Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (/ˌmɛndəlˈeɪəf/
MEN-dəl-AY-əf; Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович
Менделе́ев, IPA: [ˈdmʲitrʲɪj ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ
mʲɪndʲɪˈlʲejɪf] ( listen); 8 February 1834 – 2
February 1907 O.S. 27 January 1834 – 20 January 1907) was
a Russian chemist and inventor. He formulated the Periodic Law,
created a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements, and
used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements
and also to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be
1 Early life
2 Later life
3 Periodic table
4 Other achievements
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Mendeleev was born in the village of Verkhnie Aremzyani, near Tobolsk
in Siberia, to Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev (1783–1847) and Maria
Dmitrievna Mendeleeva (née Kornilieva) (1793–1850). His
paternal grandfather Pavel Maximovich Sokolov was a Russian Orthodox
priest from the
Tver region. Ivan, along with his brothers and
sisters, obtained new family names while attending the theological
seminary. He worked as a school principal and a teacher of fine
arts, politics and philosophy at the
Maria Kornilieva came from a well-known dynasty of
founders of the first
Siberian printing house who traced their
ancestry to Yakov Korniliev, a 17th-century posad man turned a wealthy
merchant. In 1889 a local librarian published an article in the
Tobolsk newspaper where he claimed that Yakov was a baptized Teleut,
an ethnic minority known as "white Kalmyks" at the time. Since no
sources were provided and no documented facts of Yakov's life were
ever revealed, biographers generally dismiss it as a myth. In
1908, shortly after Mendeleev's death, one of his nieces published
Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I. Mendeleev where she voiced "a
family legend" about Maria's grandfather who married "a Kyrgyz or
Tatar beauty whom he loved so much that when she died, he also died
from grief". This, however, contradicts the documented family
chronicles, and neither of those legends is supported by Mendeleev's
autobiography, his daughter's or his wife's memoirs. Yet
some Western scholars still refer to Mendeleev's supposed "Mongol",
"Tatar", "Tartarian" or simply "Asian" ancestry as a
Mendeleev was raised as an Orthodox Christian, his mother encouraging
him to "patiently search divine and scientific truth." His son
would later inform that he departed from the Church and embraced a
form of "romanticized deism".
Mendeleev was the youngest of 17 siblings, of whom "only 14 stayed
alive to be baptized" according to Mendeleev's brother Pavel, meaning
the others died soon after their birth. The exact number of
Mendeleev's siblings differs among sources and is still a matter of
some historical dispute. Unfortunately for the family's
financial well being, his father became blind and lost his teaching
position. His mother was forced to work and she restarted her family's
abandoned glass factory. At the age of 13, after the passing of
his father and the destruction of his mother's factory by fire,
Mendeleev attended the Gymnasium in Tobolsk.
In 1849, his mother took Mendeleev across Russia from
Moscow with the aim of getting Mendeleev a higher education. The
university in Moscow did not accept him. The mother and son continued
Saint Petersburg to the father’s alma mater. The now poor
Mendeleev family relocated to Saint Petersburg, where he entered the
Main Pedagogical Institute
Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. After graduation, he contracted
tuberculosis, causing him to move to the Crimean Peninsula on the
northern coast of the
Black Sea in 1855. While there, he became a
science master of the Simferopol gymnasium №1. In 1857, he returned
Saint Petersburg with fully restored health.
Between 1859 and 1861, he worked on the capillarity of liquids and the
workings of the spectroscope in Heidelberg. Later in 1861, he
published a textbook named Organic Chemistry. This won him the
Demidov Prize of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
On 4 April 1862 he became engaged to Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva,
and they married on 27 April 1862 at Nikolaev Engineering
Institute's church in
Saint Petersburg (where he taught).
Mendeleev became a professor at the
Saint Petersburg Technological
Saint Petersburg State University in 1864, and 1865,
respectively. In 1865 he became Doctor of Science for his dissertation
"On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol". He achieved tenure in
1867 at St. Petersburg University and started to teach inorganic
chemistry, while succeeding Voskresenskii to this post. and by
1871 he had transformed
Saint Petersburg into an internationally
recognized center for chemistry research.
In 1876, he became obsessed with Anna Ivanova Popova and began
courting her; in 1881 he proposed to her and threatened suicide if she
refused. His divorce from Leshcheva was finalized one month after he
had married Popova (on 2 April) in early 1882. Even after the
divorce, Mendeleev was technically a bigamist; the Russian Orthodox
Church required at least seven years before lawful remarriage. His
divorce and the surrounding controversy contributed to his failure to
be admitted to the
Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences (despite his
international fame by that time). His daughter from his second
marriage, Lyubov, became the wife of the famous Russian poet Alexander
Blok. His other children were son Vladimir (a sailor, he took part in
the notable Eastern journey of Nicholas II) and daughter Olga,
from his first marriage to Feozva, and son Ivan and twins from Anna.
Though Mendeleev was widely honored by scientific organizations all
over Europe, including (in 1882) the
Davy Medal from the Royal Society
of London (which later also awarded him the
Copley Medal in 1905),
he resigned from
Saint Petersburg University on 17 August 1890.
He was elected a Foreign Member of the
Royal Society (ForMemRS) in
1892, and in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of
Weights and Measures, a post which he occupied until his death.
Mendeleev also investigated the composition of petroleum, and helped
to found the first oil refinery in Russia. He recognized the
importance of petroleum as a feedstock for petrochemicals. He is
credited with a remark that burning petroleum as a fuel "would be akin
to firing up a kitchen stove with bank notes."
In 1905, Mendeleev was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy
of Sciences. The following year the Nobel Committee for Chemistry
recommended to the Swedish Academy to award the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for 1906 to Mendeleev for his discovery of the periodic
Chemistry Section of the Swedish Academy supported this
recommendation. The Academy was then supposed to approve the
Committee's choice, as it has done in almost every case. Unexpectedly,
at the full meeting of the Academy, a dissenting member of the Nobel
Committee, Peter Klason, proposed the candidacy of
Henri Moissan whom
he favored. Svante Arrhenius, although not a member of the Nobel
Committee for Chemistry, had a great deal of influence in the Academy
and also pressed for the rejection of Mendeleev, arguing that the
periodic system was too old to acknowledge its discovery in 1906.
According to the contemporaries, Arrhenius was motivated by the grudge
he held against Mendeleev for his critique of Arrhenius's dissociation
theory. After heated arguments, the majority of the Academy chose
Moissan by a margin of one vote. The attempts to nominate
Mendeleev in 1907 were again frustrated by the absolute opposition of
In 1907, Mendeleev died at the age of 72 in
Saint Petersburg from
influenza. The crater Mendeleev on the Moon, as well as element
number 101, the radioactive mendelevium, are named after him.
See also: History of the periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Part of a series on the
Periodic table forms
32-column (large cells)
Janet's left step
Beyond period 7
Periodic table history
Discovery of elements
Naming & etymology
(in East Asia)
Systematic element names
Sets of elements
By periodic table structure
1 (alkali metals)
2 (alkaline earth metals)
18 (noble gases)
Periods (1–7 ...)
Blocks (s, p, d, f, ...)
By metallic classification
dividing metals & nonmetals
monatomic (noble gas)
By other characteristics
Transuranium, transplutonium elements
Major, minor & trans- actinides
List of chemical elements ...
by abundance (in human body)
by atomic properties
by isotope stability
by annual production
Properties of elements
Electronegativity Allen Pauling
Data pages for elements
Electron affinity / configuration
Heat capacity / of fusion / of vaporization
Speed of sound
Thermal conductivity / expansion coefficient
Sculpture in honor of Mendeleev and the periodic table, located in
In 1863 there were 56 known elements with a new element being
discovered at a rate of approximately one per year. Other scientists
had previously identified periodicity of elements. John Newlands
described a Law of Octaves, noting their periodicity according to
relative atomic weight in 1864, publishing it in 1865. His proposal
identified the potential for new elements such as germanium. The
concept was criticized and his innovation was not recognized by the
Society of Chemists until 1887. Another person to propose a periodic
table was Lothar Meyer, who published a paper in 1864 describing 28
elements classified by their valence, but with no prediction of new
After becoming a teacher in 1867, Mendeleev wrote the definitive
textbook of his time: Principles of
Chemistry (two volumes,
1868–1870). It was written as he was preparing a textbook for his
course. This is when he made his most important discovery. As
he attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical
properties, he noticed patterns that led him to postulate his periodic
table; he claimed to have envisioned the complete arrangement of the
elements in a dream:
"I saw in a dream a table where all elements fell into place as
required. Awakening, I immediately wrote it down on a piece of paper,
only in one place did a correction later seem necessary."
— Mendeleev, as quoted by Inostrantzev
Unaware of the earlier work on periodic tables going on in the 1860s,
he made the following table:
By adding additional elements following this pattern, Dmitri developed
his extended version of the periodic table. On 6 March 1869,
Mendeleev made a formal presentation to the Russian
titled The Dependence between the Properties of the Atomic Weights of
the Elements, which described elements according to both atomic weight
and valence. This presentation stated that
The elements, if arranged according to their atomic weight, exhibit an
apparent periodicity of properties.
Elements which are similar regarding their chemical properties either
have similar atomic weights (e.g., Pt, Ir, Os) or have their atomic
weights increasing regularly (e.g., K, Rb, Cs).
The arrangement of the elements in groups of elements in the order of
their atomic weights corresponds to their so-called valencies, as well
as, to some extent, to their distinctive chemical properties; as is
apparent among other series in that of Li, Be, B, C, N, O, and F.
The elements which are the most widely diffused have small atomic
The magnitude of the atomic weight determines the character of the
element, just as the magnitude of the molecule determines the
character of a compound body.
We must expect the discovery of many yet unknown elements–for
example, two elements, analogous to aluminum and silicon, whose atomic
weights would be between 65 and 75.
The atomic weight of an element may sometimes be amended by a
knowledge of those of its contiguous elements. Thus the atomic weight
of tellurium must lie between 123 and 126, and cannot be 128.
(Tellurium's atomic mass is 127.6, and Mendeleev was incorrect in his
assumption that atomic mass must increase with position within a
Certain characteristic properties of elements can be foretold from
their atomic weights.
Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and
predicted several new elements to complete the table in a
Russian-language journal. Only a few months after, Meyer published a
virtually identical table in a German-language journal.
Mendeleev has the distinction of accurately predicting the qualities
of what he called ekasilicon, ekaaluminium and ekaboron (germanium,
gallium and scandium, respectively).
For his predicted eight elements, he used the prefixes of eka, dvi,
and tri (
Sanskrit one, two, three) in their naming. Mendeleev
questioned some of the currently accepted atomic weights (they could
be measured only with a relatively low accuracy at that time),
pointing out that they did not correspond to those suggested by his
Periodic Law. He noted that tellurium has a higher atomic weight than
iodine, but he placed them in the right order, incorrectly predicting
that the accepted atomic weights at the time were at fault. He was
puzzled about where to put the known lanthanides, and predicted the
existence of another row to the table which were the actinides which
were some of the heaviest in atomic mass. Some people dismissed
Mendeleev for predicting that there would be more elements, but he was
proven to be correct when Ga (gallium) and Ge (germanium) were found
in 1875 and 1886 respectively, fitting perfectly into the two missing
Sanskrit names to his "missing" elements, Mendeleev showed
his appreciation and debt to the
Sanskrit grammarians of ancient
India, who had created sophisticated theories of language based on
their discovery of the two-dimensional patterns in basic sounds.
Mendeleev was a friend and colleague of the Sanskritist Böhtlingk,
who was preparing the second edition of his book on Pāṇini at
about this time, and Mendeleev wished to honor
Pāṇini with his
nomenclature. Noting that there are striking similarities between
the periodic table and the introductory Śiva Sūtras in Pāṇini's
grammar, Prof. Kiparsky says:
"[T]he analogies between the two systems are striking. Just as Panini
found that the phonological patterning of sounds in the language is a
function of their articulatory properties, so Mendeleev found that the
chemical properties of elements are a function of their atomic
Like Panini, Mendeleev arrived at his discovery through a search for
the “grammar” of the elements (using what he called the principle
of isomorphism, and looking for general formulas to generate the
possible chemical compounds).
Just as Panini arranged the sounds in order of increasing phonetic
complexity (e.g. with the simple stops k,p… preceding the other
stops, and representing all of them in expressions like kU, pU) so
Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weights,
and called the first row (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon etc.) “typical
(or representative) elements”.
Just as Panini broke the phonetic parallelism of sounds when the
simplicity of the system required it, e.g. putting the velar to the
right of the labial in the nasal row, so Mendeleev gave priority to
isomorphism over atomic weights when they conflicted, e.g. putting
beryllium in the magnesium family because it patterns with it even
though by atomic weight it seemed to belong with nitrogen and
phosphorus. In both cases, the periodicities they discovered would
later be explained by a theory of the internal structure of the
The original draft made by Mendeleev would be found years later and
published under the name Tentative System of Elements.
Dmitri Mendeleev is often referred to as the Father of the Periodic
Table. He called his table or matrix, "the Periodic System".
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Mendeleev made other important contributions to chemistry. The Russian
chemist and science historian Lev Chugaev has characterized him as "a
chemist of genius, first-class physicist, a fruitful researcher in the
fields of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, certain branches of
chemical technology (explosives, petroleum, and fuels, for example)
and other disciplines adjacent to chemistry and physics, a thorough
expert of chemical industry and industry in general, and an original
thinker in the field of economy." Mendeleev was one of the founders,
in 1869, of the Russian
Chemical Society. He worked on the theory and
practice of protectionist trade and on agriculture.
In an attempt at a chemical conception of the Aether, he put forward a
hypothesis that there existed two inert chemical elements of lesser
atomic weight than hydrogen. Of these two proposed elements, he
thought the lighter to be an all-penetrating, all-pervasive gas, and
the slightly heavier one to be a proposed element, coronium.
Mendeleev devoted much study and made important contributions to the
determination of the nature of such indefinite compounds as solutions.
In another department of physical chemistry, he investigated the
expansion of liquids with heat, and devised a formula similar to
Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases, while in
1861 he anticipated Thomas Andrews' conception of the critical
temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a
substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of
vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapor,
irrespective of the pressure and volume.
Mendeleev is given credit for the introduction of the metric system to
the Russian Empire.
He invented pyrocollodion, a kind of smokeless powder based on
nitrocellulose. This work had been commissioned by the Russian Navy,
which however did not adopt its use. In 1892 Mendeleev organized its
Mendeleev studied petroleum origin and concluded hydrocarbons are
abiogenic and form deep within the earth – see Abiogenic petroleum
origin. He wrote: "The capital fact to note is that petroleum was born
in the depths of the earth, and it is only there that we must seek its
origin." (Dmitri Mendeleev, 1877)
A very popular Russian story is that it was Mendeleev who came up with
the 40% standard strength of vodka in 1894, after having been
appointed Director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures with the
assignment to formulate new state standards for the production of
vodka. This story has, for instance, been used in marketing claims by
the Russian Standard vodka brand that, "In 1894, Dmitri Mendeleev, the
greatest scientist in all Russia, received the decree to set the
Imperial quality standard for Russian vodka and the 'Russian Standard'
was born", or that the vodka is "compliant with the highest
quality of Russian vodka approved by the royal government commission
headed by Mendeleev in 1894."
While it is true that Mendeleev in 1892 became head of the Archive of
Weights and Measures in Saint Petersburg, and evolved it into a
government bureau the following year, that institution was never
involved in setting any production quality standards, but was issued
with standardising Russian trade weights and measuring instruments.
Furthermore, the 40% standard strength was already introduced by the
Russian government in 1843, when Mendeleev was nine years old.
The basis for the whole story is a popular myth that Mendeleev's 1865
doctoral dissertation "A Discourse on the combination of alcohol and
water" contained a statement that 38% is the ideal strength of vodka,
and that this number was later rounded to 40% to simplify the
calculation of alcohol tax. However, Mendeleev's dissertation was
about alcohol concentrations over 70% and he never wrote anything
A number of places and objects are associated with the name and
achievements of the scientist.
Saint Petersburg his name was given to the National Metrology
Institute dealing with establishing and supporting national and
worldwide standards for precise measurements. Next to it there is a
monument to him that consists of his sitting statue and a depiction of
his periodic table on the wall of the establishment.
Twelve Collegia building, now being the centre of Saint
Petersburg State University and in Mendeleev's time – Head
Pedagogical Institute – there is Dmitry Mendeleev's Memorial Museum
Apartment with his archives. The street in front of these is named
after him as Mendeleevskaya liniya (Mendeleev Line).
In Moscow, there is the D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical
Technology of Russia.
After him was also named mendelevium, which is a synthetic chemical
element with the symbol Md (formerly Mv) and the atomic number 101. It
is a metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series,
usually synthesized by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles.
A large lunar impact crater Mendeleev that is located on the far side
of the Moon, as seen from the Earth, also bears the name of the
Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences has occasionally awarded a Mendeleev
Golden Medal since 1965.
List of Russian chemists
Mendeleev's predicted elements
Periodic systems of small molecules
^ a b "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived
from the original on 2015-03-16.
^ Also romanized Mendeleyev or Mendeleef
^ "Mendeleev". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Rao, C N R; Rao, Indumati (2015). Lives and Times of Great Pioneers
in Chemistry: (Lavoisier to Sanger). World Scientific. p. 119.
^ a b Maria Mendeleeva (1951). D. I. Mendeleev's Archive:
Autobiographical Writings. Collection of Documents. Volume 1 //
Biographical notes about D. I. Mendeleev (written by me - D.
Mendeleev), p. 13. — Leningrad: D. I. Mendeleev's Museum-Archive,
207 pages (in Russian)
^ Dmitriy Mendeleev: A Short CV, and A Story of Life, mendcomm.org
^ Удомельские корни Дмитрия Ивановича
Менделеева (1834–1907) Archived 8 September 2007 at the
Wayback Machine., starina.library.tver.ru
^ a b Maria Mendeleeva (1951). D. I. Mendeleev's Archive:
Autobiographical Writings. Collection of Documents. Volume 1 // From a
family tree documented in 1880 by brother Pavel Ivanovich, p. 11. —
Leningrad: D. I. Mendeleev's Museum-Archive, 207 pages (in Russian)
^ Yuri Mandrika (2004).
Tobolsk Governorate Vedomosti: Staff and
Authors. Anthology of
Tobolsk Journalism of the late XIX — early XX
centuries in 2 Books // From the interview with Maria Mendeleeva, born
Kornilieva, p. 351. — Tumen: Mandr i Ka, 624 pages
^ Elena Konovalova (2006). A
Book of the
1790-1917. — Novosibirsk: State Public Scientific Technological
Library, 528 page, p. 15 (in Russian) ISBN 5-94560-116-0
^ Yuri Mandrika (2004).
Tobolsk Governorate Vedomosti: Staff and
Authors. Anthology of
Tobolsk Journalism of the late XIX — early XX
centuries in 2 Books // The Kornilievs,
Tobolsk Manufacturers article
by Stepan Mameev, p. 314. — Tumen: Mandr i Ka, 624 pages
^ Eugenie Babaev (2009). Mendelievia. Part 3 article from the
Chemistry and Life – 21st Century journal at the MSU Faculty of
Chemistry website (in Russian)
^ Alexei Storonkin, Roman Dobrotyn (1984). D. I. Mendeleev's Life and
Work Chronicles. — Leningrad: Nauka, 539 pages, p. 25
^ Nadezhda Gubkina (1908). Family Chronicles. Memories about D. I.
Mendeleev. — Saint Petersburg, 252 pages
^ "Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev comes from indigenous Russian people",
p. 5 // Olga Tritogova-Mendeleeva (1947). Mendeleev and His Family.
— Moscow: Academy of Sciences Publishing House, 104 pages
^ Anna Mendeleeva (1928). Mendeleev in Life. — Moscow: M. and S.
Sabashnikov Publishing House, 194 pages
^ Loren R. Graham, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short
History, Cambridge University Press (1993), p. 45
^ Isaac Asimov, Asimov on Chemistry, Anchoor Books (1975), p. 101
^ Leslie Alan Horvitz, Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed
the World, John Wiley & Sons (2002), p. 45
^ Lennard Bickel, The deadly element: the story of uranium, Stein and
Day (1979), p. 22
^ Hiebert, Ray Eldon; Hiebert, Roselyn (1975). Atomic Pioneers: From
ancient Greece to the 19th century. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
Division of Technical Information. p. 25.
^ Gordin, Michael D. (2004). A Well-ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev
And The Shadow Of The Periodic Table. Basic Books. pp. 229–230.
ISBN 978-0-465-02775-0. Mendeleev seemed to have very few
theological commitments. This was not for lack of exposure. His
upbringing was actually heavily religious, and his mother — by far
the dominating force in his youth – was exceptionally devout. One of
his sisters even joined a fanatical religious sect for a time.
Despite, or perhaps because of, this background, Mendeleev withheld
comment on religious affairs for most of his life, reserving his few
words for anti-clerical witticisms... Mendeleev's son Ivan later
vehemently denied claims that his father was devoutly Orthodox: "I
have also heard the view of my father's 'church religiosity' — and I
must reject this categorically. From his earliest years Father
practically split from the church — and if he tolerated certain
simple everyday rites, then only as an innocent national tradition,
similar to Easter cakes, which he didn't consider worth fighting
against." ...Mendeleev's opposition to traditional Orthodoxy was not
due to either atheism or a scientific materialism. Rather, he held to
a form of romanticized deism.
^ Johnson, George (3 January 2006). "The Nitpicking of the Masses vs.
the Authority of the Experts". New York Times. Retrieved 14 March
^ When the Princeton historian of science Michael Gordin reviewed this
article as part of an analysis of the accuracy of for the 14
December 2005 issue of Nature, he cited as one of's errors
that "They say Mendeleev is the 14th child. He is the 14th surviving
child of 17 total. 14 is right out." However in a New York Times
article from January 2006, it was noted that in Gordin's own 2004
biography of Mendeleev, he also had the Russian chemist listed as the
17th child, and quoted Gordin's response to this as being: "That's
curious. I believe that is a typographical error in my book.
Mendeleyev was the final child, that is certain, and the number the
reliable sources have is 13." Gordin's book specifically says that
Mendeleev's mother bore her husband "seventeen children, of whom eight
survived to young adulthood," with Mendeleev being the youngest. See:
Johnson, George (3 January 2006). "The Nitpicking of the Masses vs.
the Authority of the Experts". The New York Times. and Gordin,
Michael (22 December 2005). "Supplementary information to accompany
Nature news article 'Internet encyclopaedias go head to head' (Nature
438, 900–901; 2005)" (PDF). Blogs.Nature.com – via 2004, p.
^ a b c d e f Heilbron 2003, p. 509.
^ "Rustest.spb.ru". Rustest.spb.ru. Archived from the original on 22
September 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
^ "Gazeta.ua". Gazeta.ua. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
^ Chisholm 1911.
^ a b c One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates
text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh,
ed. (1911). "Mendeléeff, Dmitri Ivanovich". Encyclopædia Britannica.
18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 115.
^ John W. Moore; Conrad L. Stanitski; Peter C. Jurs. Chemistry: The
Molecular Science, Volume 1. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
^ Gribbin, J (2002). The Scientists: A History of Science Told Through
the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House.
p. 378. ISBN 0812967887.
^ Friedman, Robert M. (2001). The politics of excellence: behind the
Nobel Prize in science. New York: Times Books. pp. 32–34.
^ John B. Arden (1998). "Science, Theology and Consciousness", Praeger
Frederick A. p. 59: The initial expression of the commonly used
chemical periodic table was reportedly envisioned in a dream. In 1869,
Dmitri Mendeleev claimed to have had a dream in which he envisioned a
table in which all the chemical elements were arranged according to
their atomic weight.
^ John Kotz, Paul Treichel, Gabriela Weaver (2005). "
Chemical Reactivity," Cengage Learning. p. 333
^ Gerard I. Nierenberg (1986). "The art of creative thinking", Simon
& Schuster, p. 201: Dmitri Mendeleev's solution for the
arrangement of the elements that came to him in a dream.
^ Helen Palmer (1998). "Inner Knowing: Consciousness, Creativity,
Insight, and Intuition". J.P. Tarcher/Putnam. p. 113: The sewing
machine, for instance, invented by Elias Howe, was developed from
material appearing in a dream, as was Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic
table of elements
^ Simon S. Godfrey (2003). "Dreams & Reality". Trafford
Publishing. Chapter 2.: "The Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev
(1834–1907), described a dream in which he saw the periodic table of
elements in its complete form. ISBN 1-4120-1143-4
^ "The Soviet Review Translations" Summer 1967. Vol. VIII, No. 2, M.E.
Sharpe, Incorporated, p. 38
^ Myron E. Sharpe, (1967). "Soviet Psychology". Volume 5, p. 30.
^ A brief history of the development of the period table, wou.edu
^ Mendeleev and the Periodic Table Archived 12 September 2011 at the
Wayback Machine., chemsheets.co.uk
^ Seaborg, Glenn T (20 May 1994). "The Periodic Table: Tortuous path
to man-made elements". Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T
Seaborg. World Scientific. p. 179. ISBN 9789814502993.
Retrieved 5 March 2016.
^ Pfennig, Brian W. (3 March 2015). Principles of Inorganic Chemistry.
Wiley. p. 109. ISBN 9781118859025. Retrieved 4 March
^ Nye, Mary Jo (2016). "Speaking in Tongues: Science's centuries-long
hunt for a common language". Distillations. 2 (1): 40–43. Retrieved
22 March 2018.
^ Gordin, Michael D. (2015). Scientific Babel: How Science Was Done
Before and After Global English. Chicago, Illinois: University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226000299.
^ Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks ((Hardcover, First
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Gordin, Michael (2004). A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev and
the Shadow of the Periodic Table. New York: Basic Books.
Heilbron, John L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of
Modern Science. Oxford University Press.
Mendeleev, Dmitry Ivanovich; Jensen, William B. (2005). Mendeleev on
the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905. Mineola, New York:
Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-44571-2.
Strathern, Paul (2001). Mendeleyev's Dream: The Quest For the
Elements. New York: St Martins Press. ISBN 0-241-14065-X.
Mendeleev, Dmitrii Ivanovich (1901). Principles of Chemistry. New
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dmitri Mendeleev.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Babaev, Eugene V. (February 2009). Dmitriy Mendeleev: A Short CV, and
A Story of Life – 2009 biography on the occasion of Mendeleev's
Babaev, Eugene V., Moscow State University. Dmitriy Mendeleev Online
Original Periodic Table, annotated.
"Everything in its Place", essay by Oliver Sacks
Works by or about
Dmitri Mendeleev in libraries (
Dmitri Mendeleev's official site
18-column, large cells
32-column, large cells
Janet's left step table
Extension beyond the 7th period
1 (Alkali metals)
2 (Alkaline earth metals)
18 (Noble gases)
Alkaline earth metals
Lists of metalloids by source
Platinum-group metals (PGM)
By: Abundance (in humans)
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Speed of sound
Thermal expansion coefficient
in East Asia
systematic element name
Copley Medallists (1901–1950)
Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1901)
Joseph Lister (1902)
Eduard Suess (1903)
William Crookes (1904)
Dmitri Mendeleev (1905)
Élie Metchnikoff (1906)
Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson (1907)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (1908)
George William Hill
George William Hill (1909)
Francis Galton (1910)
George Darwin (1911)
Felix Klein (1912)
Ray Lankester (1913)
J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson (1914)
Ivan Pavlov (1915)
James Dewar (1916)
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
Pierre Paul Émile Roux (1917)
Hendrik Lorentz (1918)
William Bayliss (1919)
Horace Tabberer Brown
Horace Tabberer Brown (1920)
Joseph Larmor (1921)
Ernest Rutherford (1922)
Horace Lamb (1923)
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer (1924)
Albert Einstein (1925)
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1926)
Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington (1927)
Charles Algernon Parsons
Charles Algernon Parsons (1928)
Max Planck (1929)
William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg (1930)
Arthur Schuster (1931)
George Ellery Hale
George Ellery Hale (1932)
Theobald Smith (1933)
John Scott Haldane
John Scott Haldane (1934)
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1935)
Arthur Evans (1936)
Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale (1937)
Niels Bohr (1938)
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1939)
Paul Langevin (1940)
Thomas Lewis (1941)
Robert Robinson (1942)
Joseph Barcroft (1943)
Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1944)
Oswald Avery (1945)
Edgar Douglas Adrian (1946)
G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy (1947)
Archibald Hill (1948)
George de Hevesy
George de Hevesy (1949)
James Chadwick (1950)
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