Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of
a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the
legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the
bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of
the particular country or state.
Divorce laws vary considerably around
the world, but in most countries divorce requires the sanction of a
court or other authority in a legal process, which may involve issues
of alimony (spousal support), child custody, child visitation /
access, parenting time, child support, distribution of property, and
division of debt. In most countries, monogamy is required by law, so
divorce allows each former partner to marry another person; where
polygyny is legal but polyandry is not, divorce allows the woman to
marry another person.
Divorce should not be confused with annulment, which declares the
marriage null and void; with legal separation or de jure separation (a
legal process by which a married couple may formalize a de facto
separation while remaining legally married) or with de facto
separation (a process where the spouses informally stop cohabiting).
Reasons for divorce vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of
independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash.
The only countries that do not allow divorce are the Philippines, the
Vatican City and the British
Crown Dependency of Sark. In the
Philippines, divorce for non-Muslim Filipinos is not legal unless the
husband or wife is an alien and satisfies certain conditions. The
Vatican City is an ecclesiastical state, which has no procedure for
divorce. Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are
Spain (1981), Argentina
Colombia (1991*), Andorra
Chile (2004) and
2.1.1 Contested divorce
2.1.2 At-fault divorce
2.1.3 Summary divorce
2.1.4 No-fault divorce
2.1.5 Uncontested divorce
2.1.6 Collaborative divorce
188.8.131.52 Electronic divorce
2.1.7 Mediated divorce
Polygamy and divorce
Divorce and relationships
5.2 Effects on children
5.2.2 Academic and socioeconomic
Divorce of elderly couples
6.3 North America
6.3.1 United States
7 In same-sex married couples (United States)
7.1 Rights of spouses to custody of children
8 Religion and divorce
9 Gender and divorce
10.1 Greco-Roman culture
10.2 Medieval Europe
10.3 Secularisation in Europe
10.6 Islamic law
10.7 The Philippines
12 See also
14 Suggested reading
15 External links
Grounds for divorce vary widely from country to country.
be seen as a contract, a status, or a combination of these. Where
it is seen as a contract, the refusal or inability of one spouse to
perform the obligations stipulated in the contract may constitute a
ground for divorce for the other spouse. In contrast, in some
countries (such as Sweden, Finland, Australia, New
Zealand), divorce is purely no fault. Many jurisdictions offer
both the option of a no fault divorce as well as an at fault divorce.
This is the case, for example, in many
US states (see Grounds for
divorce (United States)).
Though divorce laws vary between jurisdictions, there are two basic
approaches to divorce: fault based and no-fault based. However, even
in some jurisdictions that do not require a party to claim fault of
their partner, a court may still take into account the behavior of the
parties when dividing property, debts, evaluating custody, shared care
arrangements and support. In some jurisdictions one spouse may be
forced to pay the attorney's fees of another spouse.
Laws vary as to the waiting period before a divorce is effective.
Also, residency requirements vary. However, issues of division of
property are typically determined by the law of the jurisdiction in
which the property is located.
In Europe, divorce laws differ from country to country, reflecting
differing legal and cultural traditions. In some countries,
particularly (but not only) in some former communist countries,
divorce can be obtained only on one single general ground of
"irretrievable breakdown of the marriage" (or a similar formulation).
Yet, what constitutes such a "breakdown" of the marriage is
interpreted very differently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction,
ranging from very liberal interpretations (e.g. Netherlands) to
quite restrictive ones (e.g., in Poland, there must be an
"irretrievable and complete disintegration of matrimonial life," but
there are many restrictions to granting a divorce). Separation
constitutes a ground of divorce in some European countries (in
Germany, e.g., a divorce is granted on the basis of a 1-year
separation if both spouses consent, or 3-year separation if only one
spouse consents). Note that "separation" does not necessarily mean
separate residences – in some jurisdictions, living in the same
household but leading a separate life (e.g., eating, sleeping,
socializing, etc. separately) is sufficient to constitute de facto
separation; this is explicitly stated, e.g., in the family laws of
Divorce laws are not static; they often change reflecting evolving
social norms of societies. In the 21st century, many European
countries have made changes to their divorce laws, in particular by
reducing the length of the necessary periods of separation, e.g.,
Scotland in 2006 (1 or 2 years from the previous 2 or 5 years); France
in 2005 (2 years from the previous 6 years),
Switzerland in 2005
(2 years from the previous 4 years), Greece in 2008 (two years
from the previous four years). Some countries have completely
overhauled their divorce laws, such as
Spain in 2005, and Portugal
in 2008. A new divorce law also came into force in September 2007 in
Belgium, creating a new system that is primarily no-fault.
Bulgaria also modified its divorce regulations in 2009. Also in Italy,
new laws came into force in 2014 and 2015 with significant changes in
Italian law in matter of divorce: apart from shortening of the period
of obligatory separation (6 months or 1 year from the previous 3
years), are allowed other forms of getting a divorce – as an
alternative to court proceedings, i.e. the negotiations with the
participation of an advocate or agreement made before the registrar of
Public Registry Office. Austria, instead, is a European country
where the divorce law still remains conservative.
The liberalization of divorce laws is not without opposition,
particularly in the United States. Indeed, in the US, certain
conservative and religious organizations are lobbying for laws which
restrict divorce. In 2011, in the US, the Coalition for
was established, describing itself as an organization "dedicated to
supporting efforts to reduce unnecessary divorce and promote healthy
Divorce law by country
In some jurisdictions, the courts will seldom apply principles of
fault, but might willingly hold a party liable for a breach of a
fiduciary duty to his or her spouse (for example, see
Sections 720 and 1100 of the California
Family Code). Grounds for
divorce differs from state to state in the U.S. Some states have
no-fault divorce; some states require a declaration of fault on the
part of one partner or both; some states allow either method.
In most jurisdictions, a divorce must be certified (or ordered by a
Judge) by a court of law to come into effect. The terms of the divorce
are usually determined by the courts, though they may take into
account prenuptial agreements or post-nuptial agreements, or simply
ratify terms that the spouses may have agreed to privately (this is
not true in the United States, where agreements related to the
marriage typically have to be rendered in writing to be enforceable).
In absence of agreement, a contested divorce may be stressful to the
In some other countries,[where?] when the spouses agree to divorce and
to the terms of the divorce, it can be certified by a non-judiciary
administrative entity. The effect of a divorce is that both parties
are free to marry again if a filing in an appellate court does not
overturn the decision.
Contested divorces mean that one of several issues are required to be
heard by a judge at trial level—this is more expensive, and the
parties will have to pay for a lawyer's time and preparation. In such
a divorce the spouses are not able to agree on issues for instance
child custody and division of marital assets. In such situations, the
litigation process takes longer to conclude. The judge controls
the outcome of the case. Less adversarial approaches to divorce
settlements have recently emerged, such as mediation and collaborative
divorce settlement, which negotiate mutually acceptable resolution to
conflicts. This principle in the
United States is called 'Alternative
Dispute Resolution' and has gained popularity.
Before the late 1960s, nearly all countries that permitted divorce
required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act
incompatible to the marriage. This was termed "grounds" for divorce
(popularly called "fault") and was the only way to terminate a
marriage. Most jurisdictions around the world still require such proof
of fault. In the United States, no-fault divorce is available in all
50 states, as is the case with Australia, New Zealand,
other Western countries.
Fault-based divorces can be contested; evaluation of offenses may
involve allegations of collusion of the parties (working together to
get the divorce), or condonation (approving the offense), connivance
(tricking someone into committing an offense), or provocation by the
other party. Contested fault divorces can be expensive, and not
usually practical as eventually most divorces are granted. Comparative
rectitude is a doctrine used to determine which spouse is more at
fault when both spouses are guilty of breaches.
The grounds for a divorce which a party could raise and need to prove
included 'desertion,' 'abandonment,' 'cruelty,' or 'adultery.' The
requirement of proving a ground was revised (and withdrawn) by the
terms of 'no-fault' statutes, which became popular in many Western
countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 'no-fault'
jurisdictions divorce can be obtained either on a simple allegation of
'irreconcilable differences,' 'irretrievable break-down', or
'incompatibility' with respect to the marriage relationship, or on the
ground of de facto separation.
A summary (or simple) divorce, available in some
jurisdictions[which?], is used when spouses meet certain eligibility
requirements or can agree on key issues beforehand.
Short duration of marriage (less than five years)
Absence of children (or, in some jurisdictions, prior allocation of
child custody and of child-support direction and amount)
Absence or minimal value of real property at issue and any associated
encumbrances such as mortgages
Absence of agreed-as-marital property above a given value threshold
(around $35,000 not including vehicles)
Absence, with respect to each spouse, of claims to personal property
above a given value threshold, typically the same as that for total
marital property, with such claims including claims to exclusive
previous ownership of property described by the other spouse as
Some Western jurisdictions have a no-fault divorce system, which
requires no allegation or proof of fault of either party. The
barest of assertions suffice. For example, in countries that require
"irretrievable breakdown", the mere assertion that the marriage has
broken down will satisfy the judicial officer. In other jurisdictions
requiring irreconcilable differences, the mere allegation that the
marriage has been irreparable by these differences is enough for
granting a divorce. Courts will not inquire into facts. A "yes" is
enough, even if the other party vehemently says "no".
The application can be made by either party or by both parties
In jurisdictions adopting the 'no-fault' principle regarding whether
to grant a divorce, some courts may still take into account the fault
of the parties when determining some aspects of the content of the
divorce decree, e.g., its terms for the division of property and debts
and the existence and, if applicable, the amount of spousal support.
Provisions related to child custody are determined using a different
fundamental standard, that of the child's or children's best
interests; while some behaviors that may constitute marital fault
(e.g., violence, cruelty, endangerment, neglect, or substance abuse)
may also qualify as factors to be considered when determining child
custody, they do so for the independent reason that they provide
evidence as to what arrangement is in the child's or children's best
interests going forward.
It is estimated that upwards of 95% of divorces in the U.S. are
"uncontested", because the two parties are able to come to an
agreement (either with or without lawyers/mediators/collaborative
counsel) about the property, children, and support issues. When the
parties can agree and present the court with a fair and equitable
agreement, approval of the divorce is almost guaranteed. If the two
parties cannot come to an agreement, they may ask the court to decide
how to split property and deal with the custody of their children.
Though this may be necessary, the courts would prefer parties come to
an agreement prior to entering court.
Where the issues are not complex and the parties are cooperative, a
settlement often can be directly negotiated between them. In the
majority of cases, forms are acquired from their respective state
websites and a filing fee is paid to the state. Most U.S. states
charge between $175 and $350 for a simple divorce filing.
Collaborative divorce and mediated divorce are considered uncontested
Because of additional requirements that must be met, most military
divorces are typically uncontested.
In the United States, many state court systems are experiencing an
increasing proportion of pro se (i.e., litigants represent themselves
without a lawyer) in divorce cases. In San Diego, for example, the
number of divorce filings involving at least one self-representing
litigant rose from 46% in 1992 to 77% in 2000, and in Florida from 66%
in 1999 to 73% in 2001. Urban courts in California report that
approximately 80% of the new divorce filings are filed pro se.
Collaborative divorce is a method for divorcing couples to come to
agreement on divorce issues. In a collaborative divorce, the parties
negotiate an agreed resolution with the assistance of attorneys who
are trained in the collaborative divorce process and in mediation and
often with the assistance of a neutral financial specialist or divorce
coaches. The parties are empowered to make their own decisions based
on their own needs and interests, but with complete information and
full professional support.
Once the collaborative divorce starts, the lawyers are disqualified
from representing the parties in a contested legal proceeding, should
the collaborative law process end prematurely. Most attorneys who
practice collaborative divorce claim that it can be more
cost-effective than other divorce methods, e.g., going to court.
Expense, they say, has to be looked at under the headings of financial
and emotional. Also, the experience of working collaboratively tends
to improve communication between the parties, particularly when
collaborative coaches are involved, and the possibility of going back
to court post-separation or divorce is minimized. In the course of the
collaboration, should the parties not reach any agreements, any
documents or information exchanged during the collaborative process
cannot be used in court except by agreement between the parties.
Neither can any of the professional team retained in the course of the
collaboration be brought to court. Essentially, they have the same
protections as in mediation. There are two exceptions: 1) Any
affidavit sworn in the course of the collaboration and vouching
documentation attaching to same and 2) any interim agreement made and
signed off in the course of the collaboration or correspondence
relating thereto. The parties are in control of the time they are
prepared to give their collaboration. Some people need a lot of time
to complete, whereas others will reach solutions in a few meetings.
Collaborative practitioners offer a tightly orchestrated model with
meetings scheduled in advance every two weeks, and the range of items
to be discussed apportioned in advance of signing up as well as the
more open ended process, the clients decide.
Portugal, for example, allows two persons to file an electronic
request for no-fault collaborative divorce in a non judiciary
administrative entity. In specific cases, with no children, real
property, alimony, or common address, can be completed within one
Divorce mediation is an alternative to traditional divorce litigation.
In a divorce mediation session, a mediator facilitates the discussion
between the two parties by assisting with communication and providing
information and suggestions to help resolve differences. At the end of
the mediation process, the separating parties have typically developed
a tailored divorce agreement that can be submitted to the court.
Mediation sessions can include either party's attorneys, a neutral
attorney, or an attorney-mediator who can inform both parties of their
legal rights, but does not provide advice to either, or can be
conducted with the assistance of a facilitative or transformative
mediator without attorneys present at all. Some mediation companies,
such as Wevorce, also pair clients with counselors, financial planners
and other professionals to work through common mediation sticking
Divorce mediators may be attorneys who have experience in
divorce cases, or they may be professional mediators who are not
attorneys, but who have training specifically in the area of family
Divorce mediation can be significantly less costly,
both financially and emotionally, than litigation. The adherence rate
to mediated agreements is much higher than that of adherence to court
orders. An article in the Jerusalem Post by Hadassah Fidler
explained that mediated divorces have become a lot more popular, to
the extent that some countries (such as Israel) have instituted a new
law which will require divorcing couples to consider mediation before
applying to court.
Polygamy and divorce
Polygamy is a significant structural factor governing divorce in
countries where this is permitted. Little-to-no analysis has been
completed to explicitly explain the link between marital instability
and polygamy which leads to divorce. The frequency of divorce rises in
polygamous marriages compared to monogamous relationships. Within
polygamous unions, differences in conjugal stability are found to
occur by wife order. There are 3 main mechanisms through which
polygamy affects divorce: economic restraint, sexual satisfaction, and
childlessness. Many women escape economic restraint through divorcing
their spouses when they are allowed to initiate a divorce.
"Just Divorced!" hand-written on an
automobile's rear window.
An annual study in the UK by management consultants Grant Thornton,
estimates the main proximal causes of divorce based on surveys of
The main causes in 2004 were:
Adultery; Extramarital sex; Infidelity – 27%
Domestic violence – 17%
Midlife crisis – 13%
Addictions, e.g. alcoholism and gambling – 6%
Workaholism – 6%
According to this survey, husbands engaged in extramarital affairs in
75% of cases; wives in 25%. In cases of family strain, wives' families
were the primary source of strain in 78%, compared to 22% of husbands'
families. Emotional and physical abuse were more evenly split, with
wives affected in 60% and husbands in 40% of cases. In 70% of
workaholism-related divorces it was husbands who were the cause, and
in 30%, wives. The 2004 survey found that 93% of divorce cases were
petitioned by wives, very few of which were contested. 53% of divorces
were of marriages that had lasted 10 to 15 years, with 40% ending
after 5 to 10 years. The first 5 years are relatively divorce-free,
and if a marriage survives more than 20 years it is unlikely to end in
Social scientists study the causes of divorce in terms of underlying
factors that may possibly motivate divorce. One of these factors is
the age at which a person gets married; delaying marriage may provide
more opportunity or experience in choosing a compatible
partner. Wage, income, and sex ratios are other such
underlying factors that have been included in analyses by sociologists
The elevation of divorce rates among couples who cohabited prior to
marriage is called the "cohabitation effect." Evidence suggests that
although this correlation is partly due to two forms of selection (a)
that persons whose moral or religious codes permit cohabitation are
also more likely to consider divorce permitted by morality or religion
and (b) that marriage based on low levels of commitment is more common
among couples who cohabit than among couples who do not, such that the
mean and median levels of commitment at the start of marriage are
lower among cohabiting than among non-cohabiting couples), the
cohabitation experience itself exerts at least some independent effect
on the subsequent marital union.
In 2010, a study by Jay Teachman published in Journal of
Family found that women who have cohabited or had premarital sex with
men other than their husbands have an increased risk of divorce, and
that this effect is strongest for women who have cohabited with
multiple men prior to marriage. To Teachman, the fact that the
elevated risk of divorce is only experienced when the premarital
partner(s) is someone other than the husband indicates that premarital
sex and cohabitation are now a normal part of the courtship process in
the United States. It is worth mentioning that the study only
considers data on women in the 1995 National Survey of
in the United States.
Divorce is sometimes caused by one of the
partners finding the other unattractive.
Some of the effects associated with divorce include academic,
behavioral, and psychological problems. Although this may not always
be true, studies suggest that children from divorced families are more
likely to exhibit such behavioral issues than those from non-divorced
Divorce and relationships
Research done at
Northern Illinois University
Northern Illinois University on
Family and Child
Studies suggests that divorce of couples experiencing high conflict
can have a positive effect on families by reducing conflict in the
home. There are, however, many instances when the parent–child
relationship may suffer due to divorce. Financial support is many
times lost when an adult goes through a divorce. The adult may be
obligated to obtain additional work to maintain financial stability.
In turn, this can lead to a negative relationship between the parent
and child; the relationship may suffer due to lack of attention
towards the child as well as minimal parental supervision
Studies have also shown that parental skills decrease after a divorce
occurs; however, this effect is only a temporary change. "A number of
researchers have shown that a disequilibrium, including diminished
parenting skills, occurs in the year following the divorce but that by
two years after the divorce re-stabilization has occurred and
parenting skills have improved"
Some couples choose divorce even when one spouse's desire to remain
married is greater than the other spouse's desire to obtain a divorce.
In economics this is known as the Zelder Paradox, and is more common
with marriages that have produced children, and less common with
American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association study of parents' relocation
after a divorce, researchers found that a move has a long-term effect
on children. In the first study conducted amongst 2,000 college
students on the effects of parental relocation relating to their
children's well-being after divorce, researchers found major
differences. In divorced families in which one parent moved, the
students received less financial support from their parents compared
with divorced families in which neither parent moved. These findings
also imply other negative outcomes for these students, such as more
distress related to the divorce and did not feel a sense of emotional
support from their parents. Although the data suggests negative
outcomes for these students whose parents relocate after divorce,
there is insufficient research that can alone prove the overall
well-being of the child A newer study in the Journal of Family
Psychology found that parents who move more than an hour away from
their children after a divorce are much less well off than those
parents who stayed in the same location
Effects on children
Divorce is associated with diminished psychological well-being in
children and adult offspring of divorced parents, including greater
unhappiness, less satisfaction with life, weaker sense of personal
control, anxiety, depression, and greater use of mental health
services. A preponderance of evidence indicates that there is a causal
effect between divorce and these outcomes.
A study in
Sweden led by the Centre for Health Equity Studies (Chess)
at Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, is published in the
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health found that children
living with just one parent after divorce suffer from more problems
such as headaches, stomach aches, feelings of tension and sadness than
those whose parents share custody.
Children of divorced parents are also more likely to experience
conflict in their own marriages, and are more likely to experience
divorce themselves. They are also more likely to be involved in
short-term cohabiting relationships, which often dissolve before
marriage. There are many studies that show proof of an
intergenerational transmission of divorce, but this does not mean that
having divorced parents will absolutely lead a child to divorce. There
are two key factors that make this transmission of divorce more
likely. First, inherited biological tendencies or genetic conditions
may predispose a child to divorce as well as the "model of marriage"
presented by the child's parents.
According to Nicholas Wall, former President of the
Family Division of
the English High Court, "People think that post-separation parenting
is easy – in fact, it is exceedingly difficult, and as a rule
of thumb my experience is that the more intelligent the parent, the
more intractable the dispute. There is nothing worse, for most
children, than for their parents to denigrate each other. Parents
simply do not realize the damage they do to their children by the
battles they wage over them. Separating parents rarely behave
reasonably, although they always believe that they are doing so, and
that the other party is behaving unreasonably."
Although not the intention of most parents, putting children in the
middle of conflict is particularly detrimental. Examples of this are
asking children to carry messages between parents, grilling children
about the other parent's activities, and putting the other parent down
in front of the children.
Children involved in high-conflict divorce
or custody cases can experience varying forms of parental alienation,
which courts often consider to be a form of child abuse.[citation
needed] Specific examples of parental alienation include brainwashing
the child to cease their relationship with the other parent, telling
the child that the other parent does not love them, teaching the child
to call another adult by a parental name in effort to replace the
other parent, limiting communication between the child and the other
parent, and limiting quality time between the child and the other
parent. If evidence reveals that a parent is actively alienating the
child from their other parent, their case for custody can be severely
Poorly managed conflict between parents increases children's risk of
behavior problems, depression, substance abuse and dependence, poor
social skills, and poor academic performance. Fortunately, there are
approaches by which divorce professionals can help parents reduce
conflict. Options include mediation, collaborative divorce, coparent
counseling, and parenting coordination.
Children begin to be affected 2–4 years before the separation or
divorce even occurs. This time period before the separation tends to
be more detrimental for the children than the actual divorce or
separation. This can be due to parental conflict and anticipation of a
divorce, and decreased parental contact. Many couples believe that by
separating, or becoming legally divorced that they are helping their
children, and in situations of extreme parental conflict of abuse it
most likely will be beneficial.
Exposure to marital conflict and instability, most often has negative
consequences for children. Several mechanisms are likely to be
responsible. First, observing overt conflict between parents is a
direct stressor for children. Observational studies reveal
that children react to inter-parental conflict with fear, anger, or
the inhibition of normal behavior. Preschool children – who
tend to be egocentric – may blame themselves for marital
conflict, resulting in feelings of guilt and lowered self-esteem.
Conflict between parents also tends to spill over and negatively
affect the quality of parents' interactions with their children.
Researchers found that the associations between marital conflict and
children's externalizing and internalizing problems were largely
mediated by parents' use of harsh punishment and parent–child
conflict. Furthermore, modeling verbal or physical aggression, parents
"teach" their children that disagreements are resolved through
conflict rather than calm discussion. As a result, children may not
learn the social skills (such as the ability to negotiate and reach
compromises) that are necessary to form mutually rewarding
relationships with peers.
Girls and boys deal with divorce differently, for instance girls who
initially show signs of adapting well, later suffer from anxiety in
romantic relationships with men. Studies also showed that girls who
were separated from their fathers at a younger age tended to be more
angry toward the situation as they aged, anger and sadness were also
observed at common feeling in adolescents who had experienced parental
Children are dependent of their parents from before day one. In the
womb they expect the mother to nourish them. It is their only will to
survive. When they are born, it is their parents responsibility to
take care of their every need as they grow up. They are seen as sort
of "super heroes" to the extant that "their parents should be able to
work through and solve any issue.[…] and divorce shatters this basic
safety and belief concerning the parents’ abilities to care for them
and to make decisions that truly consider their well being." license
counselor and therapist Steven Earll states very simply.
The way that children are affected by divorce can vary in many
different ways. For instance if the child in question is below the age
of three years old, they most likely will not even know what is going
on or why their parents are no longer together. They will grow up
with the familiarity of their separated parents and also they would
probably not be as exposed if at all to the said parents arguing that
could have happened before the divorce happened. Through all of this
gender plays roles in each age group differently. It is shown that
through each age group males were often more effected and at a more
consistent rate than females with the exception of the teenage years
where females are far more emotional and expectant of throwing tantrum
like behaviors more than males.
If the child is around pre-school age and goes through this event with
their parents, lets say around the ages of three to six, then the way
they think is very self-involved. Their way of thinking is all about
"me" and will remain that way until they hit around seven. Because of
this way of thinking, they are at the most risk of thinking that they
are at fault with their own parents splitting up. They are the most
vulnerable age and are usually the most negatively effected. They have
most likely never seen a functional relationship from their parents so
they will grow up with a sort of distorted image of what a marriage
should be like unless the parents are remarried in to a successful
At this age is when the gender takes a role. When boys are in this
situation, they will most likely still have a strong relationship with
both parents. But if it is a girl in the situation, they will most
likely grow up with more anger and regret towards the parent who's
"fault" it is. When typically this aggression is towards the father,
this could lead to difficult relationships with men in the future. As
well as many different trust issues depending on the reasoning behind
Infidelity being the top reason here in the United
States. Taking from personal experiences, there can be longer lasting
effects in what the emotional damage can do to a child who has
experienced an unhealthy relationship and a divorce.
At the age of six to about the age of twelve is when more
physiological effects take place. As well as when school becomes more
difficult to focus on. When there is more of an emotional toll if you
will. With school in session, children may bottle up their feelings
and not be as talkative or act like their normal selves. During this
age, it is very important to understand how to talk to your child who
is going through this. With all of the stress as well as schooling it
could all become very overwhelming. You may see the grades of the
child start to slip. If this happens it is a sign that the child is
distracted. This is a good indicator as to what the child may be
thinking or feeling.
As we get into the higher ages more matters factor in. At the age of
thirteen to about seventeen is when you must factor in the hormone
levels coming from puberty. This could be pretty overwhelming for
someone who feels as if their whole life is turning upside down
anyway. Being a teenager is hard enough as it is and when you are
going through puberty on top of a divorce it can feel like the end of
the world. As for males, they always seem that they have less of an
emotional toll from this situation. Although this is more of when
males have more resentment towards their fathers. They often see them
as the cause of the situation. This is because they are very attached
to their mother and to see their mother go through something this
emotionally straining can take a toll on them. They often act out
their aggression since their hormones are also off the wall due to
puberty they do not know how to channel their own aggression in a
Ages eighteen and up are more of the miscellaneous group. This is when
they can actually see the situation for what it really is. They
understand that sometimes adults get married for the wrong reasons and
they see that sometimes things just do not work out for the best. This
is when everything comes in to focus and the parents can talk to their
children like adults and know that they will understand and not be as
hurt. Males and females often behave the same in this age group
because they are understanding adults. That they shouldn’t expect
their children to fully understand the whole situation and the degree
that it is under. Their whole universe revolves around them.
As well as this all is just statistics, everything is varying to
different factors such as how bad the moments are leading up to the
divorce of the two parents, how the two parents focus on the kids
during the separation process, and finally how strong the relationship
between the children and parents were. Taking into account these
factors, this can help figure out the effects it may have on your
Academic and socioeconomic
Frequently, children who have experienced a divorce have lower
academic achievement than children from non-divorced families In a
review of family and school factors related to adolescents' academic
performance, it noted that a child from a divorced family is two times
more likely to drop out of high school than a child from a
non-divorced family. These children from divorced families may also be
less likely to attend college, resulting in the discontinuation of
their academic career.
Many times academic problems are associated with those children from
single-parent families. Studies have shown that this issue may be
directly related to the economical influence of divorce. A divorce may
result in the parent and children moving to an area with a higher
poverty rate and a poor education system all due to the financial
struggles of a single parent.
Children of divorced parents also achieve lower levels of
socioeconomic status, income, and wealth accumulation than children of
continuously married parents. These outcomes are associated with lower
Young men or women between the ages of 7 and 16 who had experienced
the divorce of their parents were more likely than youths who had not
experienced the divorce of their parents to leave home because of
friction, to cohabit before marriage, and to parent a child before
Divorce often leads to worsened academic achievement in children ages
7–12, the most heightened negative effect being reading test scores.
These negative effects tend to persist, and even escalate after the
divorce or separation occurs.
Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased behavioral
problems and the marital conflict that accompanies parents’ divorce
places the child's social competence at risk.
Divorce of elderly couples
Since the mid-1990s, the divorce rate has increased to over 50% among
baby boomers. More and more seniors are staying single; an analysis of
census data conducted at
Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green State University predicted that
divorce numbers will continue to rise. Baby boomers that remain
unmarried are five times more likely to live in poverty compared to
those who are married. They are also three times as likely to receive
food stamps, public assistance or disability payments.
Sociologists believe that the rise in the number of older Americans
who are not married is a result of factors such as longevity and
economics. Women, especially, are becoming more and more financially
independent which allows them to feel more secure with being alone, in
addition to changing perceptions of being divorced or single. This has
resulted in less pressure for baby boomers to marry or stay
In Japan, divorces were on a generally upward trend from the 1960s
until 2002 when they hit a peak of 290,000. Since then, both the
number of divorces and the divorce rate have declined for six years
straight. In 2010, the number of divorces totalled 251,000, and the
divorce rate was 1.99 (per 1,000 population).
Marriage Act is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted in
1955. Three other important acts were also enacted as part of the
Hindu Code Bills during this time: the Hindu Succession Act (1956),
the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act (1956), the Hindu Adoptions
and Maintenance Act (1956). DIVORCE UNDER VARIOUS ACTS IN INDIA The
Divorce Act, 1936 The dissolution of Muslim
Marriage act, 1939 The Parsi
Divorce Act, 1936 The
Marriage Act, 1956 The Foreign
Marriage Act, 1969 Dissolution
of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939 The Dissolution of
Marriage and Judicial
separation (under the Indian
Divorce Act, 1869)
Due to the existence of diverse religious faiths in India, the Indian
Judiciary has implemented laws separately for couples belonging to
different religious beliefs. Mutual consent divorce procedure  is
relatively easier and fast while contested divorce procedure 
takes longer and depends on the religions of the couples.
In 2015, there were 53,448 divorces, in which 33% for less than 5
years of marriage and 20.8% for 5–9 years of marriage. The figure
represents a 17.1% decline in the number when divorce rate peaked in
One study estimated that legal reforms accounted for about 20% of the
increase in divorce rates in Europe between 1960 and
The ten places with the highest divorce rates in the UK are all beside
the sea, with Blackpool in the top position.
Divorce in the United States
On average, first marriages that end in divorce last about eight
years. Of the first marriages for women from 1955 to 1959, about
79% marked their 15th anniversary, compared with only 57% for women
who married for the first time from 1985 to 1989. The median time
between divorce and a second marriage was about three and a half
In 2000, the divorce rate reached its peak at 40%; since then it has
slowly declined, and by 2014 it had settled in at 32%.
A 1995 study found a wide range of factors correlating with the
divorce rate including frequency of sex, wealth, race, and religious
In 2001, marriages between people of different faiths were three times
more likely to be divorced than those of the same faith. In a 1993
study, members of two mainline Protestant religions had a 20% chance
of being divorced in 5 years; a Catholic and an Evangelical, a 33%
chance; a Jew and a Christian, a 40% chance.
A study by the Christian poll group the Barna Group, reports
that a higher divorce rate was associated with infrequent church
Success in marriage has been associated with higher education and
higher age. 81% of college graduates, over 26 years of age, who wed in
the 1980s, were still married 20 years later. 65% of college graduates
under 26, who married in the 1980s, were still married 20 years later.
49% of high school graduates under 26 years old, who married in the
1980s, were still married 20 years later. 2.9% of adults age
35–39 without a college degree divorced in the year 2009, compared
with 1.6% with a college education. A population study found that
in 2004 and 2008, liberal-voting states have lower rates of divorce
than conservative-voting states, possibly because people in liberal
states tend to wait longer before getting married. An analysis of
this study found it to be misleading due to sampling at an aggregate
level. It revealed that when sampling the same data by individuals,
Republican-leaning voters are less likely to have a divorce or
extramarital affair than Democratic-leaning voters and
National Center for Health Statistics reports that from 1975 to
1988 in the U.S., in families with children present, wives file for
divorce in approximately two-thirds of cases. In 1975, 71.4% of the
cases were filed by women, and in 1988, 65% were filed by women.
It is estimated that upwards of 95% of divorces in the U.S. are
"uncontested", because the two parties are able to come to an
agreement without a hearing (either with or without
lawyers/mediators/collaborative counsel) about the property, children,
and support issues.
A 2011 study found a 1% increase in the unemployment rate correlated
with a 1% decrease in the divorce rate, presumably because more
people were financially challenged to afford the legal proceedings.
In Australia, nearly every third marriage ends in divorce. After
reaching a peak divorce rate of 2.7 per 1000 residents in 2001, the
Australian rate declined to 2.3 per 1000 in 2007.
In same-sex married couples (United States)
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the
United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or
create a new article, as appropriate. (April 2013) (Learn how and when
to remove this template message)
All states permit same-sex marriage. For same-sex couples in the
United States, divorce law is in its infancy.
Rights of spouses to custody of children
Upon dissolution of a same-sex marriage, legal questions remain as to
the rights of spouses to custody of the biological children of their
spouses. Unresolved legal questions abound in this area.
Child custody policies include several guidelines that determine with
whom the child lives following divorce, how time is divided in joint
custody situations, and visitation rights. The most frequently applied
custody guideline is the best interests of the child standard, which
takes into account the parents' preferences, the child's preferences,
the interactions between parents and children, children's adjustment,
and all family members' mental and physical health.
Religion and divorce
Main article: Religion and divorce
Illustration parodying the divorce proceedings of
Anna Gould (an
American heiress and socialite) and
Boni de Castellane
Boni de Castellane (a French
nobleman) in 1906 in Paris, France.
Boni de Castellane
Boni de Castellane then sought an
annulment from the Vatican so that he could be free to remarry in the
Church. The annulment case was not finally settled until 1924, when
the highest Vatican tribunal upheld the validity of the marriage and
denied the annulment.
In some countries (commonly in Europe and North America), the
government defines and administers marriages and divorces. While
ceremonies may be performed by religious officials on behalf of the
state, a civil marriage and thus, civil divorce (without the
involvement of a religion) is also possible. Due to differing
standards and procedures, a couple can be legally unmarried, married,
or divorced by the state's definition, but have a different status as
defined by a religious order. Other countries use religious law to
administer marriages and divorces, eliminating this distinction. In
these cases, religious officials are generally responsible for
interpretation and implementation.
Islam allows divorce, and it can be initiated by either the husband or
the wife. However, the initiations are subject to certain conditions
and waiting periods, which are meant to force the initiating party to
Dharmic religions allow divorce under some circumstances.[citation
Christian views on divorce
Christian views on divorce vary, Catholic teaching allows only
annulment, most other denominations discourage it except in the event
of adultery. Jewish views of divorce differ, with Reform Judaism
considering civil divorces adequate. Conservative and Orthodox Judaism
require that the husband grant his wife a divorce in the form of a
The Millet System, where each religious group regulates its own
marriages and divorces, is still present in varying degrees in some
post−Ottoman countries like Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel,
the Palestinian Authority, Egypt, and Greece. Several countries use
sharia (Islamic law) to administrate marriages and divorces for
Marriage in Israel is administered separately by each
religious community (Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Druze), and there
is no provision for interfaith marriages other than marrying in
another country. For Jews, marriage and divorce are administered by
Orthodox rabbis. Partners can file for divorce either in rabbinical
court or Israeli civil court.
Gender and divorce
According to a study published in the American Law and Economics
Review, women have filed slightly more than two-thirds of divorce
cases in the United States. This trend is mirrored in the UK
where a recent study into web search behavior found that 70% of
divorce inquiries were from women. These findings also correlate with
the Office for National Statistics publication "Divorces in England
and Wales 2012 which reported that divorce petitions from women
outnumber those from men by 2 to 1.
Regarding divorce settlements, according to the 2004 Grant Thornton
survey in the UK, women obtained a better or considerably better
settlement than men in 60% of cases. In 30% of cases the assets were
split 50–50, and in only 10% of cases did men achieve better
settlements (down from 24% the previous year). The report concluded
that the percentage of shared residence orders would need to increase
in order for more equitable financial divisions to become the
Some jurisdictions give unequal rights to men and women when filing
for divorce.
For couples to Conservative or Orthodox Jewish law (which by Israeli
civil law includes all Jews in Israel), the husband must grant his
wife a divorce through a document called a get. If the man refuses,
the woman can appeal to a court or the community to pressure the
husband. A woman whose husband refuses to grant the get or who is
missing is called an agunah, is still married, and therefore cannot
remarry. Under Orthodox law, children of an extramarital affair
involving a married Jewish woman are considered mamzerim
(illegitimate) and cannot marry non-mamzerim.
Marriage in ancient Rome
Roman married couple.
The ancient Athenians liberally allowed divorce, but the person
requesting divorce had to submit the request to a magistrate, and the
magistrate could determine whether the reasons given were sufficient.
Divorce was rare in early Roman culture but as their empire grew in
power and authority Roman civil law embraced the maxim, "matrimonia
debent esse libera" ("marriages ought to be free"), and either husband
or wife could renounce the marriage at will. The Christian emperors
Theodosius restricted the grounds for divorce to grave
cause, but this was relaxed by Justinian in the 6th century.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, familial life was regulated more
by ecclesiastical authority than civil authority. The Catholic and
Orthodox Church had, among others, a differing view of divorce.
The Orthodox Church recognized that there are rare occasions when it
is better that couples do separate. For the Orthodox, to say that
marriage is indissoluble means that it should not be broken, the
violation of such a union, perceived as holy, being an offense
resulting from either adultery or the prolonged absence of one of the
partners. Thus, permitting remarriage is an act of compassion of the
Church towards sinful man.
Under the influence of the
Catholic Church the divorce rate had been
greatly reduced by the 9th or 10th century, which considered
marriage a sacrament instituted by
Jesus Christ and indissoluble by
mere human action.
Although divorce, as known today, was generally prohibited in Catholic
lands after the 10th century, separation of husband and wife and the
annulment of marriage were well-known. What is today referred to as
"separate maintenance" (or "legal separation") was termed "divorce a
mensa et thoro" ("divorce from bed-and-board"). The husband and wife
physically separated and were forbidden to live or cohabit together;
but their marital relationship did not fully terminate. Civil
courts had no power over marriage or divorce. The grounds for
annulment were determined by a Catholic church authority and applied
in ecclesiastical courts.
Annulment was for canonical causes of
impediment existing at the time of the marriage. "For in cases of
total divorce, the marriage is declared null, as having been
absolutely unlawful ab initio." The Catholic Church
held that the sacrament of marriage produced one person from two,
inseparable from each other: "By marriage the husband and wife are one
person in law: that is, the very being of legal existence of the woman
is suspended during the marriage or at least incorporated and
consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection
and cover, she performs everything." Since husband and wife
became one person upon marriage, recognition of that oneness could be
rescinded only on the grounds that the unity never existed to begin
with, i.e., that the proclamation of marriage was erroneous and void
from the start.
Secularisation in Europe
Henry VIII of England broke with the
Catholic Church in order to
obtain an annulment.
After the Reformation, marriage came to be considered a civil contract
in the newly Protestant regions of Europe, and on that basis civil
authorities gradually asserted their power to decree a "divortium a
vinculo matrimonii", or "divorce from all the bonds of marriage".
Since no precedents existed defining the circumstances under which
marriage could be dissolved, civil courts heavily relied on the
previous determinations of the ecclesiastic courts and freely adopted
the requirements set down by those courts. As the civil courts assumed
the power to dissolve marriages, courts still strictly construed the
circumstances under which they would grant a divorce, and
considered divorce to be contrary to public policy. Because divorce
was considered to be against the public interest, civil courts refused
to grant a divorce if evidence revealed any hint of complicity between
the husband and wife to divorce, or if they attempted to manufacture
grounds for a divorce.
Divorce was granted only because one party to
the marriage had violated a sacred vow to the "innocent spouse". If
both husband and wife were guilty, "neither would be allowed to escape
the bonds of marriage".
Eventually, the idea that a marriage could be dissolved in cases in
which one of the parties violated the sacred vow gradually allowed
expansion of the grounds upon which divorce could be granted from
those grounds which existed at the time of the marriage to grounds
which occurred after the marriage, but which exemplified violation of
that vow, such as abandonment, adultery, or "extreme cruelty". An
exception to this trend was the Anglican Church, which maintained the
doctrine of marital indissolubility.
During the English Civil War, the
Puritans briefly passed a law that
divested marriage of all sacrament, leaving it as a secular contract
that could be broken.
John Milton wrote four divorce tracts in
1643–1645 that argued for the legitimacy of divorce on grounds of
spousal incompatibility. His ideas were ahead of their time; arguing
for divorce at all, let alone a version of no-fault divorce, was
extremely controversial and religious figures sought to ban his
tracts. In 1670 a precedent was first set with an Act of
Parliament allowing Lord John Manners to divorce his wife, Lady Anne
Pierrepont, and until the passage of the
Matrimonial Causes Act 1857,
divorce could only be obtained through a specific Act of
Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of
her marriage under the
Napoleonic Code of 1804.
The move towards secularisation and liberalisation was reinforced by
the individualistic and secular ideals of the Enlightenment. The
Enlightened absolutist, King Frederick II ("the Great") of Prussia
decreed a new divorce law in 1752, in which marriage was declared to
be a purely private concern, allowing divorce to be granted on the
basis of mutual consent. This new attitude heavily influenced the law
Austria under Emperor Joseph II, where it was applied
to all non-Catholic Imperial subjects.
Divorce was legalised in
France after the
French revolution on a similar basis, although the
legal order of the ancien regime was reinstated at the Bourbon
restoration of 1816. The trend in Europe throughout the 19th century,
was one of increased liberalisation; by the mid-19th century divorce
was generally granted by civil courts in the case of adultery.
Marilyn Monroe signing divorce papers with celebrity attorney Jerry
In Britain before 1857 wives were regarded as under the economic and
legal protection of their husbands, and divorce was almost impossible.
It required a very expensive private
Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament costing perhaps
£200, of the sort only the richest could possibly afford. It was very
difficult to secure divorce on the grounds of adultery, desertion, or
cruelty. The first key legislative victory came with the Matrimonial
Causes Act 1857, which passed over the strenuous opposition of the
highly traditional Church of England. The new law made divorce a civil
affair of the courts, rather than a Church matter, with a new civil
court in London handling all cases. The process was still quite
expensive, at about £40, but now became feasible for the middle
class. A woman who obtained a judicial separation took the status of a
feme sole, with full control of her own civil rights. Additional
amendments came in 1878, which allowed for separations handled by
local justices of the peace. The Church of England blocked further
reforms until the final breakthrough came with the Matrimonial Causes
In Spain, the 1931 Constitution of the
Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic for the
first time recognised a right to divorce. The first law to regulated
divorce was the
Divorce Act of 1932, that passed the Republican
Parliament despite the opposition of the
Catholic Church and a
coalition of the Agrarian Minority and Minority Basque-Navarre
Catholic parties. The dictatorship of General Franco abolished the
law. After the restoration of democracy, a new divorce law was passed
in 1981, again over the opposition of the
Catholic Church and part of
the Christian Democrat party, then a part of the ruling Union of
Democratic Center. During the first socialist government of Felipe
González Márquez the 1981 law was amended to expedite the process of
separation and divorce of marriages, which was again opposed by the
Church, which called it "express divorce".
In Italy, the first divorce law was introduced on 1 December 1970,
despite the opposition of the Christian Democrats, and entered
into force on 18 December 1970. In the following years, the Christian
Democrats, supported also by parties opposed to the law, promoted a
recall referendum. In 1974, in a referendum the majority of the
population voted against a repeal of the divorce law. A feature of the
1970 divorce law was the long period of marital separation of five
years required. This period was reduced to three in 1987 and to a year
in 2015, in the case of judicial separation, and six months in the
case of separation by mutual agreement.
Malta approved divorce at a referendum in 1995 and 2011
Divorce rates increased markedly during the 20th century in developed
countries, as social attitudes towards family and sex changed
Divorce has become commonplace in some countries,
including the United States, Canada, Australia, Germany, New
Zealand, Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom.
In the Edo Period (1603–1868), only husbands could divorce their
wives by writing letters of divorce. But actually, their relatives or
marriage arrangers often kept these letters and tried to restore the
marriages. It was not allowed for wives to divorce their husbands.
Some wives were able to gain sanctuary in certain Shinto "divorce
temples" for several years, and were able to obtain a divorce
thereby. In 19th century Japan, at least one in eight
marriages ended in divorce.
There are four types of divorce in Japan:
Divorce by agreement in
which the divorce is mutual, divorce by mediation which happens in
family court, divorce by decision of family court that takes place
when a couple cannot complete a divorce through mediation, and divorce
by judgment of district court.
On an all-India level, the
Marriage Act was passed in 1954, is
an inter-religious marriage law permitting Indian nationals to marry
and divorce irrespective of their religion or faith. The Hindu
Marriage Act, in 1955 which legally permitted divorce to Hindus and
other communities who chose to marry under these acts. The Indian
Divorce Act 1869 is the law relating to the divorce of person
professing the Christian religion.
Divorce can be sought by a husband
or wife on grounds including adultery, cruelty, desertion for two
years, religious conversion, mental abnormality, venereal disease, and
Divorce is also available based on mutual consent of
both the spouses, which can be filed after at least one year of
separated living. Mutual consent divorce can not be appealed, and the
law mandates a minimum period of six months (from the time divorce is
applied for) for divorce to be granted. Contested divorce is when
one of the spouse is not willing to divorce the other spouse, under
such condition the divorce is granted only on certain grounds
according to the Hindu marriage act of 1955. While a Muslim
husband can unilaterally bring an end to the marriage by pronouncing
talaq, Muslim women must go to court, claiming any of the grounds
provided under the Dissolution of Muslim
In the first major family law reform in the last decade, the Supreme
Court of India banned the Islamic practice of "Triple Talaq" (divorce
by uttering of the "Talaq" word thrice by the husband). The landmark
Supreme Court of India judgment was welcomed by women activists across
Official figures of divorce rates are not available, but it has been
estimated that 1 in 100 or another figure of 11 in 1,000 marriages in
India end up in divorce.
Various communities are governed by specific marital legislation,
distinct to Hindu
Marriage Act, and consequently have their own
Divorce Act, 1936
The Dissolution of Muslim
Marriage act, 1939
Marriage Act, 1969
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986
An amendment to the marriage laws to allow divorce based on
"irretrievable breakdown of marriage" (as alleged by one of the
spouses) is under consideration in India. In June 2010, the Union
Cabinet of India approved the
Marriage Laws (Amendment) Bill 2010,
which, if cleared by Parliament, would establish "irretrievable
breakdown" as a new ground for divorce. Under the proposed
amendment, the court before proceeding to the merits of the case must
be satisfied by the evidences produced that parties have been living
apart for a continuous period of not less than three years immediately
preceding the presentation of the petition.
Divorce in Islam
Islam can take a variety of forms, some initiated by the
husband and some initiated by the wife. The main traditional legal
categories are talaq (repudiation), khulʿ (mutual divorce), judicial
divorce and oaths. The theory and practice of divorce in the Islamic
world have varied according to time and place. Historically, the
rules of divorce were governed by sharia, as interpreted by
traditional Islamic jurisprudence, and they differed depending on the
legal school. Historical practice sometimes diverged from legal
theory. In modern times, as personal status (family) laws were
codified, they generally remained "within the orbit of Islamic law",
but control over the norms of divorce shifted from traditional jurists
to the state.
Divorce as a means of terminating marriage is illegal for all
Filipinos except Filipino Muslims. There is only civil annulment after
a lengthy legal separation. The process is costly and long, and there
are many legally married couples in extramarital relations, even
without a divorce law.
Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines, known as Presidential
Decree (PD) No. 1083, Title II-
Marriage and Divorce, Chapter
Divorce allows for divorce recognized by the state. There are two
sharia courts in the Philippine judicial system that hear these cases.
On July 27, 2010, Gabriela Women's Party filed in Congress House Bill
No 1799, or the
Divorce Bill of the Philippines, as one of many
attempts to introduce pro-divorce legislation. Senator Pia Cayetano
has filed a separate divorce bill in the Senate. During that time, the
Philippines, along with
Malta and the Vatican, are the three most
conservative countries on the issue of divorce. The bill did not pass
any level of legislation because of this.
In 2013, the divorce bill was refiled, however, did not pass any level
of legislation as well.
In a latest attempt, the divorce bill was refiled again in 2017. In
February 22, 2018, the House of Representatives committee on
population and family relations approved a bill seeking to legalize
divorce, the first time in Philippine history for such a measure to
pass the committee level of legislation. The majority of the members
of the House of Representatives (lower house of Congress), both
majority and minority blocs, are in favor of divorce, however, divorce
continues to be a divisive issue in the Senate (upper house of
Congress), as stark opposition is present among male
Divorce rates increase during times of hardship, war, and major
Divorce rates increased after World War II because people were
quick to marry each other before they went to war. When soldiers
returned, they found out that they didn't have much in common with
their spouses, so they divorced.
Divorce law around the world
Divorce of same-sex couples—legal aspects, divorce rates
Fear of commitment
Implications of divorce
List of most expensive divorces
List of people who remarried the same spouse
Primary physical custody
Wife selling (English custom)
2013 New York divorce torture plot
Januário Lourenço, inventor of electronic divorce
^ The Covenant
Divorce Recovery Leader's Handbook - Page 166, Wade
Powers - 2008
^ Kaushik (2013-08-17). "Isle of Sark: Europe's Last Feudal State".
Amusing Planet. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
^ Gloria, Charmian K (2007). "Who needs divorce in the Philippines?".
Mindanao Law Journal. 1: 18–28.
Divorce Is Now Legal in
Argentina but, So Far, Few Couples Have
Taken the Break". Los Angeles Times.
^ a b Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the
Latin. American Dictatorships and Democracies, by Mala Htun, pp 102
Divorce between 1976 and 1991 was allowed only for non-Catholics.
^ Le divorce en droit comparé: Europe by Bernard Dutoit, Raphaël
Arn, Béatrice Sfondylia, Camilla Taminelli, pp.56
Chile introduces right to divorce". BBC News. BBC. November 18,
2004. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
^ "Behind the Law of Marriage" (PDF).
^ "Sveriges Domstolar - Divorce". domstol.se.
^ "Separation and Divorce". familylawcourts.gov.au.
^ "Getting a divorce (dissolving a marriage or civil union)".
^ "Will my spouse have to pay my attorney fees?". Steven Fritsch,
Attorney at Law. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
^ Note: The very fact that one of the spouses advances facts for the
existence of the irretrievable breakdown itself constitutes 'a very
serious indication that an irretrievable breakdown does exist"
Netherlands - Divorce" (PDF). ceflonline.net. )
Poland - Divorce" (PDF). ceflonline.net.
^ "European Commission - European Judicial Network -
^ "The marriage can be dissolved if it has broken down. The marriage
has broken down if the parties to the marriage are no longer
cohabiting and if it cannot be expected that the parties will resume
matrimonial cohabitation (Section 1565 (1) BGB). There is an
irrefutable presumption that the marriage has broken down if the
parties have been living apart for one year and both apply for divorce
or if the respondent consents to the divorce. After a separation
period of three years, there is an irrefutable presumption that the
marriage has broken down, without any comments being required from the
parties to the proceedings (Section 1566 (2) BGB)" (ec.europa.eu)
^ "Section 73 of the Civil Code explains the circumstances under which
spouses can be considered to be living separately, namely, if the
spouses do not share a household and one of the spouses refuses
outright to maintain a joint household whereby the possibility of
marital cohabitation is denied. Separate occupation by spouses of a
common dwelling does not necessarily signify a joint household."
Divorce in France". Angloinfo. Angloinfo. Retrieved 15 June
^ "binational.ch - General". binational.ch.
^ "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women" (PDF).
^ "European Commission - European Judicial Network -
Divorce - Spain".
^ Note: Although there is no need to prove fault in order to obtain a
divorce, some serious faults affect the alimony
Divorce and Separation Law Boccadutri International Law
Firm". Boccadutri.com. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
^ Note: in certain circumstances, such as where there is neither
agreement of spouses nor 'fault', there is a need of a separation of
between three and six years (ec.europa.eu, "
Austria - Divorce" (PDF).
^ "About". Coalition For
Divorce Magazine Grounds for Divorce".
^ Meyer, Cathy. "Issues Surrounding a Contested Divorce". About.com.
Retrieved 10 September 2013.
^ "NY Uncontested
Divorce vs. NY Contested Divorce". Spodek Law Group.
Retrieved 10 September 2013.
^ San Antonio
Divorce Center. "Comparative Rectitude". Archived from
the original on 2014-10-29.
^ Note: uch as the UK: in England and Wales, divorce can be obtained
on the ground of living apart for more than 2 years (with consent);
and living apart for more than 5 years (without consent). (in addition
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