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Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Kurdish: Amed)[3][4][5] is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey. Situated on the banks of the Tigris
Tigris
River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Province. With a population of about 930,000 it is the second largest city in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia
Southeastern Anatolia
Region, after Gaziantep. Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
is considered the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan.[3][6][7][8][9][10] As such, it has been a focal point for conflict between Turkey's government and Kurdish insurgent groups.

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Ecclesiastical history 2.3 Titular sees

2.3.1 Latin titular see 2.3.2 Armenian Catholic titular see 2.3.3 Syriac Catholic titular see

2.4 Middle Ages 2.5 Safavids
Safavids
and Ottomans 2.6 Republic of Turkey

3 Sports 4 Politics 5 Economy 6 Demographics

6.1 Demographic history

6.1.1 Present day

7 Culture

7.1 Cuisine

8 Main sights

8.1 Medieval mosques and medreses 8.2 Churches 8.3 Museums 8.4 Historic bridges

9 Climate 10 Notable people born in the city 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

Names and etymology[edit] See also: Names of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
in different languages The name Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Arabic: دیار بکر‎, Diyaru Bakr, which means the Land of Bakir; Armenian: Տիգրանակերտ, Tigranakert;[11] Ancient Greek: Άμιδα, Amida; Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر‎, Diyâr-ı Bekr; Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ‎) is inscribed as Amid
Amid
on the sheath of a sword from the Assyrian period, and the same name was used in other contemporary Syriac and Arabic works.[12] The Romans and Byzantines called the city Amida.[12] Another medieval use of the term as Amit is found in Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
official documents in 1358.[13] Among the Artukid
Artukid
and Akkoyunlu
Akkoyunlu
it was known as "Black Amid" (Kara Amid) for the dark color of its walls, while in the Zafername, or eulogies in praise of military victories, it is called "Black Fortress" (Kara Kale).[12] In the Book of Dede Korkut and some other Turkish works it appears as Kara Hamid.[12] Following the Arab conquests in the seventh century, the Arab Bakr tribe settled in this region,[12] which became known as the Diyar Bakr ("landholdings of the Bakr tribe", in Arabic: ديار بكر‎, Diyar Bakr).[14][15] In 1937, Atatürk
Atatürk
visited Diyarbekir and, after expressing uncertainty on the exact etymology of the city, ordered that it be renamed "Diyarbakır", which means "land of copper" in Turkish after the abundant resources of copper around the city.[16] History[edit]

16th century plan of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
by Matrakci Nasuh. The eastern half of the walled city depicted here (Sur) was leveled in 2015–2016 during the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. The western half is currently (2017) being demolished.

The earliest reference to the city comes from Assyrian records which identify it as being the capital of the Aramean kingdom of Bit-Zamani (c. 1300 BC). In the ninth century BC, the city joined a rebellion against the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. The city was later reduced to being a province of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. From 189 BCE to 384 CE, the region to the east and south of present Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
came under the rule of the Hellenistic kingdom of Corduene. Later, the Romans colonized the city and named it Amida, after the earlier name Amid. During the Roman rule, the first city walls were constructed in 297. Later, the greater walls were built as per the command of the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantius II. After the Romans, the Persians came to power and were succeeded by the Muslim Arabs. It was the leader of the Arab Bekr tribe, Bekr Bin Vail, who named the city Diyar Bakr, meaning "the country of Bakr", i.e. Arabs. After a few centuries, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
came under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and earned the status of the capital of a large province. The city became the base of army troops who guarded the region against Persian invasion. Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
faced turbulence in the 20th century, particularly with the onset of World War I. The majority of the city's Syriac and Armenian population were massacred and deported during the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
in 1915. In 1925, armed Kurdish groups rose in the Sheikh Said rebellion against the newly established secular government of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
with the aim to revive the Islamic caliphate and sultanate, but were defeated by Turkish forces. Antiquity[edit] The area around Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
has been inhabited by humans from the stone age with tools from that period having been discovered in the nearby Hilar cave complex. The pre-pottery neolothic B settlement of Çayönü dates to over 10,000 years ago and its excavated remains are on display at the Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Museum. Another important site is Girikihaciyan Tumulus in Eğil.[17] The first major civilization to establish themselves in the region of what is now Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
were the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni. The city was first mentioned by Assyrian texts as the capital of a Semitic kingdom. It was then ruled by a succession of nearly every polity that controlled Upper Mesopotamia, including the Arameans, Assyrians, Urartu, Armenians, Achaemenid Persians, Medes, Seleucids, and Parthians.[18] The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
gained control of the city in 66 BC, by which stage it was named "Amida".[19] In 359, Shapur II of Persia captured Amida after a siege of 73 days which is vividly described by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus.[20] Ecclesiastical history[edit] Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
took hold in the region between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, particularly amongst the Semitic Syriacs and Chaldeans of the city. The earliest documented bishop of Amida was Simeon of the Church of the East, who took part in the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325, on behalf of Syriac Christians. Maras was at the First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 381. In the next century, Saint Acacius of Amida (who died in 425, and is included in the Roman Martyrology[21]) was noted for having sold the church's gold and silver vessels to ransom and assist Persian prisoners of war. Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Theodosius II
Theodosius II
(408–450) divided the Roman province of Mesopotamia into two, and made Amida the capital of Mesopotamia Prima, and thereby also the metropolitan see for all the province's bishoprics. A 6th-century Notitia Episcopatuum indicates as suffragans of Amida the sees of Martyropolis, Ingila, Belabitene, Arsamosata, Sophene, Kitharis, Cefa, and Zeugma.[22] The Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
adds Bethzabda and Dadima. The names of several of the successors of Acacius are known, but their orthodoxy is unclear. The last whose orthodoxy is certain is Cyriacus, a participant in the Second Council of Constantinople
Second Council of Constantinople
(553). Many bishops of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire fled in the face of the Persian invasion of the early 7th century, with a resultant spread of the Jacobite Church, Michael the Syrian
Michael the Syrian
gives a list of Jacobite bishops of Amida down to the 13th century.[23]

Inside the St. Giragos Armenian Church
St. Giragos Armenian Church
photographed after the restoration, 2012. On 26 March 2016 the Turkish government confiscated St. Giragos, under Article 27 of the Expropriation Law.[24][25]

At some stage, Amida became a see of the Armenian Christians. The bishops who held the see in 1650 and 1681 were in communion with the Holy See, and in 1727 Peter Derboghossian sent his profession of faith to Rome. He was succeeded by two more Catholic Armenians, Eugenius and Ioannes of Smyrna, the latter of whom died in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1785. After a long vacancy, three more bishops followed. The diocese had some 5,000 Armenian Catholics in 1903,[26] but it lost most of its population in the Armenian Genocide. The last diocesan bishop of the see, Andreas Elias Celebian, was killed with some 600 of his faithful in the summer of 1915.[27][28][29][30] An eparchy for the local members of the Syriac Catholic Church
Syriac Catholic Church
was established in 1862. Ignatius Philip I Arkus, who was its first bishop, was elected patriarch in 1866, he kept the governance of the see of Amida, which he exercised through a patriarchal vicar. The eparchy was united to that of Mardin
Mardin
in 1888. Persecution in Turkey during the First World War brought an end to the existence of both these Syrian residential sees.[27][28][31][32] However, in 1966 a Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy with jurisdiction over all Chaldean Catholic Turks was revived in Diyarbakır, with the city being as episcopal see and location of the diocesan main Cathedral. As of 2015, there are two Chaldean Churches, and three Armenian churches in at least periodic operation. Three other churches are in ruins, all Armenian: one outside Sur district, one in it, and one in the citadel that is now part of a museum complex. Titular sees[edit] No longer a residential bishopric until 1966 (Chaldean rite), Amida is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a multiple titular see,[33] separately for the Latin Roman Rite and two Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris. Latin titular see[edit] Amida of the Romans was suppressed in 1970, having had many archiepiscopal incumbents with in singular episcopal exception :

Domingo Valentín Guerra Arteaga y Leiba (19 December 1725 – 8 March 1728) Francisco Casto Royo (15 December 1783 – September 1803) Gaétan Giunta (6 October 1829 – unknown date) Titular Bishop Augustus van Heule, Jesuits
Jesuits
(S.J.) (9 September 1864 – 9 June 1865) Colin Francis McKinnon (30 August 1877 – 26 September 1879) Francis Xavier Norbert Blanchet (26 January 1881 – 18 June 1883) Beniamino Cavicchioni (21 March 1884 – 11 January 1894) (later Cardinal) Francesco Sogaro, Comboni Missionaies (F.S.C.I.) (18 August 1894 – 6 February 1912) James Duhig (27 February 1912 – 13 January 1917) John Baptist Pitaval (29 July 1918 – 23 May 1928) Carlo Chiarlo
Carlo Chiarlo
(12 October 1928 – 15 December 1958) (later Cardinal) Gastone Mojaisky-Perrelli (8 August 1959 – 10 May 1963) Robert Picard de la Vacquerie (23 May 1963 – 17 March 1969) Joseph Cheikho (7 March 1970 – 22 August 1970)

Armenian Catholic titular see[edit] The diocese of Amida, in 1650, was suppressed in 1972 and immediately nominally restored as Armenian Catholic ( Armenian Rite
Armenian Rite
and language) titular bishopric of the lowest (episcopal) rank, Amida of the Armenians. So far, it has had the following incumbents, of the fitting episcopal rank with an archiepiscopal exception:

Grégoire Ghabroyan, Patriarchal Clergy Institute of Bzommar (I.C.P.B.) (3 January 1977 – 30 June 1986) as Vicar Apostolic
Vicar Apostolic
of France of the Armenians
Armenians
(3 January 1977 – 30 June 1986); later Eparch (Bishop) of Sainte-Croix-de-Paris of the Armenians
Armenians
(France) (30 June 1986 – 2 February 2013) and Apostolic Visitor
Apostolic Visitor
in Western Europe of the Armenians
Armenians
(30 June 1986 – 8 June 2013), then Patriarchal Administrator of Cilicia of the Armenians
Armenians
(in Beirut, Lebanon) (25 June 2015 – 25 July 2015), finally Patriarch of Cilicia as Grégoire Pierre XX Ghabroyan (24 July 2015 – present) and President of Synod of the Armenian Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(25 July 2015 – present) Titular Archbishop Lévon Boghos Zékiyan (21 May 2014 – 21 March 2015), as Apostolic Administrator
Apostolic Administrator
sede plena of Istanbul
Istanbul
of the Armenians
Armenians
(Turkey) (21 May 2014 – 21 March 2015), later succeeded as Archeparch (Archbishop) of Istanbul
Istanbul
of the Armenians
Armenians
(21 March 2015.03.21 – present) and President of Episcopal Conference of Turkey
Turkey
(April 2015 – present) Kévork Assadourian (5 September 2015 – present), Auxiliary Bishop of Beirut of the Armenians; no previous prelature

Syriac Catholic titular see[edit] Established in 1963 as Titular archbishopric of the highest (Metropolitan) rank, Amida of the Syriacs. It is vacant since decades, having had the following incumbent of Metropolitan rank;

Titular Archbishop Flavien Zacharie Melki (6 July 1963 – 30 November 1989), as Patriarchal Vicar of Lebanon of the Syriacs (6 July 1963 – death 1983)

Middle Ages[edit] See also: Diyar Bakr

Great Mosque of Diyarbakır

In 639, the city was captured by the Muslim conquests, and introduced to the religion of Islam. The city passed under Umayyad
Umayyad
and then Abbasid
Abbasid
control, but with the progressive fragmentation of the Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
from the late 9th century, it periodically came under the rule of autonomous dynasties. Isa ibn al-Shaykh al-Shaybani
Isa ibn al-Shaykh al-Shaybani
and his descendants ruled the city and the wider Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
from 871 until 899, when Caliph al-Mu'tadid restored Abbasid
Abbasid
control, but the area soon passed to another local dynasty, the Hamdanids. The latter were displaced by the Buyids
Buyids
in 978, who were in turn followed by the Marwanids
Marwanids
a few years later. The Marwanids
Marwanids
ruled until after the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
in 1071, when the city came under the rule of the Mardin
Mardin
branch of the Oghuz Turks
Oghuz Turks
and then the Anatolian beylik
Anatolian beylik
of the Artuqids. The whole area was then disputed between the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and Ayyubid
Ayyubid
dynasties for a century, after which it was taken over by the competing Turkic federations of the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(the Black Sheep) first and then the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
until the rise of the Persian Safavids, who naturally took over the city and the wider region. Safavids
Safavids
and Ottomans[edit] See also: Diyarbekir Eyalet
Diyarbekir Eyalet
and Diyarbekir Vilayet

This 17th-century map detail shows Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(west at top). From a 17th-century Ottoman map of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates that may have been created by Evliya Çelebi.

Between the early 16th century and mid-to late 17th century the city and the much wider Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
region (comprising Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia) was being heavily competed between the rivalling Safavids
Safavids
and the Ottoman Turks, being passed on numerous times between the two archrivals. When it was firstly conquered by the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century by the campaigns of Bıyıklı Mehmet Paşa under the rule of Sultan Selim I
Selim I
following the Battle of Chaldiran, they established an eyelet with its centre in Diyarbakır. The Ottoman eyelet of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
corresponded to Turkey's southeastern provinces today, a rectangular area between the Lake Urmia to Palu and from the southern shores of Lake Van
Lake Van
to Cizre
Cizre
and the beginnings of the Syrian desert, although its borders saw some changes over time. The city was an important military base for controlling this region and at the same time a thriving city noted for its craftsmen, producing glass and metalwork. For example, the doors of Mevlana's tomb in Konya
Konya
were made in Diyarbakır, as were the gold and silver decorated doors of the tomb of Imam-i Azam Ebu Hanife
Ebu Hanife
in Baghdad. Ottoman rule was confirmed by the Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
of 1555 which followed after the Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555). However, a recapture of the city followed by Safavid Persia, ruled by shah Abbas I, during the Ottoman-Safavid War (1603–1618). Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
was retaken by the Safavids
Safavids
once again in 1623-1624, during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–1639).[34] In 1895 an estimated 25,000 Armenians
Armenians
and Syriac Christians ("Assyrians") were massacred in Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
vilayet, including the city.[35] At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians
Armenians
and Syriac Orthodox Christians.[36] The city was also a site of ethnic cleansing of Armenians
Armenians
and Assyrians in 1915; nearly 150,000 were deported from the city.[37] Republic of Turkey[edit]

A typical example of Diyarbakır's historic architectural style, with masonry tiles built of the city's indigenous type of dark basalt stone.

Diyarbakır's city walls, built by Constantius II
Constantius II
and extended by Valentinian I
Valentinian I
between 367 and 375, stretch almost unbroken for about 6 kilometres.

In the reorganization of the provinces, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
was made administrative capital of the Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Province. During the 1980s and 1990s, at the peak of the Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) insurgency, the population of the city grew dramatically as villagers from remote areas where fighting was serious left or were forced to leave for the relative security of the city. After the cessation of hostilities between the PKK and the Turkish army, a large degree of normality returned to the city, with the Turkish government declaring an end to the 15-year period of emergency rule on 30 November 2002. Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
grew from a population of 30,000 in the 1930s to 65,000 by 1956, to 140,000 by 1970, to 400,000 by 1990,[38] and eventually swelled to about 1.5 million by 1997.[39] The 41-year-old American-Turkish Pirinçlik
Pirinçlik
Air Force Base near Diyarbakır, known as NATO's frontier post for monitoring the former Soviet Union and the Middle East, closed on 30 September 1997. This closure was the result of the general drawdown of US bases in Europe and the improvement in space surveillance technology. The base housed sensitive electronic intelligence-gathering systems that monitored the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Russia.[40] According to a November 2006 survey by the Sur Municipality, one of Diyarbakır's metropolitan municipalities, 72% of the inhabitants of the municipality use Kurdish most often in their daily speech, followed by Turkish,[41] with small minorities of Assyrians, Armenians and Yezidis still resident. After World War II, as the Kurdish population moved to urban centres, Diyarbakir gradually became predominantly Kurdish.[42] Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
has been the victim of terror attacks in recent years. In 2008, a car bomb exploded in the city, killing five people, a blast for which nobody claimed responsibility. In 2015, a political rally of the People's Democratic Party was targeted by ISIL, killing four people and injuring over 100. And in 2016, two separate attacks in February and March, each killing six people. Between 8 November 2015 and 15 May 2016 large parts of Sur were destroyed in fighting between the Turkish military and the PKK.[43] Sports[edit] The most notable football club of the city is Amed SK.[44] The women's football team Amed SFK were promoted at the end of the 2016–17 Turkish Women's Second Football League
Turkish Women's Second Football League
season to the Women's First League.[45] Politics[edit] In the 2014 local elections, Gültan Kışanak
Gültan Kışanak
and Fırat Anlı of the Peace and Democracy Party
Peace and Democracy Party
(BDP) were elected co-mayors of Diyarbakır. However, on 25 October 2016, both were detained by Turkish authorities "on thinly supported charges of being a member of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)".[46] The Turkish government ordered a general internet blackout after the arrest.[47] Nevertheless, on 26 October, several thousand demonstrators at Diyarbakir city hall demanded the mayors’ release.[46] Some days later, the Turkish government appointed an unelected state trustee as the mayor.[48] In November, public prosecutors demanded a 230-year prison sentence for Kışanak.[49] In January 2017, the Turkish government appointed unelected state trustee ordered the removal of the Assyrian sculpture of a mythological winged bull from the townhall, which had been erected by the BDP mayors to commemorate the Assyrian history of the town and its still resident Assyrian minority.[50][51] Economy[edit] Historically, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
produced wheat and sesame.[52][53] They would preserve the wheat in warehouses, with coverings of straw and twigs from licorice trees. This system would allow the wheat to be preserved for up to ten years.[52] In the late 19th and early 20th century, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
exported raisins, almonds, and apricots to Europe.[53] Angora goats were raised, and wool and mohair was exported from Diyarbakır. Merchants would also come from Egypt, Istanbul, and Syria, to purchase goats and sheep.[54] Honey
Honey
was also produced, but not so much exported, but used by locals. Sericulture
Sericulture
was observed in the area, too.[55] Prior to World War I, Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
had an active copper industry, with six mines. Three were active, with two being owned by locals and the third being owned by the Turkish government. Tenorite
Tenorite
was the primary type of copper mined. It was mined by hand by Kurds. A large portion of the ore was exported to England. The region also produced iron, gypsum, coal, chalk, lime, jet, and quartz, but primarily for local use.[56] Demographics[edit] Demographic history[edit] At the turn of the 19th century, the Christian population of the city was mainly made up of Armenians
Armenians
and Syriac Orthodox
Syriac Orthodox
Christians.[57] Armenians
Armenians
had inhabited the town since the 8th century, while the Syriacs were probably descendants of surviving Arameans.[57] There was also a small Jewish community in the city.[58] Present day[edit] There are several Alevi Turkmen villages around Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
old city, however there are no specific official data about the population numbers.[58][59] Culture[edit] Some jewelry making and other craftwork continues today although the fame of the Diyarbakır's craftsmen has long passed. Folk dancing to the drum and zurna (pipe) are a part of weddings and celebrations in the area. Cuisine[edit] Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
is known for rich dishes of lamb which use spices such as black pepper, sumac and coriander; rice, bulgur and butter. The most famous specialty dish from Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
is Meftune which is made up of lamb meat and vegetable laced with garlic and sumac. Another known dish is Kaburga Dolması which is a baked lamb's ribs stuffed with rice and many spices. Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
is also famous for its watermelons which are exported internationally; one of the largest events in the city is the annually held Watermelon Festival. Main sights[edit]

Sheikh Matar Mosque
Sheikh Matar Mosque
with its Four-legged Minaret

Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
is surrounded by an almost intact, dramatic set of high walls of black basalt forming a 5.5 km (3.4 mi) circle around the old city. There are four gates into the old city and 82 watch-towers on the walls, which were built in antiquity, restored and extended by the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantius II
Constantius II
in 349. Medieval mosques and medreses[edit]

Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
built by the Seljuk Turkish Sultan Malik Shah in the 11th century. The mosque, one of the oldest in Turkey, is constructed in alternating bands of black basalt and white limestone (The same patterning is used in the 16th century Deliler Han Madrassah, which is now a hotel). The adjoining Mesudiye Medresesi/Medreseya Mesûdiyeyê was built at the same time, as was another prayer-school in the city, Zinciriye Medresesi/Medreseya Zincîriyeyê. Beharampaşa Camii/Mizgefta Behram Paşa – an Ottoman mosque built in 1572 by the governor of Diyarbakır, Behram Pasha, noted for the well-constructed arches at the entrance. Sheikh Matar Mosque
Sheikh Matar Mosque
with Dört Ayaklı Minare/Mizgefta Çarling (the Four-legged Minaret) – built by Kasim Khan of the Aq Qoyunlu. Fatihpaşa Camii/Mizgefta Fetih Paşa – built in 1520 by Diyarbakır's first Ottoman governor, Bıyıklı Mehmet Paşa ("the moustachioed Mehmet pasha"). The city's earliest Ottoman building, it is decorated with fine tilework. Hazreti Süleyman Camii/Mizgefta Hezretî Silêman (1155–1169) Süleyman son of Halid Bin Velid, who died capturing the city from the Arabs, is buried here along with his companions. Hüsrevpaşa Camii/Mizgefta Husrev Paşa – the mosque of the second Ottoman governor, 1512–1528. Originally the building was intended to be a school (medrese) İskender Paşa Camii/Mizgefta Îskender Paşa – a mosque of an Ottoman governor, an attractive building in black and white stone, built in 1551. Melek Ahmet Camii/Melek Ahmed Paşa a 16th-century mosque noted for its tiled prayer-niche and for the double stairway up the minaret. Nebii Camii/Mizgefta Pêxember – an Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
mosque, a single-domed stone construction from the 16th century. Nebi Camii means "the mosque of the prophet" and is so-named because of the number of inscriptions in honour of the prophet on its minaret. Safa Camii/Mizgefta Palo – built in 1532 by the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
(White Sheep
Sheep
Turkomans) tribe.

Churches[edit]

St. Giragos Armenian Church
St. Giragos Armenian Church
– first built in 1519, the current structure is from 1883, and was recently restored after a long period of disuse.[60] The Syriac Orthodox
Syriac Orthodox
Church of Our Lady (Syriac: ܐ ܕܝܠܕܬ ܐܠܗܐ‎ `Idto d-Yoldat Aloho, Turkish: Meryemana kilisesi), was first constructed as a pagan temple in the 1st century BCE. The current construction dates back to the 3rd century, has been restored many times, and is still in use as a place of worship today.[citation needed] Mar Petyun (St. Anthony) Chaldean Catholic Church, built in 1681.[60] There are a few other churches in the city

Museums[edit]

The Archaeological Museum contains artifacts from the neolithic period, through the Early Bronze Age, Assyrian, Urartu, Roman, Byzantine, Artuqids, Seljuk Turk, Aq Qoyunlu, and Ottoman Empire periods. Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum – the home of the late poet and a classic example of a traditional Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
home. The birthplace of poet Ziya Gökalp
Ziya Gökalp
– preserved as a museum to his life and works. Ahmet Arif Literature Museum Library.

Historic bridges[edit]

The Dicle
Dicle
Bridge, an 11th-century bridge with ten arches

Climate[edit] Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
has a borderline Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification Csa) and hot dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa). Summer are very hot and very dry, due to its location on the Mesopotamian plain which is subject to hot winds from the deserts of Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
to the south. The highest recorded temperature was 46.2 °C (112.64 °F) on 21 July 1937. Winters are cold and wet and with frosty nights. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. The lowest recorded temperature was −24.2 °C (−10.12 °F) on 11 January 1933.

Climate data for Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(1960–2012)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 8.9 (48) 14.5 (58.1) 20.2 (68.4) 26.5 (79.7) 33.7 (92.7) 38.4 (101.1) 38.1 (100.6) 33.2 (91.8) 25.2 (77.4) 16.1 (61) 9.2 (48.6) 22.56 (72.63)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 3.5 (38.3) 8.5 (47.3) 13.8 (56.8) 19.3 (66.7) 26.3 (79.3) 31.2 (88.2) 30.3 (86.5) 24.8 (76.6) 17.2 (63) 9.2 (48.6) 4.0 (39.2) 15.83 (60.48)

Average low °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −1.1 (30) 2.7 (36.9) 7.1 (44.8) 11.4 (52.5) 17.0 (62.6) 21.8 (71.2) 21.1 (70) 16.1 (61) 10.2 (50.4) 3.9 (39) −0.1 (31.8) 8.98 (48.17)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.0 (2.677) 68.8 (2.709) 67.3 (2.65) 68.7 (2.705) 41.3 (1.626) 7.9 (0.311) 0.5 (0.02) 0.4 (0.016) 4.1 (0.161) 34.7 (1.366) 51.8 (2.039) 71.4 (2.811) 484.9 (19.091)

Average rainy days 12.2 11.8 11.8 12.0 8.9 2.9 0.5 0.3 1.2 6.1 8.0 11.5 87.2

Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 67 65 59 43 31 31 35 51 69 75 56.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 134.4 173.6 207.0 300.7 366.0 387.5 362.7 297.0 229.4 162.0 117.8 2,859

Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [3]

Source #2: Weatherbase[61]

Notable people born in the city[edit]

Aëtius of Amida, (5th century to mid-6th century) a Greek physician and medical writer native to Diyarbakır[62][63] Abdülkadir Aksu, former interior minister Ahmed Arif, poet Pınar Ayhan, singer, Turkish representative at the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 Aziz Yıldırım, President of Fenerbahçe S.K.
Fenerbahçe S.K.
sports club Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı, poet Cihan Haspolatlı, footballer for Galatasaray S.K. Gazi Yaşargil, medical scientist and neurosurgeon Hesenê Metê, writer Hovsep Pushman, Armenian-American painter Hikmet Çetin, former foreign minister and former NATO
NATO
Senior Civilian Representative in Afghanistan Leyla Zana, politician Lokman Polat, writer Agop Handanyan, physician and writer Mehmed Emin Bozarslan, writer Mehmet Polat, actor Kevork Malikyan, actor Naum Faiq, Assyrian writer and founding father of modern Assyrian nationalism Osman Baydemir: politician Rupen Zartarian, Armenian writer Rojen Barnas, writer Songül Öden, actress Süleyman Nazif, poet Ziya Gökalp, sociologist and writer (the Ziyagökalp district of the city is named after him, as well as many streets and schools) Mıgırdiç Margosyan, writer Coşkun Sabah, musician Sayf al-Din al-Amidi, Islamic theologian and legal scholar of the Shafi'i school Zabelle C. Boyajian, Armenian painter and writer

See also[edit]

Amid
Amid
(Chaldean Diocese) Assyrian homeland Bakran tribe Dicle
Dicle
University Diyarbakırspor Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Büyükşehir Belediyespor Category:Ancient Assyrian cities

References[edit]

^ " Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Büyükşehir Belediyesi'ne kayyum atandı" (in Turkish). Habertürk. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.  ^ "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-02-08.  ^ a b Gunter, Michael M. (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press. p. 86. Diyarbakir is often called the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan. Its Kurdish name is Amed.  ^ King, Diane E. (2013). Kurdistan on the Global Stage: Kinship, Land, and Community in Iraq. Rutgers University Press. p. 233. Diyarbakir's Kurdish name is “Amed.”  ^ Akyol, Mustafa (2007). "Pro-Kurdish DTP sweeps Diyarbakir". Hürriyet. Amed is the ancient name given to Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
in the Kurdish language.  ^ Joseph R. Rudolph Jr. (7 December 2015). Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts, 2nd Edition [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 484. ISBN 978-1-61069-553-4. As some have noted, Turkey's road to the EU lies through Diyarbakir, the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan.  ^ Wendelmoet Hamelink (6 April 2016). The Sung Home. Narrative, Morality, and the Kurdish Nation. BRILL. p. 307. ISBN 978-90-04-31482-5. This is also related to the unique position of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
as the unofficial capital city of Turkish Kurdistan, as such ...  ^ William Ayers; Therese M. Quinn; David Stovall (2 June 2009). Handbook of Social Justice in Education. Routledge. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-135-59614-9. The unofficial capital of North Kurdistan (Turkish Kurdistan) is Diyarbakir in Turkish, but Amed in Kurdish.  ^ Elise Massicard; Nicole Watts (12 December 2012). Negotiating Political Power in Turkey: Breaking up the Party. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-135-13687-1. This chapter explores these questions through an analysis of pro-Kurdish parties1 and their social footing in the city of Diyarbakır, one of the largest cities in Turkey's mostly Kurdish southeast and often viewed as the unofficial capital of the country's Kurdish region.  ^ Jeri Laber; Lois Whitman (1 January 1988). Destroying Ethnic Identity: The Kurds of Turkey. Human Rights Watch. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-938579-41-0. It began in Diyarbakir, the unofficial capital of Turkish Kurdistan,  ^ Western Armenian
Western Armenian
pronunciation: Dikranagerd; Hovannisian, Richard G. (2006). Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 9781568591537. The city that later generations of Armenians
Armenians
would call Dikranagerd was actually ancient Amid
Amid
or Amida (now Diyarbekir or Diyarbakır), a great walled city with seventy-two towers...  ^ a b c d e Diyarbakır. Turkish Airlines. Retrieved on 2012-05-13. ^ Zehiroglu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorlugu" 2016 (ISBN 978-605-4567-52-2) ; p.223 ^ Abdul- Rahman Mizouri Taj Al- Arifeen: Udday bin Musafir Al- Kurdy Al- Hakary Is not an Umayyad. Part Two. College of Arts/ Dohuk University (2001) ^ Verity Campbell (1 April 2007). Turkey. Lonely Planet. pp. 621–. ISBN 978-1-74104-556-7. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ See Üngör, Uğur (2011), The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 244. ISBN 0-19-960360-X. ^ Charles Gates, [Ancient Cities], 2011, p.19 ^ Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, 1999 p. 137 ^ Theodor Mommsen History of Rome, The Establishment of the Military Monarchy. Italian.classic-literature.co.uk. Retrieved on 2012-05-13. ^ The Eye of Command, Kimberly Kagan, p. 23 ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Vatican Press 2001 ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), under 9 April ^ Echos d'Orient X, 1907, pp. 96 and 145. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 989–996 ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/04/turkey-pkk-clashes-armenian-church-collateral-damage.html Why the Turkish government seized this Armenian church ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/24/world/europe/turkeys-seizure-of-churches-and-land-alarms-armenians.html ^ Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1903, p. 173. ^ a b Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 456 ^ a b Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Complementi, Leipzig 1931, p. 93 ^ F. Tournebize, v. Amid
Amid
ou Amida, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 1246–1247 ^ Hovhannes J. Tcholakian, L'église arménienne catholique en Turquie, 1998 ^ S. Vailhé, Antioche. Patriarcat syrien-catholique, in Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, Vol. I, Paris 1903, coll. 1433 ^ O. Werner, Orbis terrarum catholicus, Freiburg 1890, p. 164 ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 831 ^ Faroqhi 2009, p. 91. ^ Gunter, Michael. The Kurdish Predicament in Iraq: A Political Analysis. p. 8.  ^ Joost Jongerden; Jelle Verheij (2012). Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915. BRILL. p. 20. ISBN 90-04-22518-8.  ^ Dumper, Michael. Cities of The Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. p. 130.  ^ McDowall, David (2004). 3E, ed. A Modern History of the Kurds. IB Tauris. p. 403. ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0.  ^ Kirişci, Kemal (June 1998). "Turkey". In Janie Hampton. Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd. pp. 198, 199.  ^ Globalsecurity.org ^ "Belediye Diyarbakırlıyı tanıdı: Kürtçe konuşuyor". Radikal (in Turkish). Dogan News Agency. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2008.  ^ Metin Heper; Sabri Sayari (7 May 2013). The Routledge Handbook of Modern Turkey. Routledge. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-136-30964-9. It was thus only in recent times that Diyarbakır, the unofficial capital of Turkey's Kurdish area, became a predominantly Kurdish town.  ^ Vernietiging Turkse steden veel groter dan gedacht (Dutch, NOS 2016-05-27) ^ "Turkish court acquits German footballer Naki in Kurdish case". BBC. 8 November 2016.  ^ "Amed Sportif Faaliyetler Kadın Futbol Takımı Şampiyon Oldu". Milliyet
Milliyet
(in Turkish). 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-06-18.  ^ a b "Fury erupts after mayors detained in Turkey's Kurdish southeast". Al-Monitor. 26 October 2016.  ^ "Slowdown in access to social media in Turkey
Turkey
a 'security measure,' says PM". Hurriyet Daily News. 4 November 2016.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
appoints trustee as Diyarbakir mayor after arrests". France24. 1 November 2016. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016.  ^ "Prosecutors demand 230 years prison sentences for ousted Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Co- Mayor
Mayor
Kışanak". Hurriyet Daily News. 29 November 2016.  ^ "Turkey: the AKP launches a campaign against the Assyrian Christians". Voltairenet. 17 January 2017.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
remove Assyrian sculpture from front of local city hall". Almasdar News. 17 January 2017.  ^ a b Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 60.  ^ a b Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 63.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 64.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 70.  ^ a b Joost Jongerden; Jelle Verheij (2012). Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915. BRILL. p. 20. ISBN 90-04-22518-8.  ^ a b [1] Konu: Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Tarihi ve Demografik Yapısı ^ [2] Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Alevi-Türkmen köyleri ^ a b http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Turmag25.html ^ Historical Weather for Diyarbakir, Turkey
Turkey
– Travel, Vacation, Forecast and Reference Information. Weatherbase. Retrieved on 2012-05-13. ^ Plant, Ian Michael (2004). Women Writers of Ancient Greece and Rome: An Anthology. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780806136219. Aetius: A Greek from Amida (in Mesopotamia), who wrote on philosophy in the mid- sixth century AD in Alexandria.  ^ Meade, Richard Hardaway (1968). An introduction to the history of general surgery. Saunders. p. 108. OCLC 438114. Aetius of Amida, who lived in the sixth century A.D. and was the first Greek physician who was a Christian, had a chapter on aneurysms in his book on surgery. 

Sources[edit]

Faroqhi, Suraiya (2009). Frisch, Shelley, ed. The Ottoman Empire: A Short History. Markus Wiener Publishers. ISBN 978-1558764491. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diyarbakır.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Diyarbakir.

(in Turkish) Governorship of Diyarbakır (in Turkish) Diyarbakırspor
Diyarbakırspor
funs, news, informarmation (in Turkish) Diyarbakir otelleri (in Turkish) local info (in Turkish) Information on Diyarbakır Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Weather Forecast Information Over 1000 well-organized pictures of major sights

Coordinates: 37°55′N 40°14′E / 37.91°N 40.24°E / 37.91; 40.24

v t e

Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
in Diyarbakır Province
Diyarbakır Province
of Turkey

Districts

Bağlar Bismil Çermik Çınar Çüngüş Dicle Eğil Ergani Hani Hazro Kayapınar Kocaköy Kulp Lice Silvan Sur Yenişehir

List of Provinces by Region

Istanbul

Istanbul

West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ

Aegean

Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya

Mediterranean

Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

v t e

Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

Adana Ankara Antalya Aydın Balıkesir Bursa Denizli Diyarbakır Erzurum Eskişehir Gaziantep Hatay İstanbul İzmir Kayseri Kocaeli Konya Kahramanmaraş Malatya Manisa Mardin Mersin Muğla Ordu Sakarya Samsun Şanlıurfa Tekirdağ Trabzon Van

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Turkey

Aegean

Aphrodisias Ephesus Hierapolis
Hierapolis
/ Pamukkale Pergamon Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Black Sea

Hittite Capital of Hattusa Safranbolu

Central Anatolia

Göreme
Göreme
and Rock Sites of Cappadocia Neolithic
Neolithic
Site of Çatalhöyük Divriği Great Mosque and Hospital

East Anatolia

Historic city of Ani

Marmara

Archaeological Site of Troy Bursa
Bursa
and Cumalıkızık Historic Areas of Istanbul Selimiye Mosque
Selimiye Mosque
and its Social Complex

Mediterranean

Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Southeastern Anatolia

Mount Nemrut
Mount Nemrut
in Commagene Diyarbakır Fortress
Diyarbakır Fortress
and Hevsel Gardens

1 Shared with other regions

v t e

The Tigris

Countries

Turkey
Turkey
(523 km) Syria
Syria
(40 km) Iraq
Iraq
(1,377 km)

Cities

Diyarbakır Bismil Hasankeyf Cizre Mosul Tikrit Samarra Kadhimiya Baghdad Amarah Al-Kūt

Tributaries

Ambar Kuru Pamuk Hazro Batman Garzan Göksu Savur Botan Little Khabur Great Zab Little Zab 'Adhaim Diyala

Dams

Dicle Ilısu Cizre Mosul Badush Samarra Kut

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148996542 LCCN: n85272750 GN

.