John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (/ɡɪˈlɛspi/; October 21, 1917 –
January 6, 1993) was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer,
Gillespie was a trumpet virtuoso and improviser, building on the
virtuoso style of Roy Eldridge but adding layers of harmonic
complexity previously unheard in jazz. His beret and horn-rimmed
spectacles, his scat singing, his bent horn, pouched cheeks and his
light-hearted personality were essential in popularizing
In the 1940s Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, became a major figure in
the development of bebop and modern jazz. He taught and influenced
many other musicians, including trumpeters Miles Davis, Jon Faddis,
Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Morgan, Chuck
Mangione, and balladeer Johnny Hartman.
Scott Yanow wrote: "Dizzy Gillespie's contributions to jazz
were huge. One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time, Gillespie
was such a complex player that his contemporaries ended up being
similar to those of
Miles Davis and
Fats Navarro instead, and it was
not until Jon Faddis's emergence in the 1970s that Dizzy's style was
successfully recreated [....] Arguably Gillespie is remembered, by
both critics and fans alike, as one of the greatest jazz trumpeters of
1.1 Early life and career
1.2 Rise of bebop
1.3 Afro-Cuban music
1.4 Later years
1.5 Death and legacy
3 Bent trumpet
4 List of works
6 External links
Early life and career
Dizzy Gillespie, Tadd Dameron, Hank Jones,
Mary Lou Williams
Mary Lou Williams and Milt
Orent in 1947
Gillespie was born in Cheraw, South Carolina, the youngest of nine
children of James and Lottie Gillespie. James was a local
bandleader, so instruments were made available to the children.
Gillespie started to play the piano at the age of four.
Gillespie's father died when he was only ten years old.
Gillespie taught himself how to play the trombone as well as the
trumpet by the age of twelve. From the night he heard his idol, Roy
Eldridge, play on the radio, he dreamed of becoming a jazz
He won a music scholarship to the
Laurinburg Institute in North
Carolina which he attended for two years before accompanying his
family when they moved to Philadelphia.
Gillespie's first professional job was with the Frank Fairfax
Orchestra in 1935, after which he joined the respective orchestras of
Edgar Hayes and Teddy Hill, essentially replacing
Roy Eldridge as
first trumpet in 1937. Teddy Hill's band was where Gillespie made his
first recording, "King Porter Stomp". In August 1937 while gigging
with Hayes in Washington D.C., Gillespie met a young dancer named
Lorraine Willis who worked a Baltimore–Philadelphia–New York City
circuit which included the Apollo Theater. Willis was not immediately
friendly but Gillespie was attracted anyway. The two finally married
on May 9, 1940. They remained married until his death in 1993.
Gillespie stayed with Teddy Hill's band for a year, then left and
free-lanced with numerous other bands. In 1939, Gillespie joined
Cab Calloway's orchestra, with which he recorded one of his earliest
compositions, the instrumental "Pickin' the Cabbage", in 1940.
(Originally released on Paradiddle, a 78rpm backed with a
co-composition with Cozy Cole, Calloway's drummer at the time, on the
Vocalion label, No. 5467).
Mary Lou Williams
Mary Lou Williams and
Dizzy Gillespie in 1947
After a notorious altercation between the two men, Calloway fired
Gillespie in late 1941. The incident is recounted by Gillespie, along
with fellow Calloway band members
Milt Hinton and Jonah Jones, in Jean
Bach's 1997 film, The Spitball Story. Calloway did not approve of
Gillespie's mischievous humor, nor of his adventuresome approach to
soloing; according to Jones, Calloway referred to it as "Chinese
music". Finally, their grudge for each other erupted over a thrown
spitball. Calloway never thought highly of Gillespie, because he
didn't view Gillespie as a good musician. Once during a rehearsal, a
member of the band threw a spitball. Already in a foul mood, Calloway
decided to blame this on Gillespie. Dizzy didn’t take the blame and
the problem quickly escalated into a fist fight in which Dizzy stabbed
Calloway in the leg with a knife. Calloway had minor cuts on the
thigh and wrist. After the two men were separated, Calloway fired
Gillespie. A few days later, Gillespie tried to apologize to Calloway,
but he was dismissed.
During his time in Calloway's band, Gillespie started writing big band
music for bandleaders like
Woody Herman and Jimmy Dorsey. He then
freelanced with a few bands – most notably Ella Fitzgerald's
orchestra, composed of members of the Chick Webb's band.
Gillespie did not serve in World War II. At his Selective Service
interview, he told the local board, "in this stage of my life here in
the United States whose foot has been in my ass?" He was thereafter
classed as 4-F. In 1943, Gillespie joined the
Earl Hines band.
Gunther Schuller said
... In 1943 I heard the great
Earl Hines band which had Bird in it and
all those other great musicians. They were playing all the flatted
fifth chords and all the modern harmonies and substitutions and
Gillespie runs in the trumpet section work. Two years later I read
that that was 'bop' and the beginning of modern jazz ... but the band
never made recordings.
Gillespie said of the Hines band, "[p]eople talk about the Hines band
being 'the incubator of bop' and the leading exponents of that music
ended up in the Hines band. But people also have the erroneous
impression that the music was new. It was not. The music evolved from
what went before. It was the same basic music. The difference was in
how you got from here to here to here ... naturally each age has got
its own shit".
Gillespie joined the big band of Hines' long-time collaborator Billy
Eckstine, and it was as a member of Eckstine's band that he was
reunited with Charlie Parker, a fellow member. In 1945, Gillespie left
Eckstine's band because he wanted to play with a small combo. A "small
combo" typically comprised no more than five musicians, playing the
trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass and drums.
Rise of bebop
Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Ray Brown,
Milt Jackson and Timme
Rosenkrantz in September 1947, New York
Bebop was known as the first modern jazz style. However, it was
unpopular in the beginning and was not viewed as positively as swing
Bebop was seen as an outgrowth of swing, not a revolution.
Swing introduced a diversity of new musicians in the bebop era like
Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Kenny Clarke, Oscar
Pettiford, and Gillespie. Through these musicians, a new vocabulary of
musical phrases was created. With Parker, Gillespie jammed at
famous jazz clubs like
Minton's Playhouse and Monroe's Uptown House.
Parker's system also held methods of adding chords to existing chord
progressions and implying additional chords within the improvised
Gillespie compositions like "Groovin' High", "Woody 'n' You" and "Salt
Peanuts" sounded radically different, harmonically and rhythmically,
from the swing music popular at the time. "A Night in Tunisia",
written in 1942, while Gillespie was playing with Earl Hines' band, is
noted for having a feature that is common in today's music: a
syncopated bass line.  The song also displays Afro-Cuban
rhythms. One of their first small-group performances together was
only issued in 2005: a concert in New York's Town Hall on June 22,
1945. Gillespie taught many of the young musicians on 52nd Street,
Miles Davis and Max Roach, about the new style of jazz.
After a lengthy gig at
Billy Berg's club in Los Angeles, which left
most of the audience ambivalent or hostile towards the new music, the
band broke up. Unlike Parker, who was content to play in small groups
and be an occasional featured soloist in big bands, Gillespie aimed to
lead a big band himself; his first, unsuccessful, attempt to do this
was in 1945.
Gillespie with John Lewis, Cecil Payne, Miles Davis, and Ray Brown,
between 1946 and 1948
After his work with Parker, Gillespie led other small combos
(including ones with Milt Jackson, John Coltrane, Lalo Schifrin, Ray
Brown, Kenny Clarke, James Moody, J.J. Johnson, and Yusef Lateef) and
finally put together his first successful big band. Gillespie and his
band tried to popularize bop and make Gillespie a symbol of the new
music. He appeared frequently as a soloist with Norman Granz's
Jazz at the Philharmonic. He also headlined the 1946 independently
produced musical revue film Jivin' in Be-Bop.
In 1948, Gillespie was involved in a traffic accident when the bicycle
he was riding was bumped by an automobile. He was slightly injured,
and found that he could no longer hit the B-flat above high C. He won
the case, but the jury awarded him only $1000, in view of his high
earnings up to that point.
On January 6, 1953, he threw a party for his wife Lorraine at
Snookie's, a club in Manhattan, where his trumpet's bell got bent
upward in an accident, but he liked the sound so much he had a special
trumpet made with a 45 degree raised bell, becoming his trademark.
In 1956 Gillespie organized a band to go on a State Department tour of
the Middle East which was extremely well received internationally and
earned him the nickname "the Ambassador of Jazz". During this
time, he also continued to lead a big band that performed throughout
the United States and featured musicians including
Pee Wee Moore
Pee Wee Moore and
others. This band recorded a live album at the 1957 Newport jazz
festival that featured
Mary Lou Williams
Mary Lou Williams as a guest artist on
Miriam Makeba and
Dizzy Gillespie in concert, Deauville (Normandy,
France), July 20, 1991
In the late 1940s, Gillespie was also involved in the movement called
Afro-Cuban music, bringing
Afro-Latin American music and elements to
greater prominence in jazz and even pop music, particularly salsa.
Afro-Cuban jazz is based on traditional Afro-Cuban rhythms. Gillespie
was introduced to
Chano Pozo in 1947 by Mario Bauza, a Latin jazz
Chano Pozo became Gillespie's conga drummer for his
band. Gillespie also worked with
Mario Bauza in New York jazz clubs on
52nd Street and several famous dance clubs such as the Palladium and
Apollo Theater in Harlem. They played together in the Chick Webb
band and Cab Calloway's band, where Gillespie and Bauza became
lifelong friends. Gillespie helped develop and mature the Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban jazz was considered bebop-oriented, and some musicians
classified it as a modern style.
Afro-Cuban jazz was successful
because it never decreased in popularity and it always attracted
people to dance to its unique rhythms. Gillespie's most famous
Afro-Cuban music are the compositions "Manteca" and
"Tin Tin Deo" (both co-written with Chano Pozo); he was responsible
for commissioning George Russell's "Cubano Be, Cubano Bop", which
featured Pozo. In 1977, Gillespie discovered
Arturo Sandoval while
researching music during a tour of Cuba.
Gillespie performing in 1955
His biographer Alyn Shipton quotes Don Waterhouse approvingly that
Gillespie in the fifties "had begun to mellow into an amalgam of his
entire jazz experience to form the basis of new classicism". Another
opinion is that, unlike his contemporary Miles Davis, Gillespie
essentially remained true to the bebop style for the rest of his
In 1960, he was inducted into
Down Beat magazine's
Jazz Hall of Fame.
During the 1964 United States presidential campaign the artist, with
tongue in cheek, put himself forward as an independent write-in
candidate. He promised that if he were elected, the White
House would be renamed the Blues House, and he would have a cabinet
Duke Ellington (Secretary of State),
Miles Davis (Director
of the CIA),
Max Roach (Secretary of Defense), Charles Mingus
(Secretary of Peace),
Ray Charles (Librarian of Congress), Louis
Armstrong (Secretary of Agriculture),
Mary Lou Williams
Mary Lou Williams (Ambassador to
Thelonious Monk (Travelling Ambassador) and Malcolm X
(Attorney General). He said his running mate would be Phyllis
Diller. Campaign buttons had been manufactured years before by
Gillespie's booking agency "for publicity, as a gag", but now
proceeds from them went to benefit the Congress of Racial Equality,
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King,
Jr.; in later years they became a collector's item.
In 1971, Gillespie announced he would run again but withdrew
before the election for reasons connected to the Bahá'í
Dizzy Gillespie, a Bahá'í since 1968, was one of the most
famous adherents of the Bahá'í Faith. It brought him to see himself
as one of a series of musical messengers, part of a succession of
trumpeters somewhat analogous to the series of prophets who bring
God's message in religion. The universalist emphasis of his religion
prodded him to see himself more as a global citizen and humanitarian,
expanding on his already-growing interest in his African heritage. His
increasing spirituality brought out a generosity in him, and what
Nat Hentoff called an inner strength, discipline and "soul
force". Gillespie's conversion was most affected by Bill Sears'
book Thief in the Night. Gillespie spoke about the Bahá'í Faith
frequently on his trips abroad. He is honored with weekly
jazz sessions at the New York Bahá'í Center in the memorial
Gillespie published his autobiography, To Be or Not to Bop, in
Gillespie was a vocal fixture in many of
John Hubley and Faith
Hubley's animated films, such as The Hole, The Hat, and Voyage to
In the 1980s, Gillespie led the United Nation Orchestra. For three
Flora Purim toured with the Orchestra and she credits Gillespie
with evolving her understanding of jazz after being in the field for
over two decades. David Sánchez also toured with the group and
was also greatly influenced by Gillespie. Both artists later were
nominated for Grammy awards. Gillespie also had a guest appearance on
The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show as well as
Sesame Street and The Muppet Show.[citation
In 1982, Gillespie had a cameo appearance on Stevie Wonder's hit "Do I
Do". Gillespie's tone gradually faded in the last years in life, and
his performances often focused more on his proteges such as Arturo
Sandoval and Jon Faddis; his good-humored comedic routines became more
and more a part of his live act.
Dizzy Gillespie with drummer Bill Stewart at 1984 Stanford Jazz
In 1988, Gillespie had worked with Canadian flautist and saxophonist
Moe Koffman on their prestigious album Oo Pop a Da. He did fast scat
vocals on the title track and a couple of the other tracks were played
only on trumpet.
In 1989 Gillespie gave 300 performances in 27 countries, appeared in
100 U.S. cities in 31 states and the District of Columbia, headlined
three television specials, performed with two symphonies, and recorded
four albums. He was also crowned a traditional chief
in Nigeria, received the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres; France's most
prestigious cultural award. He was named Regent Professor by the
University of California, and received his fourteenth honorary
doctoral degree, this one from the Berklee College of Music.
In addition, he was awarded the
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award the
same year. The next year, at the Kennedy Center for the Performing
Arts ceremonies celebrating the centennial of American jazz, Gillespie
Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors Award and the American Society of
Composers, Authors, and Publishers
Duke Ellington Award for 50 years
of achievement as a composer, performer, and bandleader. In
1993 he received the
Polar Music Prize
Polar Music Prize in Sweden.
Dizzy Gillespie with the Italian singer Sergio Caputo
On November 26, 1992, Carnegie Hall, following the Second Bahá'í
World Congress, celebrated Gillespie's 75th birthday concert and his
offering to the celebration of the centenary of the passing of
Bahá'u'lláh. Gillespie was to appear at
Carnegie Hall for the 33rd
time. The line-up included: Jon Faddis, James Moody, Paquito D'Rivera,
Mike Longo Trio with Ben Brown on bass and
Mickey Roker on
drums. But Gillespie didn't make it because he was in bed suffering
from pancreatic cancer. "But the musicians played their real hearts
out for him, no doubt suspecting that he would not play again. Each
musician gave tribute to their friend, this great soul and innovator
in the world of jazz." In 2002, Gillespie was posthumously
inducted into the
International Latin Music Hall of Fame for his
contributions to Afro-Cuban music.
Gillespie also starred in a film called
The Winter in Lisbon
The Winter in Lisbon released
in 2004. He has a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7057
He was honored on December 31, 2006 in A
Jazz New Year's Eve: Freddy
Cole & the
Dizzy Gillespie All-Star Big Band at The John F.
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
Death and legacy
Gillespie in concert at Colonial Tavern, Toronto, 1978
A longtime resident of Englewood, New Jersey he died of pancreatic
cancer on January 6, 1993, aged 75, and was buried in the Flushing
Cemetery, Queens, New York City.
Mike Longo delivered a eulogy at his
funeral. He was also with Gillespie on the night he died.
Gillespie was survived by his widow, Lorraine Willis Gillespie (died
2004); a daughter, jazz singer
Jeanie Bryson (who was born from an
affair with songwriter Connie Bryson); and a grandson, Radji Birks
Bryson-Barrett. Gillespie had two funerals. One was a Bahá'í funeral
at his request, at which his closest friends and colleagues attended.
The second was at the
Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York
City open to the public.
Dwight Morrow High School, the public high school of Englewood, New
Jersey, renamed their auditorium the
Dizzy Gillespie Auditorium, in
memory of him.
In 2014, Gillespie was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.
Dizzy Gillespie in his hometown Cheraw, South Carolina
Gillespie has been described as the "Sound of Surprise". The Rough
Jazz describes his musical style:
The whole essence of a Gillespie solo was cliff-hanging suspense: the
phrases and the angle of the approach were perpetually varied,
breakneck runs were followed by pauses, by huge interval leaps, by
long, immensely high notes, by slurs and smears and bluesy phrases; he
always took listeners by surprise, always shocking them with a new
thought. His lightning reflexes and superb ear meant his instrumental
execution matched his thoughts in its power and speed. And he was
concerned at all times with swing—even taking the most daring
liberties with pulse or beat, his phrases never failed to swing.
Gillespie’s magnificent sense of time and emotional intensity of his
playing came from childhood roots. His parents were Methodists, but as
a boy he used to sneak off every Sunday to the uninhibited Sanctified
Church. He said later, "The Sanctified Church had deep significance
for me musically. I first learned the significance of rhythm there and
all about how music can transport people spiritually."
In Gillespie's obituary, Peter Watrous describes his performance
In the naturally effervescent Mr. Gillespie, opposites existed. His
playing—and he performed constantly until nearly the end of his
life—was meteoric, full of virtuosic invention and deadly serious.
But with his endlessly funny asides, his huge variety of facial
expressions and his natural comic gifts, he was as much a pure
entertainer as an accomplished artist.
Wynton Marsalis summed up Gillespie as a player and teacher:
His playing showcases the importance of intelligence. His rhythmic
sophistication was unequaled. He was a master of harmony—and
fascinated with studying it. He took in all the music of his
Roy Eldridge to Duke Ellington—and developed a unique
style built on complex rhythm and harmony balanced by wit. Gillespie
was so quick-minded, he could create an endless flow of ideas at
unusually fast tempo. Nobody had ever even considered playing a
trumpet that way, let alone had actually tried. All the musicians
respected him because, in addition to outplaying everyone, he knew so
much and was so generous with that knowledge...
Dizzy Gillespie with his bent trumpet, performing in 1988
Gillespie's trademark trumpet featured a bell which bent upward at a
45-degree angle rather than pointing straight ahead as in the
conventional design. According to Gillespie's autobiography, this was
originally the result of accidental damage caused by the dancers Stump
and Stumpy falling onto the instrument while it was on a trumpet stand
on stage at Snookie's in Manhattan on January 6, 1953, during a
birthday party for Gillespie's wife Lorraine. The constriction
caused by the bending altered the tone of the instrument, and
Gillespie liked the effect. He had the trumpet straightened out the
next day, but he could not forget the tone. Gillespie sent a request
to Martin to make him a "bent" trumpet from a sketch produced by
Lorraine, and from that time forward played a trumpet with an upturned
Gillespie's biographer Alyn Shipton writes that Gillespie probably got
the idea for a bent trumpet when he saw a similar instrument in 1937
in Manchester, England, while on tour with the
Teddy Hill Orchestra.
Whatever the origins of Gillespie's upswept trumpet, by June 1954 he
was using a professionally manufactured horn of this design, and it
was to become a visual trademark for him for the rest of his life.
Such trumpets were made for him by Martin (from 1954), King Musical
Instruments (from 1972) and
Renold Schilke (from 1982, a gift from Jon
Faddis). Gillespie favored mouthpieces made by Al Cass. In
December 1986 Gillespie gave the National Museum of American History
his 1972 King "Silver Flair" trumpet with a Cass
mouthpiece. In April 1995, Gillespie's Martin trumpet was
Christie's in New York City, along with instruments used
by other famous musicians such as Coleman Hawkins,
Jimi Hendrix and
Elvis Presley. An image of Gillespie's trumpet was selected for
the cover of the auction program. The battered instrument was sold to
Manhattan builder Jeffery Brown for $63,000, the proceeds benefiting
jazz musicians suffering from cancer.
List of works
Main article: List of works by Dizzy Gillespie
^ Watrous, Peter Dizzy Gillespie, Who Sounded Some of Modern Jazz's
Earliest Notes, Dies at 75,
The New York Times
The New York Times Obituary, January 7,
^ To Be or Not to Bop: Memoirs of
Dizzy Gillespie by Dizzy Gillespie
and Al Fraser. Published: Doubleday, New York, 1979. Pages: 552
^ Palmer, Richer. "The Greatest Jazzman of Them All? The Recorded Work
of Dizzy Gillespie: An Appraisal"
Jazz Journal, January 2001, p. 8
^ a b c "jazz-music-history.com". jazz-music-history.com. Retrieved
October 20, 2010.
^ "chuckmangione.com". chuckmangione.com. Retrieved October 20,
Johnny Hartman Book - The Last Balladeer: The Johnny Hartman
Story". johnnyhartmanbook.com. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
^ Yanow, S. (2002) All Music Guide to Jazz. Backbeat Books.
^ Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Jr, Henry Louis Gates (2005-01-01). Africana:
The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195170559.
^ Finkelman, Paul (2009-02-02). Encyclopedia of African American
History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the
Twenty-first Century Five-volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA.
Dizzy Gillespie is born - Oct 21, 1917". HISTORY.com. Retrieved
^ Reich, Howard. "Dizzy's Legacy: James Moody Carries on the Tradition
of His Mentor", Chicago Tribune, March 28, 1993
^ "Priestly, Brian. "The Definitive Dizzy Gillespie"".
Vervemusicgroup.com. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
^ Vail, Ken (2003). Dizzy Gillespie: the
Bebop Years, 1937–1952.
Scarecrow Press. pp. 6, 12. ISBN 0810848805.
^ "Great Encounters #26: When
Cab Calloway and
Dizzy Gillespie fought
over a thrown spitball". Jerry
Jazz Musician. Retrieved
^ Brenda Gayle Plummer, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign
Affairs, 1935–1960, 74
Gunther Schuller 14 Nov 1972. Dance, p 290
^ *Dance, Stanley (1983). The World of Earl Hines. [Includes a
120-page interview with Hines]. Da Capo Press.
ISBN 0-306-80182-5: p. 260
^ a b "Kato, Lisa. "
Charlie Parker and the Rise of Bebop". 2003. 29
Jun 2009". Theguitarschool.com. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
^ Vazquez, Jaime David. "BASS LINES: Famous Bass Intros – Part XI
– Dizzy Gillespie’s 'Night In Tunisia'". BASSMUSICIAN Publication.
^ Yanow, Scott. "Afro-Cuban Jazz". Hal Leonard Publication. 2000
^ Yanow, Scott (June 25, 2009). "Yanow, Scott. "Dizzy Gillespie
Biography"". Allmusic.com. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
Jivin' in Be-Bop
Jivin' in Be-Bop (DVD)". Filmthreat.com. August 17, 2004. Archived
from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 20,
^ Ready for the Plaintiff! by Melvin Belli, 1956.
^ " www.smithsonianmag.com
^ "from Ken Burns's Jazz, A Gillespie Biography". wwnorton.com.
Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved October 20,
^ "Ken Burns's Jazz, A Gillespie Biography". Pbs.org. Retrieved
October 20, 2010.
Dizzy Gillespie Catalog - album index". Jazzdisco.org. Retrieved
^ a b Yanow, Scott. "Afro-Cuban Jazz". Hal Leonard Publication (2000)
^ Gillespie, Dizzy; Al Fraser (2000) . "Diz for President". To
Be or Not to Bop. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
pp. 452–461. ISBN 978-0-8166-6547-1.
^ Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White
People Profit from Identity Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University
Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN 1-59213-493-9.
^ "BBC radio broadcast on Gillespie's 1964 presidential campaign".
Bbc.co.uk. January 8, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
^ "The Winter in Lisbon" CD booklet.
^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. p. 453.
^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. p. 460.
^ Gelly, Dave (May 8, 2005). "Other
Jazz CDs". The Observer.
p. Observer Review: 13. Archived from the original on January 29,
2011. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
^ "Dizzy Wants to Blow Right into White House". Jet. 40 (17): 61. July
22, 1971. ISSN 0021-5996.
Dizzy Gillespie Picks Two Cabinet Members: Duke Ellington, Muhammad
Ali". Jet. 40 (26): 56. September 23, 1971. ISSN 0021-5996.
^ Gillespie 2000 , op. cit. pp. 460–461.
^ a b Dizzy Gillespie; Al Fraser (2009) . To Be, Or Not-- to
Bop. U of Minnesota Press. pp. xiv, 185, 287–8, 430–1,
460–4, 473–480, 486, 493. ISBN 978-0-8166-6547-1.
^ Bahá'í World News Service. Hearing "the Divinity in the music":
Dizzy Gillespie remembered at 100. 6 October 2017.
^ Alyn Shipton (June 3, 1999). Groovin' High : The Life of Dizzy
Gillespie: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie. Oxford University Press.
p. 302. ISBN 978-0-19-534938-2.
^ "Remembering Dizzy". Jazztimes.com. Archived from the original on
December 28, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
Groovin' High The Life of
Dizzy Gillespie by Alyn Shipton.
^ Groovin' High: The Life of
Dizzy Gillespie Review by Brad Pokorny
Jazz Night @ the Bahá'í Center". New York City Baha'i Center.
Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of New York City. Archived
from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 7,
^ Beatrice Richardson for JazzReview interviews
Flora Purim – Queen
Jazz Archived December 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Pop/Jazz; A Tribute For Gillespie And the
Jazz He Created,
nytimes.com; accessed May 25, 2017.
Jazz with Bob Parlocha – Biographies –
Dizzy Gillespie Archived
October 29, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
^ – AboutPolar Music Prize.
^ Lowell Johnson. The Spiritual Side of Dizzy, bahai-library.com;
accessed May 25, 2017.
International Latin Music Hall of Fame Announces Inductees for
2002". April 5, 2002. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
^ "The Winter in Lisbon", allaboutjazz.com; accessed May 25, 2017.
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Schedule 2006-07 Archived
January 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., kennedy-center.org;
accessed May 25, 2017.
^ Berman, Eleanor. "The jazz of
Queens encompasses music royalty",
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 1, 2006; retrieved October 1, 2009;
"Mr. Knight shows the brick building that was the studio of Dizzie
Gillespie, where other Corona residents like Cannonball Adderley used
to come and jam."
^ Barrett, Devlin (January 5, 2000). "SINGER CALLS DIZZY DADDY AND
SUES FOR 'RECORD' $$". New York Post.
Dizzy Gillespie Memorial.
^ The Star-Ledger. August 1, 2014. pg. 19
^ Shipton, A. Groovin' High: The Life of
Dizzy Gillespie (1999) New
York: Oxford University Press.
^ Carr, I., Fairweather, D, Brian P, The rough guide to Jazz. page.
^ Watrous, Peter. "Dizzy Gillespie, Who Sounded Some of Modern Jazz's
Earliest Notes, Dies at 75", New York Times, January 7, 1993
^ Marsalis, W. with Geoffrey C. Ward. Moving to higher ground :
how jazz can change your life. New York : Random House, 2008.
^ Maggin, Donald L. (2006). Dizzy: The Life and Times of John Birks
Gillespie. HarperCollins. p. 253. ISBN 0-06-055921-7.
^ a b c Hamlin, Jesse (July 27, 1997). "A Distinctly American Bent /
Dizzy Gillespie's misshapen horn highlights Smithsonian's traveling
show". San Francisco Chronicle. [permanent dead link]
^ Shipton, Alyn. 'Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie' New
York : Oxford University Press. (see pp.258–259)
Dizzy Gillespie Donates Trumpet to NMAH". Smithsonian Institution
Archives. December 1986. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
^ "Dizzy Gillespie's B-flat trumpet along with one of his Al Cass
mouthpieces". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian
Institution. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
^ Fisher, Don (April 23, 1995). "
Christie's To Auction Prized Martin
Guitar Collection – L.V. Man's Love To Be Instrument of His
Retirement". The Morning Call. Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania.
^ "Bent, Battered Trumpet Sells For Dizzy $63,000". Deseret News.
April 26, 1995.
^ "Object of Desire: Bell Epoque". New York Magazine. 28 (17): 111.
April 24, 1995. ISSN 0028-7369.
^ Macnie, Jim (May 13, 1995). "
Jazz Blue Notes". Billboard. 107 (19):
60. ISSN 0006-2510.
Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Dizzy
Gillespie" dated 2007-01-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to
the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
Dizzy Gillespie All-Stars official site
Dizzy Gillespie at Find a Grave
Dizzy Gillespie's "The Cult of Bebop"
Dizzy Gillespie Talking to Les Tomkins in 1973
Articles at NPR Music
Short biography by C.J Shearn
Media related to
Dizzy Gillespie at Wikimedia Commons
Library resources in your library and in other libraries about Dizzy
Bird and Diz
Bird and Diz (1952)
Diz and Getz (1955)
Dizzy and Strings
Dizzy and Strings (1954)
Roy and Diz
Roy and Diz (1954)
Jazz Recital (1956)
Jazz Sextet (1956)
World Statesman (1956)
Dizzy in Greece
Dizzy in Greece (1956)
For Musicians Only (1956)
Birks' Works (1957)
Dizzy Gillespie and Stuff Smith
Dizzy Gillespie and Stuff Smith (1957)
Sittin' In (1957)
The Greatest Trumpet of Them All
The Greatest Trumpet of Them All (1957)
Sonny Side Up
Sonny Side Up (1957)
The Ebullient Mr. Gillespie
The Ebullient Mr. Gillespie (1959)
Have Trumpet, Will Excite! (1959)
A Portrait of
Duke Ellington (1960)
The New Continent
The New Continent (1962)
New Wave (1963)
Something Old, Something New (1963)
Dizzy Goes Hollywood (1964)
Jambo Caribe (1964)
Gil Fuller & the Monterey
Jazz Festival Orchestra featuring Dizzy
The Melody Lingers On
The Melody Lingers On (1966)
It's My Way (1969)
The Real Thing (1970)
Portrait of Jenny
Portrait of Jenny (1970)
Dizzy Gillespie's Big 4
Dizzy Gillespie's Big 4 (1974)
The Trumpet Kings Meet Joe Turner
The Trumpet Kings Meet Joe Turner (1974)
Oscar Peterson and Dizzy Gillespie (1974)
Oscar Peterson and the Trumpet Kings – Jousts (1974)
The Bop Session
The Bop Session (1975)
Jazz Maturity...Where It's Coming From (1975)
Jazz Moods (1975)
Carter, Gillespie Inc.
Carter, Gillespie Inc. (1976)
Dizzy's Party (1976)
Free Ride (1977)
The Gifted Ones
The Gifted Ones (1977)
The Trumpet Summit Meets the Oscar Peterson Big 4 (1980)
The Alternate Blues (1980)
To a Finland Station (1981)
Closer to the Source (1984)
New Faces (1985)
Dizzy Gillespie Meets Phil Woods Quintet (1986)
Jazz at Massey Hall (1953)
Dizzy Gillespie at Newport
Dizzy Gillespie at Newport (1957)
An Electrifying Evening with the Dizzy Gillespie Quintet
An Electrifying Evening with the Dizzy Gillespie Quintet (1961)
Carnegie Hall Concert (1961)
Dizzy on the French Riviera
Dizzy on the French Riviera (1962)
Dizzy Gillespie and the Double Six of Paris (1963)
Live at the Village Vanguard (1967)
Swing Low, Sweet Cadillac (1967)
The Dizzy Gillespie Reunion Big Band
The Dizzy Gillespie Reunion Big Band (1968)
Dizzy Gillespie and the Mitchell Ruff Duo in Concert
Dizzy Gillespie and the Mitchell Ruff Duo in Concert (1971)
The Giants of
The Giant (1973)
The Source (1973)
The Dizzy Gillespie Big 7
The Dizzy Gillespie Big 7 (1975)
The Trumpet Kings at Montreux '75 (1975)
Dizzy Gillespie Jam
Dizzy Gillespie Jam (1977)
Digital at Montreux, 1980
Digital at Montreux, 1980 (1980)
Musician, Composer, Raconteur
Musician, Composer, Raconteur (1981)
One Night in Washington (1983)
Live at the Royal Festival Hall (1989)
Max + Dizzy: Paris 1989 (1989)
Bird Songs: The Final Recordings (1992)
To Bird with Love (1992)
To Diz with Love (1992)
Groovin' High (1955)
Dee Gee Days: The Savoy Sessions (1976)
The Complete RCA Victor Recordings
The Complete RCA Victor Recordings (1995)
The Great Blue Star Sessions 1952-1953
The Great Blue Star Sessions 1952-1953 (2004)
Dizzy Digs Paris (2006)
The Cool World (1964)
The Winter in Lisbon
The Winter in Lisbon (1990)
To Be or Not to Bop (1979)
List of works
Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s)
Betty Comden and Adolph Green
Fayard and Harold Nicholas
Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward
Sir Georg Solti
Fred Ebb and John Kander
Shirley Temple Black
Laureates of the Polar Music Prize
Paul McCartney / the
Baltic states (1992)
Dizzy Gillespie /
Witold Lutosławski (1993)
Quincy Jones /
Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1994)
Elton John /
Mstislav Rostropovich (1995)
Joni Mitchell /
Pierre Boulez (1996)
Bruce Springsteen /
Eric Ericson (1997)
Ray Charles /
Ravi Shankar (1998)
Stevie Wonder /
Iannis Xenakis (1999)
Bob Dylan /
Isaac Stern (2000)
Burt Bacharach /
Robert Moog /
Karlheinz Stockhausen (2001)
Miriam Makeba /
Sofia Gubaidulina (2002)
Keith Jarrett (2003)
B.B. King /
György Ligeti (2004)
Gilberto Gil /
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (2005)
Led Zeppelin /
Valery Gergiev (2006)
Sonny Rollins /
Steve Reich (2007)
Pink Floyd /
Renée Fleming (2008)
Peter Gabriel /
José Antonio Abreu
José Antonio Abreu /
El Sistema (2009)
Ennio Morricone (2010)
Kronos Quartet /
Patti Smith (2011)
Paul Simon /
Yo-Yo Ma (2012)
Youssou N'Dour /
Kaija Saariaho (2013)
Chuck Berry /
Peter Sellars (2014)
Emmylou Harris /
Evelyn Glennie (2015)
Max Martin /
Cecilia Bartoli (2016)
Wayne Shorter (2017)
Afghanistan National Institute of Music (2018)
ISNI: 0000 0001 0918 1520
BNF: cb138944733 (data)