres (660 ft) east of the former location as nearby curves precluded lengthening. Mudchute now has a third platform.[77] For this upgrade DLR purchased an additional 31 cars compatible with existing rolling stock.[78] The works were originally planned as three phases: Bank-Lewisham, Poplar-Stratford, and the Beckton
Beckton
branch. The original £200m contract was awarded on 3 May 2007.[79] Work started in 2007 and Bank- Lewisham
Lewisham
was originally due to be completed in 2009. However, the work programme for the first two phases was merged and the infrastructure work was completed by the end of January 2010. The Lewisham-Bank route now runs three-car trains exclusively. They started running on the Beckton
Beckton
branch on 9 May 2011.[80] Stratford to Lewisham
Lewisham
and Bank to Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal services sometimes operate as three-car trains; other routes will run the longer trains when demand requires it. Stratford International
Stratford International
extension[edit]

Abbey Road under construction in April 2010.

Stratford station
Stratford station
in December 2009, showing the new DLR line and platforms under construction, formerly the North London Line
North London Line
platforms

The extension to Stratford International, taking over the North London Line from Canning Town to Stratford, links the Docklands area with domestic high-speed services on High Speed 1. It was an important part of transport improvements for the 2012 Olympic Games, much of which were held on a site adjoining Stratford International.[81] The first contract for construction work was awarded on 10 January 2007[82] and construction started in mid-2007. Originally scheduled to open in mid-2010,[83] the line opened on 31 August 2011.[84] On 11 November 2015 the Mayor of London
Mayor of London
announced that all stations on this line will be rezoned from zone 3 to zone 2/3.[85] Station names in bold are former North London Line
North London Line
stations. New stations are:

Canning Town Star Lane West Ham Abbey Road Stratford High Street (on the site of Stratford Market railway station) Stratford Stratford International

From Canning Town to Stratford the extension runs parallel to the Jubilee line
Jubilee line
of the London Underground. As well as providing interchange with the adjacent Jubilee line
Jubilee line
stations, there are additional DLR stations at Star Lane, Abbey Road and Stratford High Street. At Stratford new platforms have been built for the North London Line at the northern end of the station. The old platforms (formerly 1 and 2) adjacent to the Jubilee line
Jubilee line
have been rebuilt for the DLR, renumbered 16 (towards Stratford International) and 17 (towards Beckton/ Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal). Interchange between the Stratford International branch and DLR trains via Poplar is possible although the platforms are widely separated and at different levels. There is no physical connection between the two branches. As part of the Transport & Works Act (TWA) application, Royal Victoria on the Beckton
Beckton
branch has been be extended to accommodate three-car trains, with a siding to enable trains to reverse there, using land released by the closure of the parallel North London Line. A partly grade-separated junction has been built south of Canning Town to prevent conflicting movements between the Bank branch and the Stratford International
Stratford International
branch to and from the Beckton
Beckton
and Woolwich Arsenal branches. Relocation of Pudding Mill Lane station[edit]

The resited Pudding Mill Lane station features new, wider platforms

One of the tunnel portals for Crossrail
Crossrail
is on the original site of Pudding Mill Lane station. As a consequence, work was carried out to divert the DLR between City Mill River
City Mill River
and the River Lea
River Lea
on to a new viaduct further south. This included a replacement station, which opened on 28 April 2014.[86][87] The former station stood on the only significant section of single track on the system, between Bow Church and Stratford,[88] though the opportunity was taken to double the track in three stages, to improve capacity. There was originally no provision for works beyond the realigned section in the Crossrail
Crossrail
Act. Proposed developments[edit] Dagenham Dock extension[edit]

Dagenham Dock railway station
Dagenham Dock railway station
has been proposed as the new terminus of the extension

Main article: Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
extension to Dagenham Dock

Status – Not currently being developed

This proposed extension from Gallions Reach
Gallions Reach
to Dagenham Dock via the riverside at Barking would connect the Barking Reach area, a formerly industrial area now due to be a major redevelopment as part of the London Riverside, with Docklands.[89] It would cover major developments at Creekmouth, Barking Riverside, Dagenham Dock Opportunity Area, and five stations are planned, at Beckton
Beckton
Riverside, Creekmouth, Barking Riverside, Goresbrook (formerly Dagenham Vale) and Dagenham Dock. The extension is key if English Partnerships' plan is to work. As shown in DLR's first consultation leaflet,[90] there are proposals to extend further, possibly to Dagenham Heathway or Rainham, or even to the other side of the Thames, including one or two new stations at Thamesmead, and then on to Abbey Wood, for North Kent
Kent
Line services to Dartford
Dartford
and The Medway
Medway
Towns, as well as Crossrail connections.[91] Construction was not expected to start until 2013, and the earliest expected completion date was 2017.[92] However, the financial downturn meant that TfL requested a delay to the public enquiry while funding was clarified.[93] Given that the purpose of the extension was to serve as-yet unbuilt homes, it became very difficult to predict timescales for this project. The project has been reported to have been cancelled by the Mayor of London
Mayor of London
Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
as a cost-cutting measure,[94][95] although there have been calls for this to be reconsidered,[96][97] the extension being regarded by Barking and Dagenham council as essential to regenerating the area.[98] In October 2009, the plan had seemed to be once again under consideration. The Mayor's Transport Strategy stated that the Mayor, through Transport for London, would investigate the feasibility of the extension to Dagenham Dock as part of the housing proposals for Barking Riverside.[99] Thames Wharf station[edit] Main article: Thames Wharf DLR station

Status – On hold

Thames Wharf has been the planned name for two separate DLR stations. In 1994 the proposed location was between Canning Town and Royal Victoria.[100] Subsequently, the name was transferred to a potential future development on the London City Airport
London City Airport
extension between Canning Town and West Silvertown, due west of the western end of Royal Victoria Dock. Since the station's intended purpose is to serve the surrounding area (currently a mix of brownfield and run-down industrial sites) when it is regenerated, the development is indefinitely on hold due to the area being safeguarded for the Silvertown Tunnel,[101] a new Thames river crossing that has been proposed but currently has no timetable for implementation. Connaught Road/Silvertown Interchange station[edit]

Status – Proposed

A site near to London City Airport
London City Airport
has been identified as a possible additional station on the London City Airport
London City Airport
branch. The Connaught Tunnel is here, and will be used again when some of the former Custom House to North Woolwich
Woolwich
section of the Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway is taken over by Crossrail.[102] However, no plans have emerged as to if or when a station might be built here, even though the original extension was designed to allow this. It may be located south of the Connaught Crossing.[103] Victoria/Charing Cross extensions[edit]

Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
flag box

Status – Proposed – 2006

In February 2006 a proposal to extend the DLR to Charing Cross station from Bank DLR branch was revealed.[88] The idea, originating from a DLR "Horizon Study",[104] is at a very early stage at the moment, but would involve extending the line from Bank in bored tunnels under Central London to the Charing Cross Jubilee line platforms, which would be brought back to public use. These platforms are now on a spur off the current Jubilee line
Jubilee line
and are not used by passenger trains. It has since been revealed that a proposed route as far as Victoria will be investigated.[105] While not confirmed, it is probable that the Charing Cross scheme would use the overrun tunnels between Charing Cross Jubilee platforms and slightly west of Aldwych. These tunnels were intended to be incorporated into the abandoned Phase 2 of the Fleet Line (Phase 1 became the original Jubilee line, prior to the Jubilee line Extension).[106] However they would need enlargement because DLR gauge is larger than tube gauge and current safety regulations would require an emergency walkway in the tunnel.[citation needed] Two reasons driving the proposal are capacity problems at Bank, having just one interchange between the DLR and the central portion of Underground, and the difficult journeys faced by passengers from Kent and South Coast between their rail termini and the DLR. Intermediate stations would be at City Thameslink/Ludgate Circus and Aldwych, which was intended for future connection with the proposed but now abandoned Cross River Tram. Euston/St Pancras extension[edit]

Status – Proposed

In 2011, strategy documents proposed a DLR extension to Euston and St Pancras.[107] Transport for London
Transport for London
have considered driving a line from City Thameslink
Thameslink
via Holborn north to the rail termini.[108][109][110] The main benefit of such an extension would be to broaden the available direct transport links to the Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
site. It would create a new artery in central London and help relieve the Northern and Circle lines and provide another metro line to serve the High Speed line into Euston. Lewisham
Lewisham
to Catford/ Lewisham
Lewisham
to Beckenham
Beckenham
Junction extension[edit]

Status – Proposed – 2006

This possible extension was considered during the latest Horizon Study. The route would follow the Southeastern line and terminate between Catford and Catford Bridge stations. It has been seen as attractive to the district, as has the current terminus at Lewisham, built in an earlier extension.[111][112] A map published in 2010 by Transport for London
Transport for London
suggests that a further extension from Catford to Forest Hill has also been considered.[108] However, early plans showed problems due to Lewisham station being only marginally lower than the busy A20 road, which impedes any extension. The plan is however being revised.[113] When the Lewisham extension was first completed there were proposals to continue further to Beckenham
Beckenham
to link it up with the Tramlink
Tramlink
system. However, the way in which Lewisham station
Lewisham station
was built impedes this possible extension and it would prove costly to redevelop.[citation needed] Lewisham
Lewisham
to Bromley North extension[edit]

Status – Proposed – 2012

Proposals for the DLR to take over the Bromley North Line
Bromley North Line
(blue line) is one of a number of proposals for Transport for London
Transport for London
to run the Line by extending existing networks.

Another proposal is to Bromley North by taking over the Bromley North Line, a short National Rail
National Rail
branch line which has no direct services to London. The scheme being considered by Transport for London[114] and the London Borough of Bromley[115] would convert the branch line to DLR operation. Although Lewisham
Lewisham
Council planned to re-route the A20 road and redevelop the area south of Lewisham
Lewisham
DLR station, the plans published in 2012 have no safeguarded route for an extension, making one unlikely.[116][117] Gallions Reach Crossing
Gallions Reach Crossing
& Thamesmead
Thamesmead
Extension[edit]

Status – Proposed

The proposed Gallions Reach Crossing
Gallions Reach Crossing
has been suggested by TfL as allowing a branch to leave the existing DLR network at Gallions Reach, and cross the river on the proposed tunnel/bridge and into Thamesmead. The new branch could then pass through Thamesmead
Thamesmead
and towards Abbey Wood, Woolwich, or northwards towards Barking.[118] On 4 October 2016 the London Assembly approved the extension to Thamesmead.[119] Replacement of Tower Gateway station
Tower Gateway station
with interchange at Tower Hill[edit]

Status – Proposed

A Transport Supporting Paper released by the office of the Mayor of London envisages the closure of Tower Gateway DLR station
Tower Gateway DLR station
and the branch serving it, with a replacement interchange being provided via new platforms at Tower Hill Underground station. This would increase train frequencies to Bank by approximately 30%, thereby unlocking more capacity on the Bank branch.[120][note 1] Accidents and incidents[edit] Overrun of station buffers[edit]

The original Island Gardens DLR station
Island Gardens DLR station
at the end of a viaduct

On 10 March 1987, before the system opened, a test train crashed through buffer stops at the original high-level Island Gardens terminus and was left hanging from the end of the elevated track. The accident was caused by unauthorised tests being run before accident-preventing modifications had been installed. The train was being driven manually at the time.[121][122][123] Collision at West India
India
Quay bridge[edit] On 22 April 1991, two trains collided at a junction on the West India Quay bridge during morning rush hour, requiring a shutdown of the system and evacuation of passengers by ladder.[124][125] One train was travelling automatically, while the other was under manual control.[126] South Quay bombing[edit] Main article: 1996 Docklands bombing On 9 February 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
blew up a lorry under a bridge near South Quay,[127] killing two people and injuring many others.[128] The blast caused £85 million of damage and marked an end to the IRA ceasefire. Significant disruption was caused and a train was stranded at Island Gardens, unable to move until the track was rebuilt. Management[edit] DLR was a wholly owned subsidiary of London Regional Transport
London Regional Transport
until 1992 when it was transferred to the London Docklands
London Docklands
Development Corporation. The infrastructure is owned by Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
Ltd,[8] part of the London Rail
London Rail
division of Transport for London, which also manages London Overground, London Tramlink, Emirates Air-Line Cable Car and Crossrail. The first franchise was awarded to Serco
Serco
Docklands Limited[129] for seven years; operations began in April 1997.[130] A management buyout backed by Serco
Serco
management later sold its shares to Serco. A two-year extension was granted in 2002. In February 2005 Transport for London
Transport for London
announced that Balfour Beatty/Keolis, First Carillion, RATP/ Transdev
Transdev
and Serco
Serco
had been shortlisted to operate the franchise.[131] In November 2005 Transport for London
Transport for London
announced that Serco
Serco
had retained the franchise for seven years from May 2006.[132][133] The Lewisham, City Airport and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal extensions were designed, financed, built and maintained by private companies (concessionnaires): City Greenwich
Greenwich
Lewisham
Lewisham
(CGL) Rail, City Airport Rail Enterprises (CARE), and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal Rail Enterprises (WARE).[134] In 2011, Transport Trading Limited (a subsidiary of Transport for London)[135] bought out the companies responsible for the City Airport and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal extensions, leaving only the Lewisham
Lewisham
extension under private ownership.[136] In July 2012 Transport for London
Transport for London
called for expressions of interest in bidding for the next DLR franchise.[137] In January 2013 Serco's contract was extended until September 2014.[138] In April 2013 Transport for London
Transport for London
announced that Go-Ahead/Colas Rail, Keolis/Amey, Serco
Serco
and Stagecoach had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise.[139] However, on 30 August, just over a week before the bid submission date of 9 September 2013, Go-Ahead/Colas Rail pulled out of the running.[140] The franchise was awarded to Keolis/Amey with a handover date of 7 December 2014.[141] In media[edit] The DLR appears in the video to Sean Paul and Clean Bandit's single "Rockabye". Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal plays an underground station in Athens
Athens
in Jason Bourne.[142] See also[edit]

London Transport portal

List of Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
stations List of tram and light rail transit systems Rail transport in the United Kingdom Transport in London
Transport in London
(overview) Crossings of the River Thames Tunnels underneath the River Thames

Notes[edit]

^ It has been proven that almost all DLR passengers heading to the city get on DLR services to Bank instead of Tower Gateway, but only 75 per cent of services head to the former.[120]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Jolly, Stephen; Bayman, Bob (November 1986). Docklands Light Railway Official Handbook. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 0-904711-80-3.  Gonsalves, B.F.; Deacon, R.W.; Pilgrim, D; Pritchard, B.P. (October 1991). " Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
and Subsequent Upgrading". 90. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. OCLC 24833359. 

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West: Crossings of the River Thames East:

Jubilee line between Canada
Canada
Water and Canary Wharf Lewisham
Lewisham
branch, between Island Gardens and Cutty Sark Greenwich
Greenwich
Foot Tunnel

Woolwich
Woolwich
foot tunnel Woolwich
Woolwich
branch, between King George V and Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal Dartford
Dartford
Cable Tunnel

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Keolis

Asia

Hyderabad Metro

Australia

Keolis
Keolis
Downer (51%)

G:link Hornibrook Bus Lines Newcastle Transport Path Transit SouthLink Yarra Trams

Europe

Eurobahn Keolis
Keolis
Nederland Keolis
Keolis
Norge

United Kingdom

Docklands Light Rail
Docklands Light Rail
(70%) Govia
Govia
(35%)

Govia
Govia
Thameslink
Thameslink
Railway Southeastern

Manchester Metrolink
Manchester Metrolink
(60%) Nottingham Express Transit
Nottingham Express Transit
(80%)

North America

GrandLinq Keolis
Keolis
Commuter Services Orléans Express
Orléans Express
(75%)

Former operations

Acadian Lines
Acadian Lines
(75%) First TransPennine Express
First TransPennine Express
(45%) London Midland
London Midland
(35% Govia) Thameslink
Thameslink
(35% Govia)

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Docklands Light Railway

Stations

Bank/Tower Gateway – Canning Town

Bank Tower Gateway ( Tower Hill, Fenchurch Street) Shadwell Limehouse Westferry Poplar Blackwall East India Canning Town

Lewisham
Lewisham
branch

West India
India
Quay Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
Heron Quays South Quay Crossharbour Mudchute Island Gardens Cutty Sark Greenwich
Greenwich
Deptford
Deptford
Bridge Elverson Road Lewisham
Lewisham

Stratford branch

All Saints Langdon Park Devons Road Bow Church ( Bow Road) Pudding Mill Lane Stratford

Beckton
Beckton
branch

Royal Victoria Custom House Prince Regent Royal Albert Beckton
Beckton
Park Cyprus Gallions Reach Beckton

Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal branch

West Silvertown Pontoon Dock London City Airport King George V Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal

Stratford International
Stratford International
branch

Star Lane West Ham Abbey Road Stratford High Street Stratford Stratford International
Stratford International

Future

Extensions

to Dagenham Dock to Charing Cross or Victoria

Stations

Connaught Road Thames Wharf

Rolling stock

Rolling Stock

P86 – P89 B90 – B92 – B2K B07

Depots

Beckton Poplar

Transport for London

London Transport portal

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UK light rail systems

Tramways

Current

Blackpool Tramway Edinburgh Trams Manchester Metrolink Midland Metro Nottingham Express Transit Sheffield Supertram Tramlink

Proposed

Luton Airport South Wales Metro

Cancelled

Abbey line Cross River Tram Bristol Supertram CITI Belfast Leeds Supertram Merseytram Penistone Line Tram-Train West London Tram

Metro

Current

Docklands Light Railway Tyne and Wear Metro

Proposed

North & West London Light Railway West London Orbital

Preserved

Beamish Museum Black Country Living Museum East Anglia Transport Museum Great Orme Tramway Heaton Park Tramway National Tramway Museum Seaton Tramway Summerlee Museum Wirral Transport Museum Wirral Tramway

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Local rail transport in the United Kingdom

Metros

Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
(East London) Glasgow Subway London Underground

Night Tube

Tyne and Wear Metro

Tramways

Blackpool Edinburgh Greater Manchester Nottingham Sheffield South London West Midlands

Urban rail

Belfast Bristol Birmingham Cardiff Edinburgh Glasgow Leeds/Bradford Liverpool London

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Transport in London

Companies and organisations

Transport for London

Air Line Buses

East London Transit Night buses

Coach station Cycle hire Dial-a-Ride London Rail

Docklands Light Railway London Overground TfL Rail Tramlink Crossrail
Crossrail
(under construction) Crossrail
Crossrail
2 (proposed)

London River Services London Streets London Underground

Night Tube

Source London Taxi and Private Hire office

Bus operators

Abellio Arriva East Herts & Essex Arriva London Arriva Southern Counties CT Plus Go-Ahead London London Sovereign London United Metrobus Metroline Quality Line Stagecoach London Tower Transit Uno

River operators

Bateaux London City Cruises Crown River Cruises Livett's Launches Lower Thames and Medway
Medway
Passenger Boat Company Thames Clippers Thames Executive Charters Thames River Services Westminster Passenger Services Association

Train operators

Arriva Rail London c2c Caledonian Sleeper Chiltern Railways East Midlands Trains Eurostar Govia
Govia
Thameslink
Thameslink
Railway

Gatwick Express Great Northern Southern Thameslink

Grand Central Great Western Railway Greater Anglia

Stansted Express

Heathrow Connect Heathrow Express Hull Trains London Northwestern Railway South Western Railway Southeastern TfL Rail Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
(West Coast) Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
East Coast

Other

Global Infrastructure Partners Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Holdings Port of London
Port of London
Authority

Airports

Within London

City Heathrow Private: Biggin Hill Damyns Hall London Heliport Military: Northolt

Outside London

Gatwick Luton Southend Stansted Proposed: Thames Estuary

Major stations

Central area

Bank/Monument Baker Street Blackfriars Bond Street Cannon Street Charing Cross City Thameslink Euston Farringdon Fenchurch Street King's Cross Liverpool Street London Bridge Marylebone Moorgate Oxford Circus Paddington St Pancras International Tottenham Court Road Vauxhall Victoria Waterloo Waterloo East Westminster

Other

Barking Bromley South Canary Wharf Clapham Junction Ealing Broadway East Croydon Finsbury Park Heathrow Stations Highbury & Islington Ilford Lewisham London City Airport Orpington Putney Richmond Romford Stratford Surbiton Sutton Wimbledon

Roads

Motorways

M1 M4 M11 M25 London Orbital Former: M41 (West Cross Route) A40(M) (Westway) A102(M) (East Cross Route)

Ring roads

London Inner Ring Road London Ringways North Circular Road South Circular Road

Charging

Congestion charge Low emission zone

Ticketing

Freedom Pass Oyster card Travelcard

Other

History of public transport authorities London Transport Museum Port of London Regent's Canal Cycle routes Thameslink Trams Trolleybuses Windsor House

Former BR sectors

British Rail InterCity Network SouthEast

Category Commons WikiProject

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Members of international metro organizations

Community of Metros (CoMET)

Asia

MTR Taipei Metro Beijing Subway Shanghai Metro Guangzhou Metro Delhi Metro Mass Rapid Transit Seoul Metro

Europe

London Underground Berlin U-Bahn Paris Métro Madrid Metro Moscow Metro

Americas

New York City Subway Mexico
Mexico
City Metro São Paulo Metro Santiago Metro

Nova benchmarking group of Metros (NOVA)

Asia

Bangkok MRT Nanjing Metro Rapid KL Shenzhen Metro

Europe

Barcelona Metro Lisbon Metro Brussels Metro Tyne and Wear Metro Docklands Light Railway Istanbul Metro Oslo Metro

Americas

Montreal Metro Toronto subway Vancouver SkyTrain Rio de Janeiro Metro Buenos Aires Underground

Oceania

.