Dniester or Dnister River (/ˈniːstər/ NEES-tər;) is a river
in Eastern Europe. It runs first through
Ukraine and then through
Moldova (from which it separates the breakaway territory of
Transnistria), finally discharging into the
Black Sea on Ukrainian
5 See also
7 External links
Dniester derives from Sarmatian dānu nazdya "the close
river." The Dnieper, also of Sarmatian origin, derives from the
opposite meaning, "the river on the far side". Alternatively,
Dniester would be a blend of Scythian dānu
"river" and Thracian Ister, the previous name of the river, literally
Dān-Ister (River Ister). The
Ancient Greek name of Dniester, Tyras
(Τύρας), is from Scythian tūra, meaning "rapid."[citation
needed] The names of the Don and
Danube are also from the same
Indo-Iranian word *dānu "river". Classical authors have also referred
to it as Danaster. These early forms, without -i- but with -a-,
contradict Abaev's hypothesis.
Edward Gibbon refers to the river both
as the Niester and
Dniester in his History of the Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire.
In Ukrainian, it is known as Дністе́р (translit. Dnister), and
in Romanian as Nistru. In Russian, it is known as Днестр
(translit. Dnestr), in Yiddish: Nester נעסטער; in Turkish,
Dniester's riverhead in
Staryi Sambir (western Ukraine).
Dniester rises in Ukraine, near the city of Drohobych, close to
the border with Poland, and flows toward the Black Sea. Its course
marks part of the border of
Ukraine and Moldova, after which it flows
Moldova for 398 kilometres (247 mi), separating the main
Moldova from its breakaway region Transnistria. It later
forms an additional part of the Moldova-
Ukraine border, then flows
Ukraine to the Black Sea, where its estuary forms the Dniester
Dniester at the Moldavian fortress of Tighina.
Along the lower half of the Dniester, the western bank is high and
hilly while the eastern one is low and flat. The river represents the
de facto end of the Eurasian Steppe. Its most important tributaries
Răut and Bîc.
Khotyn (western Ukraine). Another Moldavian fortress
and an Orthodox church seen on foreground.
During the Neolithic, the
Dniester River was the centre of one of the
most advanced civilizations on earth at the time. The
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture flourished in this area from roughly 5300
to 2600 BC, leaving behind thousands of archeological sites. Their
settlements had up to 15,000 inhabitants, making them among the first
large farming communities in the world.
In antiquity, the river was considered one of the principal rivers of
European Sarmatia, and it was mentioned by many Classical geographers
and historians. According to
Herodotus (iv.51) it rose in a large
Ptolemy (iii.5.17, 8.1 &c.) places its sources in
Mount Carpates (the modern Carpathian Mountains), and
Strabo (ii) says
that they are unknown. It ran in an easterly direction parallel with
the Ister (lower Danube), and formed part of the boundary between
Dacia and Sarmatia. It fell into the
Pontus Euxinus to the northeast
of the mouth of the Ister, the distance between them being 900
stadia – approximately 210 km (130 mi) –
Strabo (vii.), while 210 km (130 mi) (from the
Pseudostoma) according to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 26).
Scymnus (Fr. 51)
describes it as of easy navigation, and abounding in fish.
Pont. iv.10.50) speaks of its rapid course.
Greek authors referred to the river as Tyras (Greek: ὁ
Τύρας). At a later period it obtained the name of Danastris or
Danastus, whence its modern name of
Dniester (Neister), though the
Turks still called it Turla during the 19th century. The form
Τύρις is sometimes found.
According to Constantine VII, the
Varangians used boats on their trade
route from the
Varangians to the Greeks, along
Dniester and Dnieper
and along the
Black Sea shore. The navigation near the western shore
Black Sea contained stops at Aspron (at the mouth of Dniester),
then Conopa, Constantia (localities today in Romania) and Messembria
(today in Bulgaria).
From the 14th century to 1812, part of the
Dniester formed the eastern
boundary of the Principality of Moldavia.
Between the World Wars, the
Dniester formed part of the boundary
Romania and the Soviet Union. In 1919, on Easter Sunday, the
bridge was blown up by the
French Army to protect Bender from the
Bolsheviks. During World War II, German and Romanian forces
battled Soviet troops on the western bank of the river.
After the Republic of
Moldova declared its independence in 1991, the
small area to the east of the
Dniester that had been part of the
Moldavian SSR refused to participate and declared itself the
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, or Transnistria, with its capital
Tiraspol on the river.
At the confluence of the Seret and the Dniester.
From source to mouth, right tributaries, i.e. on the southwest side,
are the Stryi (231 km), Svicha (uk) (107 km), Lomnytsia (de)
(122 km), Bystrytsia (101 km),
Răut (283 km), Ichel (ro) (101
km), Bîc (155 km), and Botna (152 km).
Left tributaries, on the northeast side, are the Strv'yazh (94 km),
Hnyla Lypa (87 km), Zolota Lypa (140 km), Koropets (fr) (78 km),
Strypa (147 km), Seret (250 km), Zbruch (245 km), Smotrych (169 km),
Ushytsia (uk) (122 km), Zhvanchyk (de) (107 km),
Liadova (uk) (93 km), Murafa (162 km), Rusava (uk) (78 km),
Yahorlyk (uk) (73 km), and Kuchurhan (123 km).
National Nature Park Dnister Canyon
Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station
^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: "Dniester"
^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China
and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames
& Hudson, 2000. p. 106
^ Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор
(Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet
Academy of Sciences, 1949. P. 236
^ Edward Gibbons Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol 1 chapt 11
^ Mikhail Widejko. "Trypillya Culture Proto-Cities: History of
Discovery and Investigations © M. Yu. Videiko Published:
Відейко М. Ю. Трипільські протоміста.
Історія досліджень. Київ 2002; с. 103–125
(Videiko M. Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of
investigations. Kiev 2002, p. 103–125)". Iananu.kiev.ua. Retrieved
^ Strab. ii.
^ Amm. Marc. xxxi. 3. § 3; Jornand. Get. 5; Const. Porphyr. de Adm.
^ Herod. iv. 11, 47, 82; Scylax, p. 29; Strab. i. p. 14;
Mela, ii. 1, etc.; also Schaffarik, Slav. Alterth. i. p. 505.
^ Stephanus of Byzantium, p. 671; Suid. s. v.
^ Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United
States: American Relief Administration. p. 15.
^ Encyclopedia of
Ukraine – Dnister River
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dniester.
Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ivan Teslia, Dnister River in the Encyclopedia
of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).
Dniester.org: a trans-boundary
Dniester river project
National Nature Park Dnister Canyon