DMITRY ANATOLYEVICH MEDVEDEV (/mɪdˈvɛdɪf/ ) (Russian :
Дми́трий Анато́льевич Медве́дев, tr.
Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev; IPA: ( listen ), born 14 September
1965) is a Russian politician, currently the
Prime Minister of Russia
. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of
Born to a family of academics, Medvedev graduated from the Leningrad
State University Law Department in 1987. Medvedev defended his
dissertation in 1990, and worked as a docent at his alma mater, now
Saint Petersburg State University , where he taught Civil
and Roman Law until 1999. Medvedev's political career began as the
Election Campaign Manager, and later as an adviser of the St.
Anatoly Sobchak . During this time, Medvedev
Vladimir Putin .
In November 1999, Medvedev was hired by the Russian Presidential
Administration , where he worked as the Deputy Chief of Staff. In the
2000 Russian Presidential Elections , Medvedev was Putin's Campaign
On 14 November 2005, Medvedev was appointed First Deputy Prime
Minister , and was tasked with overseeing
National Priority Projects .
Medvedev worked as the Chairman of
Gazprom 's Board of Directors, a
post that he held until 2008.
On 10 December 2007, Medvedev was informally endorsed as a candidate
for the forthcoming presidential elections by four political parties :
United Russia ,
Fair Russia ,
Agrarian Party of Russia , and Civilian
Power , and was officially endorsed by the
United Russia Party on 17
December 2007. Medvedev's candidacy was backed by the popular outgoing
President, Vladimir Putin, thus giving a significant boost to his
popularity. The 2008 Presidential election , held on 2 March 2008, was
won by Medvedev with 70.28% of the popular vote, and he was
inaugurated on 7 May 2008.
Medvedev did not run for a second term as President, and therefore
Prime Minister by President Vladimir Putin, who won the
2012 Presidential election . On 26 May 2012, Medvedev was appointed to
be the Leader of
United Russia Party.
Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor, Medvedev's top agenda
as President was a wide-ranging modernisation programme , aiming at
modernising Russia's economy and society, and lessening the country's
reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure,
victorious in the
Russo-Georgian War , and recovered from the Great
Recession . Medvedev launched an anti-corruption campaign , and
initiated a substantial law enforcement reform .
In foreign policy, Medvedev's primary achievements include the
signing of the
New START treaty, a "reset" of Russia–United States
relations , that were severely strained following the Russian invasion
of Georgia, as well as increasing Russia's cooperation with the
BRICS-countries , and gaining
Russia 's admission into the World Trade
Organization (WTO) in 2011.
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Early life
Student years and academic career
* 2 Early career
* 2.1 Career in
* 2.2 Career in the central government
* 2.3 Presidential candidate
* 3 2008 presidential elections
* 3.1 Election campaign
* 3.2 Election victory
* 4 Presidency (2008–12)
* 4.2 Personnel appointments
* 4.3 "Tandem rule"
* 4.4 Main external events
2008 South Ossetia war
2008 South Ossetia war
* 4.4.2 2008–09 economic crisis
* 4.5 Domestic policy
* 4.5.1 Economy
* 4.5.2 Police reform
* 4.5.3 Anti-corruption campaign
* 4.5.4 Education
* 4.5.5 Development of the political system
* 184.108.40.206 Election reform
* 4.6 Foreign policy
* 4.7 Relationship with Putin
* 4.8 2012 presidential elections
Prime Minister (2012–present)
* 5.1 First year
* 5.2 Crimea
* 6 Personal life
* 7 Corruption
* 8 Publications
* 9 References
* 10 Literature
* 11 External links
Dmitry Medvedev in 1967, approximately 2 years old
Dmitry Medvedev was born on 14 September 1965 in
Leningrad , in the
Soviet Union. His father, Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev (November 1926
– 2004), was a chemical engineer teaching at the
Institute of Technology . Dmitry's mother, Yulia Veniaminovna
Medvedeva (née Shaposhnikova, born 21 November 1939), studied
Voronezh University and taught Russian at Herzen State
Pedagogical University . Later, she would also work as a tour guide at
Pavlovsk Palace . The Medvedevs lived in a 40 m² apartment at 6 Bela
Kun Street in the Kupchino Municipal Okrug (district) of Leningrad.
Dmitry was his parents' only child. The Medvedevs were regarded as
Soviet intelligentsia family of the time. His maternal grandparents
Ukrainians , whose surname was Kovalev, originally
Medvedev traces his family roots to the Belgorod region.
As a child, Medvedev was bookish and studious, described by his first
grade teacher Vera Smirnova as a "dreadful why-asker". After school,
he would spend some time playing with his friends before hurrying home
to work on his assignments. In the third grade, Medvedev studied the
Small Soviet Encyclopedia belonging to his father. In the
second and third grades, he showed interest in dinosaurs and memorized
Earth 's geologic development periods , from the Archean up to
the Cenozoic. In the fourth and fifth grades, he demonstrated interest
in chemistry , conducting elementary experiments and involved to some
degree with sport. In grade seven, adolescent curiosity blossomed
through Svetlana Linnik , his future wife, studying at the same school
in a parallel class. The relationship apparently affected Medvedev's
school performance. Medvedev calls the school's final exams in 1982 a
"tough period when I had to mobilize my abilities to the utmost for
the first time in my life."
STUDENT YEARS AND ACADEMIC CAREER
The Faculty of Law building of
Saint Petersburg State University
, The place where Medvedev studied and later taught.
In the autumn of 1982, 17-year-old Medvedev enrolled at Leningrad
State University to study law. Although he also considered studying
linguistics Medvedev later said he never regretted his choice, finding
his chosen subject increasingly fascinating: lucky "to have chosen a
field that genuinely interested him and that it was really 'his
thing". Fellow students described Medvedev as a correct and
diplomatic person who in debates presented his arguments firmly,
without offending .
During his student years, Medvedev was a fan of the English rock
Black Sabbath ,
Led Zeppelin , and
Deep Purple , fond of sports
and participated in athletic competitions in rowing and weight-lifting
He graduated from the Law Department of
Leningrad State University in
1987 (together with Ilya Yeliseyev, Anton Ivanov , Nikolay Vinnichenko
Konstantin Chuychenko , who later became associates). After
graduating, Medvedev considered joining the prosecutor's office to
become an investigator however, he took an opportunity to pursue
graduate studies as the civil law chair, deciding to accept three
budget-funded post-graduate students to work at the chair itself.
In 1990, Medvedev defended his dissertation titled, "Problems of
Realisation of Civil Juridical Personality of State Enterprise" and
received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law .
Anatoly Sobchak , a major democratic politician of the 1980s and
1990s was one of Medvedev's professors at the university. In 1988,
Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto
head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet
parliament , the Congress of People\'s Deputies of the USSR.
After Sobchak's election campaign Medvedev continued his academic
career in the position of docent at his alma mater, now renamed to
Saint Petersburg State University . He taught civil and Roman law
until 1999. According to one student, Medvedev was a popular teacher ;
"strict but not harsh". During his tenure Medvedev co-wrote a popular
three-volume civil law textbook which over the years has sold a
million copies. Medvedev also worked at a small law consultancy firm
which he had founded with his friends Anton Ivanov and Ilya Yeliseyev,
to supplement his academic salary.
CAREER IN ST PETERSBURG
Facade of the
Smolny Institute , meeting place of the City
Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs where Medvedev worked as a
Anatoly Sobchak returned from Moscow to become Chairman of
Leningrad City Council . Sobchak hired Medvedev who had previously
headed his election campaign. One of Sobchak's former students,
Vladimir Putin , came on board as an adviser. The next summer Sobchak
was elected Mayor of the city, and Medvedev became a consultant to
City Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs. It was headed by Putin.
In November 1993 Medvedev became the legal affairs director of Ilim
Pulp Enterprise (ILP), a St. Petersburg-based timber company .
Medvedev aided the company in developing a strategy as the firm
launched a significant expansion. Medvedev received 20% of the
company's stock. In the next seven years Ilim Pulp Enterprise became
Russia's largest lumber company with an annual revenue of around $500
million. Medvedev sold his shares in ILP in 1999. He then took his
first job at the central government of Russia. The profits realised by
Medvedev are unknown.
CAREER IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
Vladimir Putin on 27 March 2000 the next day
following Putin's victory in the presidential election.
In June 1996, Medvedev's colleague
Vladimir Putin was brought into
Russian presidential administration . Three years later, on 16
August 1999, he became
Prime Minister of Russia . Three months later,
in November 1999, Medvedev became one of several from St. Petersburg
brought in by
Vladimir Putin to top government positions in Moscow. On
31 December he was appointed deputy head of the presidential staff
becoming one of the politicians closest to President Putin. During the
2000 Presidential elections he was Putin's campaign manager . Putin
won the election with 52.94% of the popular vote. Medvedev was quoted
after the election commenting he thoroughly enjoyed the work and the
responsibility calling it "a test of strength".
As President, Putin launched a campaign against corrupt oligarchs and
economic mismanagement. He appointed Medvedev Chairman of gas company
Gazprom 's board of directors in 2000 with
Alexei Miller . Medvedev
put an end to the large-scale tax evasion and asset stripping by the
previous corrupt management. Medvedev then served as deputy chair
from 2001 to 2002, becoming chair for the second time in June 2002, a
position which he held until his ascension to Presidency in 2008.
During Medvedev's tenure, Gazprom's debts were restructured and the
company's market capitalisation grew from $7.8 billion in 2000 to
$300 billion in early 2008.
Medvedev headed Russia's negotiations with
gas price disputes.
In October 2003 Medvedev replaced
Alexander Voloshin as presidential
chief of staff . In November 2005 Medvedev moved from the presidential
administration of the government when Putin appointed him as the First
Deputy Prime Minister of Russia. In particular Medvedev was made
responsible for the implementation of the National Priority Projects
focusing on improving public health , education , housing and
agriculture . The program achieved some major results such as increase
of wages in healthcare and education and construction of new
apartments but its funding, 4% of the federal budget, was not enough
to significantly overhaul Russia's infrastructure. According to
opinion polls most Russians believed the money invested in the
projects had been spent ineffectively.
In December 2005 Medvedev was named Person of the Year by Expert
magazine , a limited Russian business weekly. He shared the title with
Alexey Miller , CEO of Gazprom.
Following his appointment as First Deputy Prime Minister, many
political observers began to regard Medvedev as a potential candidate
for the 2008 presidential elections, although Western observers
widely believed Medvedev was too liberal and too pro-Western for Putin
to endorse him as a candidate. Instead, Western observers expected the
candidate to arise from the ranks of the so-called siloviki , security
and military officials many of whom were appointed to high positions
during Putin's presidency. The silovik
Sergei Ivanov and the
Viktor Zubkov were seen as the strongest
candidates. In opinion polls which asked Russians to pick their
favourite successor to Putin from a list of candidates not containing
Putin himself, Medvedev often came out first, beating Ivanov and
Zubkov as well as the opposition candidates. In November 2006,
Medvedev's trust rating was 17%, more than double than that of Ivanov.
Medvedev's popularity was probably boosted by his high-profile role in
National Priority Projects .
Many observers were surprised when on 10 December 2007, President
Putin announced that Medvedev was his preferred successor. The
announcement was staged on TV with four parties suggesting Medvedev's
candidature to Putin, and Putin then giving his endorsement. The four
pro-Kremlin parties were United Russia,
Fair Russia , Agrarian Party
Civilian Power .
United Russia held its party congress
on 17 December 2007 where by secret ballot of the delegates, Medvedev
was officially endorsed as their candidate in the 2008 presidential
election. He formally registered his candidacy with the Central
Election Commission on 20 December 2007 and said he would step down as
chairman of Gazprom, since under the current laws, the president is
not permitted to hold another post. His registration was formally
accepted as valid by the Russian Central Election Commission on 21
January 2008. Describing his reasons for endorsing Medvedev, Putin
I am confident that he will be a good president and an effective
manager. But besides other things, there is this personal chemistry: I
trust him. I just trust him.
2008 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
Medvedev's election campaign took advantage of Putin's high
popularity and his endorsement of Medvedev. Main article: Russian
presidential election, 2008
As 2 March 2008 election approached, the outgoing President, Vladimir
Putin, remained the country's most popular politician. An opinion poll
by Russia's independent polling organization, the Levada Center,
conducted over the period 21–24 December 2007 indicated that when
presented a list of potential candidates, 79% of Russians were ready
to vote for Medvedev if the election was immediately held. The
other main contenders, the Communist
Gennady Zyuganov and the LDPR 's
Vladimir Zhirinovsky both received in 9% in the same poll. Much of
Putin's popularity transferred to his chosen candidate, with 42% of
the survey responders saying that Medvedev's strength came from
Putin's support to him.
In his first speech after being endorsed, Medvedev announced that, as
president, he would appoint
Vladimir Putin to the post of prime
minister to head the Russian government . Although constitutionally
barred from a third consecutive presidential term, such a role would
allow Putin to continue as an influential figure in Russian politics.
Putin pledged that he would accept the position of prime minister
should Medvedev be elected president. Although Putin had pledged not
to change the distribution of authority between the president and
prime minister, many analysts expected a shift in the center of power
from the presidency to the prime minister post when Putin assumed the
latter under a Medvedev presidency. Election posters portrayed the
pair side-by-side with the slogan "Together We Win" ("Вместе
победим"). Medvedev vowed to work closely with Putin once
In December 2007, in preparation for his election campaign, Medvedev
announced that funding of the
National Priority Projects would be
raised by 260 billion rubles for 2008. Medvedev's election campaign
was relatively low-key and, like his predecessor, Medvedev refused to
take part in televised debates, citing his high workload as first
deputy prime minister as the reason. Instead, Medvedev preferred to
present his views on his election website .
In January 2008, Medvedev launched his campaign with stops in the
oblasts . On 22 January 2008, Medvedev held what was effectively his
first campaign speech at Russia's second Civic Forum, advocating a
liberal-conservative agenda for modernising Russia. Medvedev argued
Russia needed "decades of stable development" because the country
had "exhausted its share of revolutions and social upheavals back in
the twentieth century". Medvedev therefore emphasised liberal
modernisation while still aiming to continue his predecessor's agenda
of stabilisation. On 15 February 2008, Medvedev held a keynote speech
at the Fifth
Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum, saying that:
"Freedom is better than non-freedom – this principle should be at
the core of our politics. I mean freedom in all its manifestations –
personal freedom, economic freedom and, finally, freedom of
Krasnoyarsk speech, Medvedev harshly condemned Russia's "legal
nihilism " and highlighted the need to ensure independence of the
country's juridical system and the need for an anti-corruption
program. In economy, Medvedev advocated private property, economic
deregulation and lower taxes. According to him, Russia's economy
should be modernised by focusing on four "I"s: institutions,
infrastructure, innovation and investment.
Medvedev with Putin on election day on 2 March 2008
Medvedev was elected
President of Russia
President of Russia on 2 March 2008. The final
election results gave him 70.28% (52,530,712) of votes with a turnout
of 69.78% of registered voters. The main contenders, Gennady Zyuganov
Vladimir Zhirinovsky received 17.72% and 9.35% respectively.
Three-quarters of Medvedev's vote was Putin\'s electorate. According
to surveys, had Putin and Medvedev both run for president in the same
elections, Medvedev would have received 9% of the vote. However,
given United Russia's near-total dominance of Russian politics it was
given that Medvedev had effectively clinched the presidency when he
was nominated as that party's candidate.
The fairness of the election was disputed by observers and officials
worldwide. Andreas Gross, head of the Parliamentary Assembly of the
Council of Europe (PACE) mission, stated that the elections were
"neither free nor fair". Moreover, the few western vote monitors
bemoaned the inequality of candidate registration and the abuse of
administrative resources by Medvedev allowing blanket television
coverage. Russian programmer Shpilkin analyzed the results of
Medvedev's election and came to the conclusion that the results were
falsified by the election committees. However, after the correction
for the alleged falsification factor, Medvedev still came out as the
winner although with 63% of the vote instead of 70%.
According to John P. Willerton, the 2008 presidential elections and
Medvedev's inauguration "represented an unprecedented moment in the
over thousand-year history of the Russian state, as a politically
strong and healthy 55-year-old president willingly turned powers to a
similarly vigorous leader." At the time of the elections, Putin was at
the height of his popularity. Given his substantial majority in the
State Duma , Putin could have easily amended the constitution to allow
him to serve a third consecutive term but did not.
Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev Taking the
Oath in the
Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace on 7 May 2008
On 7 May 2008,
Dmitry Medvedev took an oath as the third President of
Russian Federation in a ceremony held in the Grand Kremlin Palace
. After taking the oath of office and receiving a gold chain of
double-headed eagles symbolizing the presidency, he stated:
"I believe my most important aims will be to protect civil and
economic freedoms... We must fight for a true respect of the law and
overcome legal nihilism, which seriously hampers modern development."
His inauguration coincided with the celebration of the Victory Day on
9 May. He attended the military parade at
Red Square and signed a
decree to provide housing to war veterans.
Sergei Naryshkin as the new head of the
presidential administration . See also: Vladimir Putin\'s Second
On 8 May 2008,
Dmitry Medvedev appointed
Vladimir Putin Prime
Russia as he had promised during his election campaign.
The nomination was approved by the
State Duma with a clear majority of
392–56, with only communist deputees voting against.
12 May 2008, Putin proposed the list of names for his new cabinet
which Medvedev approved. Most of the personnel remained unchanged
from the times of Putin's presidency but there were several
high-profile changes. The Minister of
Vladimir Ustinov was
replaced by Aleksandr Konovalov ; the Minister of Energy, Viktor
Khristenko was replaced with
Sergei Shmatko ; the Minister of
Leonid Reiman was replaced with
Igor Shchyogolev and
Vitaliy Mutko received the newly created position of Minister of
Sports, Tourism and Youth policy.
In the presidential administration Medvedev replaced Sergei Sobyanin
Sergei Naryshkin as the head of the administration. The head of
the Federal Security Service ,
Nikolai Patrushev , was replaced with
Alexander Bortnikov . Medvedev's economic adviser Arkady Dvorkovich
and his Press Attaché
Natalya Timakova became part of the President's
core team. Medvedev's old classmate from his student years, Konstantin
Chuichenko , became his personal assistant.
Medvedev was careful not to upset the balance of different factions
in the Presidential administration and in the government. However, the
influence of the powerful security/military-related siloviki weakened
after Medvedev's inauguration for the first time in 20 years. In their
place, Medvedev brought in the so-called civiliki, a network of St.
Petersburg civil law scholars preferred by Medvedev for high
Russian power-switching operation 2008 Medvedev
with Putin in 2008
From the beginning of Medvedev's tenure, the nature of his Presidency
and his relationship with
Vladimir Putin was subject to considerable
media speculation. In a unique situation in the Russian Federation's
political history, the constitutionally powerful President was now
flanked with a highly influential
Prime Minister (Putin), who also
remained the country's most popular politician. Previous Prime
Ministers had proven to be almost completely subordinate to the
President and none of them had enjoyed strong public approval, with
Putin's previous tenure (1999–2000) as
Prime Minister under Boris
Yeltsin being the only exception. Journalists quickly dubbed the new
system with a practically dual-headed executive as "government by
tandem" or "tandemocracy", with Medvedev and Putin called the "ruling
Daniel Treisman has argued that early in Medvedev's presidency, Putin
seemed ready to disengage and started withdrawing to the background.
In the first year of Medvedev's presidency, two external events
threatening Russia—the late-2000s financial crisis and the 2008
South Ossetia war —changed Putin's plans and caused him to resume a
stronger role in Russian politics.
MAIN EXTERNAL EVENTS
South Ossetia War
2008 South Ossetia war
2008 South Ossetia war Military operations in the
2008 South Ossetia war
2008 South Ossetia war Presidential decree recognising South
Ossetia 's independence, signed by Medvedev on 26 August 2008
The long-lingering conflict between Georgia and the separatist
South Ossetia and
Abkhazia , which were supported by
Russia, escalated during the summer of 2008. In the night of 7–8
August, Georgia launched a surprise attack, codenamed "Operation Clear
South Ossetia with 10,000–11,000 soldiers and 75
tanks. Several Russian peacekeepers were killed in the attack, and
many South Ossetians who had Russian citizenship.
At the time of the attack, Medvedev was on vacation and Putin was
attending the opening ceremony of the
2008 Beijing Olympics
2008 Beijing Olympics . At
about 1:00 a.m on 8 August, Medvedev held a telephone conversation
with the Defence Minister,
Anatoliy Serdyukov . It is likely that
during this conversation, Medvedev authorised the use of force against
Georgia. The next day, Medvedev released a statement, in which he
Last night, Georgian troops committed what amounts to an act of
aggression against Russian peacekeepers and the civilian population in
South Ossetia ... In accordance with the Constitution and the federal
laws, as President of the
Russian Federation it is my duty to protect
the lives and dignity of Russian citizens wherever they may be. It is
these circumstances that dictate the steps we will take now. We will
not allow the deaths of our fellow citizens to go unpunished. The
perpetrators will receive the punishment they deserve. — Dmitry
Medvedev on 8 August 2008
In the early hours of 8 August, Russian military forces launched a
counter-offensive against Georgian troops. After five days of heavy
fighting, all Georgian forces were routed from
South Ossetia and
Abkhazia. On 12 August, Medvedev announced an end to the Russian
military operation, entitled "Operation to force Georgia into peace".
Later on the same day, a peace deal brokered by the French and EU
Nicolas Sarkozy , was signed between the warring parties.
On 26 August, after being unanimously passed by the
State Duma ,
Medvedev signed a decree recognising
South Ossetia and
independent states. The five-day conflict cost the lives of 48 Russian
soldiers, including 10 peacekeepers, while the casualties for Georgia
was 170 soldiers and 14 policemen.
The Russian popular opinion of the military intervention was broadly
positive, not just among the supporters of the government, but across
the political spectrum. Medvedev's popularity ratings soared by
around 10 percentage points to over 70%, due to what was seen as his
effective handling of the war. Although Putin also had a visible role
during the conflict, such as hurrying home from the Beijing Olympics
to meet refugees arriving from the conflict zone, it was Medvedev who
made the key decisions, authorising the use of force and leading the
Shortly in the aftermath of the conflict, Medvedev formulated a
5-point strategy of the Russian foreign policy, which has become known
Medvedev Doctrine .
2008–09 Economic Crisis
In September 2008,
Russia was hit by repercussions of the global
financial crisis . Before this, Russian officials, such as the Finance
Alexei Kudrin , had said they believed
Russia would be safe,
due to its stable macroeconomic situation and substantial reserves
accumulated during the years of growth. Despite this, the recession
proved to be the worst in the history of Russia, and the country's GDP
fell by over 8% in 2009. The government's response was to use over a
trillion rubles (more than $40 billion U.S. Dollars) to help troubled
banks, and initiated a large-scale stimulus programme, lending $50
billion to struggling companies. No major banks collapsed, and minor
failures were handled in an effective way. The economic situation
stabilised in 2009, but substantial growth did not resume until 2010.
Medvedev's approval ratings declined during the crisis, dropping from
83% in September 2008 to 68% in April 2009, before recovering to 72%
in October 2009 following improvements in the economy.
According to some analysts, the economic crisis, together with the
2008 South Ossetia war
2008 South Ossetia war , delayed Medvedev's liberal programme. Instead
of launching the reforms, the government and the Presidency had to
focus their efforts on anti-crisis measures and handling the foreign
policy implications of the war.
Medvedev modernisation programme Model of a
GLONASS-K satellite. Medvedev made space technology and
telecommunications one of the priority areas of his modernisation
In the economic sphere, Medvedev has launched a modernisation
programme which aims at modernising Russia\'s economy and society,
decreasing the country's dependency on oil and gas revenues and
creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation
. The programme is based on the top 5 priorities for the country's
technological development: efficient energy use ; nuclear technology ;
information technology; medical technology and pharmaceuticals ; and
space technology in combination with telecommunications. For
Medvedev, the modernisation programme has become one of the most
ambitious and important agendas of his presidency.
In November 2010, on his annual speech to the Federal Assembly
Medvedev stressed for greater privatisation of unneeded state assets
both at the federal and regional level, and that Russia's regions must
sell-off non-core assets to help fund post-crisis spending, following
in the footsteps of the state's planned $32 billion 3-year asset
sales. Medvedev said the money from privatisation should be used to
help modernise the economy and the regions should be rewarded for
finding their own sources of cash.
Medvedev has named technological innovation one of the key priorities
of his presidency. In May 2009, Medvedev established the Presidential
Commission on Innovation, which he will personally chair every month.
The commission comprises almost the entire Russian government and some
of the best minds from academia and business. Medvedev has also said
that giant state corporations will inevitably be privatised, and
although the state had increased its role in the economy in recent
years, this should remain a temporary move.
On 7 August 2009,
Dmitry Medvedev instructed the Prosecutor General ,
Yury Chayka , and the Chief of the Audit Directorate of the
Presidential Administration of
Konstantin Chuychenko , to
probe state corporations , a new highly privileged form of
organisation earlier promoted by President Putin, to question their
In June 2010, he visited the Twitter headquarters in Silicon Valley
declaring a mission to bring more high-tech innovation and investment
to the country.
Russian police reform
Medvedev has made reforming Russia's law enforcement one of his top
agendas, the reason for which was a shooting started by a police
officer in April 2009 in one of Moscow's supermarkets. Medvedev
initiated the reform at the end of 2009, with a presidential decree
issued on 24 December ordering the government to start planning the
reform. In early August 2010 a draft law was posted on the Internet at
the address http://www.zakonoproekt2010.ru for public discussion. The
website was popular, with more than 2,000 comments posted within 24
hours of its opening. Based on citizen feedback, several
modifications to the draft were made. On 27 October 2010, President
Medvedev submitted the draft to the lower house of the Russian
parliament , the
State Duma . The
State Duma voted to approve the
bill on 28 January 2011, and the upper house , the Federation Council
followed suit on 2 February 2011. On 7 February 2011, President
Medvedev signed the bill into law. The changes came into effect on 1
Under the reform, the salaries of Russian police officers will be
increased by 30%, Interior Ministry personnel will be cut and
financing and jurisdiction over the police will be centralised.
Around 217 billion rubles ($7 billion) have been allocated to the
police reform from the federal budget for the time frame 2012–2013.
Russian anti-corruption campaign
Russian anti-corruption campaign Medvedev
chairing a meeting the Anti-Corruption Council on 30 September 2008
On 19 May 2008, Medvedev signed a decree on anti-corruption measures,
which included creation of an Anti-Corruption Council. In the first
meeting of the Council on 30 September 2008, Medvedev said:
"I will repeat one simple, but very painful thing. Corruption in our
country has become rampant. It has become commonplace and
characterises the life of the Russian society."
In July 2008, Medvedev's National Anti-Corruption Plan was published
in the official
Rossiyskaya Gazeta newspaper. It suggested measures
aimed at making sanctions for corruption more severe, such as
legislation to disqualify state and municipal officials who commit
minor corruption offences and making it obligatory for officials to
report corruption. The plan ordered the government to prepare
anti-corruption legislation based on these suggestions. The bill
that followed, called On Corruption Counteraction was signed into law
on 25 December 2008 as Federal Law N 273-FZ. According to Professor
Richard Sakwa , "
Russia now at last had serious, if flawed,
legislation against corruption, which in the context was quite an
achievement, although preliminary results were meagre." Russia's
Corruption Perceptions Index rose from 2.1 in 2008 to 2.2 in
2009, which "could be interpreted as a mildly positive response to the
newly adopted package of anti-corruption legislation initiated and
promoted by president Medvedev and passed by the Duma in December
2008", according to
Transparency International 's CPI 2009 Regional
On 13 April 2010, Medvedev signed presidential decree No. 460 which
introduced the National Anti-Corruption Strategy, a midterm government
policy, while the plan is updated every two years. The new strategy
stipulated increased fines, greater public oversight of government
budgets and sociological research. According to
Georgy Satarov ,
president of the Indem think tank, the latest decree "probably
reflected Medvedev's frustration with the fact that the 2008 plan had
yielded little result."
In January 2011, President Medvedev admitted that the government had
so far failed in its anti-corruption measures.
On 4 May 2011, Medvedev signed the Federal Law On Amendments to the
Criminal Code and the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian
Federation to Improve State Anti-Corruption Management. The bill
raised fines for corruption to up to 100 times the amount of the bribe
given or received, with the maximum fine being 500 million rubles
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
President Medvedev initiated new policy called "Our New School" and
instructed the government to present a review on the implementation of
the initiative every year.
Development Of The Political System
Sergey Mironov was very critical of the 2009
Regional elections held on 1 March 2009 were followed by accusations
of administrative resources being used in support of United Russia
candidates, with the leader of A Just
Sergey Mironov , being
especially critical. Responding to this, Medvedev met with the
Chairman of the Central Election Commission of
Russia , Vladimir
Churov , and called for moderation in the use of administrative
resources. In August 2009, Medvedev promised to break the
near-dominant position of
United Russia party in national and regional
legislatures, stating that "New democratic times are beginning". The
next regional elections were held on 11 October 2009 and won by United
Russia with 66% of the vote. The elections were again harshly
criticised for the use of administrative resources in favour of United
Russia candidates. Communist , LDPR and A Just
deputies staged an unprecedented walkout on 14–15 October 2009 as a
Richard Sakwa has noted, that although Medvedev has
often promised to stand up for more political pluralism, after the
2009 regional elections, a gulf had formed between Medvedev's words
and the worsening situation, with the question arising "whether
Medvedev had the desire or ability to renew Russia's political
On 26 October 2009, the First Deputy Chief of Staff , Vladislav
Surkov , warned that democratic experiments could result in more
instability and that more instability "could rip
Russia apart". On 6
November 2010, Medvedev vetoed a recently passed bill which restricted
antigovernment demonstrations. The bill, passed on 22 October, notably
prohibited anyone who had previously been convicted of organizing an
illegal mass rally from seeking permission to stage a demonstration.
In late November 2010, Medvedev made a public statement about the
damage being done to Russia's politics by the dominance of the United
Russia party. He claimed that the country faced political stagnation
if the ruling party would "degrade" if not challenged; "this
stagnation is equally damaging to both the ruling party and the
opposition forces." In the same speech, he said Russian democracy was
"imperfect" but improving.
BBC Russian correspondents reported that
this came on the heels of discontent in political circles and
opposition that the authorities, in their view, had too much control
over the political process. Medvedev visits the Russian Republic
In his first State of the Nation address to the Russian parliament on
5 November 2008, Medvedev proposed to change the Constitution of
Russia in order to increase the terms of the President and State Duma
from four to six and five years respectively (see 2008 Amendments to
the Constitution of
Medvedev on 8 May 2009, proposed to the legislature and on 2 June
signed into law an amendment whereby the chairperson of the
Constitutional Court and his deputies would be proposed to the
parliament by the president rather than elected by the judges, as was
the case before.
In May 2009, Medvedev set up the Presidential Commission of the
Russian Federation to Counter Attempts to Falsify History to the
Detriment of Russia\'s Interests . In August of the same year, he
stated that opposes the equating of
Stalinism with Nazism . Defending
Stalinism , Medvedev denies the involvement of the
Soviet Union to the
unleashing of the World War II together with the
Nazi Germany .
Arguments of the
European Union and of the OSCE were called a lie. If
believe to Dmitry Medvedev, it was
Joseph Stalin who in fact
"ultimately saved Europe".
In a speech on 15 September 2009, Medvedev stated that he approved of
the abolition in 2004 of direct popular elections of regional leaders
, effectively in favour of their appointment by the Kremlin, and added
that he didn't see a possibility of a return to direct elections even
in 100 years.
News conference following Russian-Cypriot talks in
In 2009, Medvedev proposed an amendment to the election law which
would decrease the
State Duma election threshold from 7% to 5%. The
amendment was signed into law in Spring 2009. Parties receiving more
than 5% but less than 6% of the votes will now be guaranteed one seat,
while parties receiving more than 6% but less than 7% will get two
seats. These seats will be allocated before the seats for parties with
over 7% support.
The Russian election law stipulates that parties with representatives
State Duma (currently
United Russia , Communist Party of the
Russian Federation , Liberal Democratic Party of
Russia and A Just
Russia ) are free to put forward a list of candidates for the Duma
elections, while parties with no current representation need first to
collect signatures. Under the 2009 amendments initiated by Medvedev,
the amount of signatures required was lowered from 200,000 to 150,000
for the 2011 Duma elections . In subsequent elections, only 120,000
signatures will be required.
In response to the largest demonstrations since the end of the Soviet
Union – reported in over 60 cities across
Russia in early December
2011 in response to widely reported alleged violations in
parliamentary elections and the barring of opposition parties from
them – President Medvedev has publicly ordered an investigation of
List of international trips made by Dmitry Medvedev
Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
Angela Merkel in
Germany in July
2011 Medvedev with Obama after signing the
New START treaty in
Prague, Czech Republic Medvedev meeting with Herman Van
Rompuy , President of the
European Council , and
Jose Manuel Barroso ,
Brussels , 2010
BRICS leaders in 2012 –
Dilma Rousseff ,
Manmohan Singh ,
Hu Jintao , and
Jacob Zuma .
Medvedev and President
Abdelaziz Bouteflika in
Medvedev meets with Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton , 2010
In August, during the third month of Medvedev's presidency, Russia
took part in the
2008 South Ossetia war
2008 South Ossetia war with Georgia , which drove
Russia–United States relations to a post–Cold War high.
On 26 August, following a unanimous vote of the Federal Assembly of
Russia , Medvedev issued a presidential decree officially recognizing
South Ossetia as independent states, an action condemned
by the G7 . On 31 August 2008, Medvedev announced a shift in the
Russian foreign policy under his government, built around five main
* Fundamental principles of international law are supreme.
* The world will be multipolar .
Russia will not seek confrontation with other nations.
Russia will protect its citizens wherever they are.
Russia will develop ties in friendly regions.
In his address to the parliament on 5 November 2008 he also promised
to deploy the Iskander missile system and radar-jamming facilities in
Oblast to counter the U.S. missile defence system in
Eastern Europe. Following U.S. President
Barack Obama 's announcement
on 17 September 2009, that Washington would not deploy missile-defense
elements in the Czech Republic and Poland,
Dmitry Medvedev said he
decided against deploying Iskander missiles in Russia's Kaliningrad
On 21 November 2011, Medvedev claimed that the war on Georgia had
prevented further NATO expansion.
In 2011, during the performance at the Yaroslavl Global Policy Forum
, President Medvedev has declared that the doctrine of
Karl Marx on
class struggle is extremist and dangerous. Progressive economic
stratification which can be less evident in period of economic growth,
leads to acute conflicts between rich and poor people in period of
downturn. In such conditions, the doctrine on class struggle is being
revived in many regions of the world, riots and terrorist attacks
become reality, by opinion of Medvedev.
During the official visit to
Armenia , 7 April 2016 year, Prime
Dmitry Medvedev visited the
Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
to pay tribute to the victims of the
Armenian Genocide . Medvedev laid
flowers at the Eternal Fire and honored the memory of the victims with
a minute of silence.
Russia recognized the crime yet in 1995 year.
RELATIONSHIP WITH PUTIN
Although the Russian constitution clearly apportions the majority of
power to the President, speculation arose over the question of whether
it was Medvedev or
Vladimir Putin who actually wielded
the most power. According to
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph , "Kremlin-watchers"
note that Medvedev uses the more formal form of \'you\' (Вы, 'vy')
when addressing Putin, while Putin addresses Medvedev with the less
formal 'ty' (ты).
According to a poll conducted in September 2009 by the Levada Center
in which 1,600 Russians took part, 13% believed Medvedev held the most
power, 32% believed Putin held the most power, 48% believed that the
two shared equal levels of influence, and 7% failed to answer.
However, Medvedev attempted to affirm his position by stating, "I am
the leader of this state, I am the head of this state, and the
division of power is based on this."
2012 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
As both Putin and Medvedev could have run for President in the 2012
general elections , there was a view from some analysts that some of
Medvedev's contemporaneous actions and comments at the time were
designed to separate his image from Putin's: examples noted by the BBC
included his dealings in late 2010 with NATO and the United States,
possibly designed to show himself as being better able to deal with
Western nations, and comments in November about the need for a
stronger opposition in Russian politics, to present himself as a
BBC also noted that other analysts believed the split
to be exaggerated, that Medvedev and Putin were "trying to maximise
support for the authorities by appealing to different parts of
society". There was belief that the court verdict on former oligarch
Mikhail Khodorkovsky and his partner
Platon Lebedev , both of whom
funded opposition parties before their arrests, would indicate whether
or not Putin was "still calling all the shots".
On 24 September 2011, while speaking at the
United Russia party
congress, Medvedev announced that he would recommend the party
Vladimir Putin as its presidential candidate and that the two
men had long ago cut a deal to allow Mr Putin to return to the
presidency in 2012 after he was forced to stand down in 2008 by term
limits. This switch was termed by many in the media as "rokirovka",
the Russian term for the chess move "castling ". Medvedev said he
himself would be ready to perform "practical work in the government".
Putin accepted Medvedev's offer the same day, and backed him for the
position of the
Prime Minister of Russia in case the
United Russia ,
whose list of candidates in the elections Medvedev agreed to head,
would win in the upcoming Russian legislative election . The same day
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church endorsed the proposal by President
Medvedev to let Putin return to the post of President of Russia.
On 22 December 2011, in his last state of the nation address in
Moscow, Medvedev called for comprehensive reform of Russia\'s
political system — including restoring the election of regional
governors and allowing half the seats in the
State Duma to be directly
elected in the regions. "I want to say that I hear those who talk
about the need for change, and understand them", Medvedev said in an
address to the Duma. "We need to give all active citizens the legal
chance to participate in political life." However, the opposition to
United Russia party of Medvedev and
Prime Minister Putin
dismissed the proposals as political posturing that failed to
adequately address protesters who claimed 4 December election was
rigged. On 7 May, on his last day in office, Medvedev signed the last
documents as the head of state: in the sphere of civil society ,
protection of human rights and modernization . He approved the list of
instructions by the results of the meeting with the Presidential
council on Civil Society and Human Rights, which was held on 28 April.
Medvedev also approved with his decree "Presidential programme for
raising skills of engineers for 2012–2014" for modernization and
technological development of the Russian economy.
PRIME MINISTER (2012–PRESENT)
Main article: Dmitry Medvedev\'s Cabinet
On 7 May 2012, the same day he ceased to be the President of Russia,
Dmitry Medvedev was nominated by President
Vladimir Putin to the
office of Prime Minister. On 8 May 2012, the
State Duma of the
Russian Federation voted on the nomination submitted by the new
President, and confirmed the choice of Medvedev to the post. Putin's
United Russia party, now led by Medvedev, secured a majority of the
Duma's seats in the 2011 legislative election , winning 49% of the
vote, and 238 of the 450 seats. Medvedev's nomination to the office of
Prime Minister was approved by the
State Duma in a 299–144 vote.
Medvedev with Latvian PM
Valdis Dombrovskis , April 2013
Medvedev took office as
Prime Minister of Russia also on 8 May 2012,
Vladimir Putin signed the decree formalizing his
appointment to the office.
On 19 May 2012
Dmitry Medvedev took part in the G-8 Summit at Camp
David , in the
United States , replacing President Putin, who decided
not to represent
Russia in the summit. Medvedev was the first Prime
Minister to represent
Russia at a G-8 meeting. On 21 May 2012 his
Cabinet was appointed and approved by the President . On 26 May, he
was approved and officially appointed as the Chairman of United Russia
, the ruling Party. Earlier in the same week Medvedev was officially
joined to the party and thereby became Russia's first prime minister
affiliated to a political party.
During his first year as Prime Minister, Medvedev has presided over
tough legislation against smoking in public places in
increases in prices of alcoholic beverages , and stricter punishment
for drunk drivers.
In the wake of the
2014 Ukrainian revolution ,
Russia annexed the
Crimean Peninsula . On 31 March 2014, Medvedev was the first Russian
leader to visit Crimea since the peninsula became part of
Russia on 18
March . During his visit he announced the formation of the Federal
Ministry for Crimea Affairs .
Medvedev is married and has a son named Ilya Dmitrevich Medvedev
(born 1995). His wife, Svetlana Vladimirovna Medvedeva , was both his
childhood friend and school sweetheart. They married several years
after their graduation from secondary school in 1982. Dmitry
Medvedev and his wife
Svetlana Medvedeva in 2008
Medvedev is a fan of British hard rock , listing
Led Zeppelin , Black
Pink Floyd , and
Deep Purple as his favorite bands. He is a
collector of their original vinyl records and has previously said that
he has collected all of the recordings of Deep Purple. As a youth,
he made copies of their records, even though these bands were then on
the official state-issued blacklist . In February 2008, Medvedev and
Sergei Ivanov attended a
Deep Purple concert in Moscow together.
During a visit to Serbia, Medvedev received the highest award of the
Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church , the
Order of St. Sava , for "his
contribution to the unity of the world Orthodoxy and his love to the
Medvedev always reserves an hour each morning and again each evening
to swim and weight train. He swims 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) twice a
day. He also jogs, plays chess, and practices yoga . Among his hobbies
are reading the works of
Mikhail Bulgakov and he is also a fan of the
Harry Potter series after asking
J. K. Rowling
J. K. Rowling for her autograph when
they met during the G-20 London Summit in April 2009. He is also a
fan of football and follows his hometown professional football team,
Saint Petersburg . Medvedev with current members of
Deep Purple in 2011
Medvedev is an avid amateur photographer . In January 2010, one of
his photographs was sold at a charity auction for 51 million rubles
(US$1,750,000), making it one of the most expensive ever sold. The
photo was purchased by
Mikhail Zingarevich , a co-founder and member
of the board of directors of the Ilim Group at which Medvedev worked
as a lawyer in the 90s.
Medvedev's reported 2007 annual income was $80,000, and he reported
approximately the same amount as bank savings. Medvedev's wife
reported no savings or income. They live in an upscale apartment house
"Zolotye Klyuchi" in Moscow. Despite this supposedly modest income, a
video by anti-corruption activist
Alexei Navalny purports to show
"the vast trove of mansions, villas and vineyards accumulated" by
Russian-language Internet , Medvedev is sometimes associated
with the Medved meme, linked to padonki slang, which resulted in many
ironic and satirical writings and cartoons that blend Medvedev with a
bear. (The word medved means "bear" in Russian and the surname
"Medvedev" is a patronymic which means "of the bears"). Medvedev is
familiar with this phenomenon and takes no offense, stating that the
web meme has the right to exist.
Medvedev speaks English, in addition to his native Russian, but
during interviews he speaks only Russian.
2017 Russian protests Anti-corruption rally in Saint
Petersburg, 26 March 2017
Medvedev initiated a few anti-corruption laws in
Russia and has
been a vocal corruption opponent in
Russia who often pointed to
corruption as one of the main challenges of
In September 2016,
Alexei Navalny published a report with information
about Dmitry Medvedev's alleged summer residence ("dacha ") - a 80
hectare estate with plethora of houses, a ski run, a cascading
swimming pool, three helipads and purpose-built communications towers.
The estate even includes a house for ducks, which received public
ridicule and led to ducks becoming a protest symbol in
Russia a year
later. The area is surrounded by a six-foot (1,82 meter) fence and is
allegedly 30 times the size of
Red Square , the iconic square in
Moscow. This summer residence is an expensively renovated 18th
century manor called Milovka Estate and located in Plyos on the shore
In March 2017, Navalny and the
Anti-corruption Foundation published
another in-depth investigation of properties and residences used by
Medvedev and his family. A report called
He Is Not Dimon To You shows
how Medvedev allegedly owns and controls large areas of land, villas,
palaces, yachts, expensive apartments, wineries and estates through
complicated ownership structures involving shell companies and
foundations. Their total value is estimated at around 1.2 billion
USD. The report states that the original source of wealth is gifts by
Russian oligarchs and loans from state owned banks. An hour long
YouTube video in Russian was released together with the report. A
month after release, the video had more than 24 million views.
Medvedev dismissed the allegations, calling them "nonsense." These
revelations have resulted in large protests throughout Russia. Russian
authorities responded by arresting protesters in unauthorised protests
- hundreds were arrested including
Alexei Navalny , which the
government called "an illegal provocation." An April 2017 Levada poll
found that 45% of surveyed Russians supported the resignation of
Play media Medvedev videoblog posted after his visit to Latin
America in November 2008 On 23 June 2011, Medvedev personally
uploaded a photograph to
Wikimedia Commons .
Medvedev wrote two short articles on the subject of his doctoral
dissertation in Russian law journals. He is also one of the authors of
a textbook on civil law for universities first published in 1991 (the
6th edition of Civil Law. In 3 Volumes. was published in 2007). He is
the author of a university textbook, Questions of Russia's National
Development, first published in 2007, concerning the role of the
Russian state in social policy and economic development . He is also
the lead co-author of a book of legal commentary entitled, A
Commentary on the Federal Law "On the State Civil Service of the
Russian Federation". This work considers the Russian
Federal law on
the civil service, which went into effect on 27 July 2004, from
multiple perspectives — scholarly, jurisprudential , practical,
enforcement- and implementation-related.
In October 2008, President Medvedev began posting a videoblog at the
presidential website. His videoblog posts have also been posted in
LiveJournal community blog_medvedev since 21 April 2009
by the Kremlin administration.
On 23 June 2011, Medvedev participated in launching of the "Eternal
Values" project of
RIA Novosti together with Russian Chapter of
Wikimedia Foundation .
RIA Novosti granted free Creative Commons
licenses to a one hundred of its images, while Medvedev registered as
Dmitry Medvedev for RIAN and personally uploaded one of those
Wikimedia Commons .
On 13 April 2009, Medvedev gave a major interview to the Novaya
Gazeta newspaper. The interview was the first one he had ever given to
a Russian print publication and covered such issues as civil society
and the social contract, transparency of public officials and Internet
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* Personal website
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Alexander Voloshin CHAIRMAN OF THE PRESIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATION
2003–2005 Succeeded by
Mikhail Kasyanov FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER OF RUSSIA
2005–2008 Succeeded by
Vladimir Putin PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA
2008–2012 Succeeded by
PRIME MINISTER OF RUSSIA
PARTY POLITICAL OFFICES
Vladimir Putin LEADER OF UNITED RUSSIA
born 14 September 1965
President of Russia
President of Russia (2008–2012)