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The Dniester
Dniester
or Dnister River (/ˈniːstər/ NEES-tər;[1]) is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine
Ukraine
and then through Moldova
Moldova
(from which it separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea
Black Sea
on Ukrainian territory again.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography 3 History 4 Tributaries 5 See also 6 References

6.1 General

7 External links

Names[edit] The name Dniester
Dniester
derives from Sarmatian dānu nazdya "the close river."[2] The Dnieper, also of Sarmatian origin, derives from the opposite meaning, "the river on the far side". Alternatively, according to Vasily Abaev Dniester
Dniester
would be a blend of Scythian dānu "river" and Thracian Ister, the previous name of the river, literally Dān-Ister (River Ister).[3] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
name of Dniester, Tyras (Τύρας), is from Scythian tūra, meaning "rapid."[citation needed] The names of the Don and Danube
Danube
are also from the same Indo-Iranian word *dānu "river". Classical authors have also referred to it as Danaster. These early forms, without -i- but with -a-, contradict Abaev's hypothesis. Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
refers to the river both as the Niester and Dniester
Dniester
in his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.[4] In Ukrainian, it is known as Дністе́р (translit. Dnister), and in Romanian as Nistru. In Russian, it is known as Днестр (translit. Dnestr), in Yiddish: Nester נעסטער; in Turkish, Turla.

Dniester's riverhead in Staryi Sambir
Staryi Sambir
(western Ukraine).

Geography[edit] The Dniester
Dniester
rises in Ukraine, near the city of Drohobych, close to the border with Poland, and flows toward the Black Sea. Its course marks part of the border of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Moldova, after which it flows through Moldova
Moldova
for 398 kilometres (247 mi), separating the main territory of Moldova
Moldova
from its breakaway region Transnistria. It later forms an additional part of the Moldova- Ukraine
Ukraine
border, then flows through Ukraine
Ukraine
to the Black Sea, where its estuary forms the Dniester Liman.

The Dniester
Dniester
at the Moldavian fortress of Tighina.

Along the lower half of the Dniester, the western bank is high and hilly while the eastern one is low and flat. The river represents the de facto end of the Eurasian Steppe. Its most important tributaries are Răut
Răut
and Bîc. History[edit]

The Dniester
Dniester
in Khotyn
Khotyn
(western Ukraine). Another Moldavian fortress and an Orthodox church seen on foreground.

During the Neolithic, the Dniester
Dniester
River was the centre of one of the most advanced civilizations on earth at the time. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
flourished in this area from roughly 5300 to 2600 BC, leaving behind thousands of archeological sites. Their settlements had up to 15,000 inhabitants, making them among the first large farming communities in the world.[5] In antiquity, the river was considered one of the principal rivers of European Sarmatia, and it was mentioned by many Classical geographers and historians. According to Herodotus
Herodotus
(iv.51) it rose in a large lake, whilst Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(iii.5.17, 8.1 &c.) places its sources in Mount Carpates (the modern Carpathian Mountains), and Strabo
Strabo
(ii) says that they are unknown. It ran in an easterly direction parallel with the Ister (lower Danube), and formed part of the boundary between Dacia
Dacia
and Sarmatia. It fell into the Pontus Euxinus
Pontus Euxinus
to the northeast of the mouth of the Ister, the distance between them being 900 stadia – approximately 210 km (130 mi) – according to Strabo
Strabo
(vii.), while 210 km (130 mi) (from the Pseudostoma) according to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 26). Scymnus (Fr. 51) describes it as of easy navigation, and abounding in fish. Ovid
Ovid
(ex Pont. iv.10.50) speaks of its rapid course. Greek authors referred to the river as Tyras (Greek: ὁ Τύρας).[6] At a later period it obtained the name of Danastris or Danastus,[7] whence its modern name of Dniester
Dniester
(Neister), though the Turks still called it Turla during the 19th century.[8] The form Τύρις is sometimes found.[9] According to Constantine VII, the Varangians
Varangians
used boats on their trade route from the Varangians
Varangians
to the Greeks, along Dniester
Dniester
and Dnieper and along the Black Sea
Black Sea
shore. The navigation near the western shore of Black Sea
Black Sea
contained stops at Aspron (at the mouth of Dniester), then Conopa, Constantia (localities today in Romania) and Messembria (today in Bulgaria). From the 14th century to 1812, part of the Dniester
Dniester
formed the eastern boundary of the Principality of Moldavia. Between the World Wars, the Dniester
Dniester
formed part of the boundary between Romania
Romania
and the Soviet Union. In 1919, on Easter Sunday, the bridge was blown up by the French Army
French Army
to protect Bender from the Bolsheviks.[10] During World War II, German and Romanian forces battled Soviet troops on the western bank of the river. After the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
declared its independence in 1991, the small area to the east of the Dniester
Dniester
that had been part of the Moldavian SSR refused to participate and declared itself the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, or Transnistria, with its capital at Tiraspol
Tiraspol
on the river.

At the confluence of the Seret and the Dniester.

Tributaries[edit] From source to mouth, right tributaries, i.e. on the southwest side, are the Stryi (231 km), Svicha (uk) (107 km), Lomnytsia (de) (122 km), Bystrytsia (101 km), Răut
Răut
(283 km), Ichel (ro) (101 km), Bîc (155 km), and Botna (152 km). Left tributaries, on the northeast side, are the Strv'yazh (94 km), Hnyla Lypa (87 km), Zolota Lypa (140 km), Koropets (fr) (78 km), Strypa (147 km), Seret (250 km), Zbruch (245 km), Smotrych (169 km), Ushytsia (uk) (122 km), Zhvanchyk (de) (107 km), Liadova (uk) (93 km), Murafa (162 km), Rusava (uk) (78 km), Yahorlyk (uk) (73 km), and Kuchurhan (123 km).[11] See also[edit]

Dniester
Dniester
Canyon National Nature Park Dnister Canyon Dniester
Dniester
Pumped Storage Power Station Euroregion Dniester

References[edit]

^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: "Dniester" ^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000. p. 106 ^ Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор (Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949. P. 236 ^ Edward Gibbons Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol 1 chapt 11 ^ Mikhail Widejko. "Trypillya Culture Proto-Cities: History of Discovery and Investigations © M. Yu. Videiko Published: Відейко М. Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ 2002; с. 103–125 (Videiko M. Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev 2002, p. 103–125)". Iananu.kiev.ua. Retrieved 2012-08-23.  ^ Strab. ii. ^ Amm. Marc. xxxi. 3. § 3; Jornand. Get. 5; Const. Porphyr. de Adm. Imp. 8 ^ Herod. iv. 11, 47, 82; Scylax, p. 29; Strab. i. p. 14; Mela, ii. 1, etc.; also Schaffarik, Slav. Alterth. i. p. 505. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, p. 671; Suid. s. v. ^ Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. p. 15.  ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Ukraine
– Dnister River

General[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dniester.

Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ivan Teslia, Dnister River in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984). Dniester.org: a trans-boundary Dniester
Dniester
river project eco-tiras.org National Nature Park Dnister Canyon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234158

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