HOME
The Info List - Divide And Rule


--- Advertisement ---



Divide and rule
Divide and rule
(or divide and conquer, from Latin
Latin
dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy. The concept refers to a strategy that breaks up existing power structures, and especially prevents smaller power groups from linking up, causing rivalries and fomenting discord among the people.[1] Traiano Boccalini cites "divide et impera" in La bilancia politica[2] as a common principle in politics. The use of this technique is meant to empower the sovereign to control subjects, populations, or factions of different interests, who collectively might be able to oppose his rule. Machiavelli
Machiavelli
identifies a similar application to military strategy, advising in Book VI of The Art of War[3] (Dell'arte della guerra),[4] that a Captain should endeavor with every art to divide the forces of the enemy, either by making him suspicious of his men in whom he trusted, or by giving him cause that he has to separate his forces, and, because of this, become weaker. The maxim divide et impera has been attributed to Philip II of Macedon, and together with the maxim divide ut regnes was utilised by the Roman ruler Caesar and the French emperor Napoleon. The strategy, but not the phrase, applies in many ancient cases: the example of Gabinius exists, parting the Jewish nation into five conventions, reported by Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
in Book I, 169-170 of The Wars of the Jews (De bello Judaico).[5] Strabo
Strabo
also reports in Geography, 8.7.3[6] that the Achaean League
Achaean League
was gradually dissolved under the Roman possession of the whole of Macedonia, owing to them not dealing with the several states in the same way, but wishing to preserve some and to destroy others. The strategy of division and rule has been attributed to sovereigns, ranging from Louis XI
Louis XI
to the Habsburgs. Edward Coke
Edward Coke
denounces it in Chapter I of the Fourth Part of the Institutes, reporting that when it was demanded by the Lords and Commons what might be a principal motive for them to have good success in Parliament, it was answered: "Eritis insuperabiles, si fueritis inseparabiles. Explosum est illud diverbium: Divide, & impera, cum radix & vertex imperii in obedientium consensus rata sunt." [You would be insuperable if you were inseparable. This proverb, Divide and rule, has been rejected, since the root and the summit of authority are confirmed by the consent of the subjects.] On the other hand, in a minor variation, Sir Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
wrote the phrase "separa et impera" in a letter to James I of 15 February 1615. James Madison
James Madison
made this recommendation in a letter to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
of 24 October 1787,[7] which summarized the thesis of The Federalist#10:[8] "Divide et impera, the reprobated axiom of tyranny, is under certain (some) qualifications, the only policy, by which a republic can be administered on just principles." In Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch by Immanuel Kant (1795), Appendix one, Divide et impera is the third of three political maxims, the others being Fac et excusa (Act now, and make excuses later) and Si fecisti, nega (when you commit a crime, deny it).[9] Elements of this technique involve:

creating or encouraging divisions among the subjects to prevent alliances that could challenge the sovereign aiding and promoting those who are willing to cooperate with the sovereign fostering distrust and enmity between local rulers encouraging meaningless expenditures that reduce the capability for political and military spending

Historically, this strategy was used in many different ways by empires seeking to expand their territories. The concept is also mentioned as a strategy for market action in economics to get the most out of the players in a competitive market.

Contents

1 Narcissism 2 Psychopathy
Psychopathy
in the workplace 3 Historical examples

3.1 Africa 3.2 Asia

3.2.1 Mongolian Empire 3.2.2 Indian subcontinent 3.2.3 Middle East

3.3 Europe 3.4 Mexico

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Narcissism[edit] Main articles: Narcissism, Narcissistic parent, and Narcissism
Narcissism
in the workplace A primary strategy the narcissist uses to assert control, particularly within his family, is to create divisions among individuals. This weakens and isolates them, making it easier for the narcissist to manipulate and dominate. Some are favoured, others are scapegoated. Such dynamics can play out in a workplace setting.[10] Psychopathy
Psychopathy
in the workplace[edit] Main article: Psychopathy
Psychopathy
in the workplace Clive R. Boddy found that "divide and conquer" was a common strategy by corporate psychopaths used as a smokescreen to help consolidate and advance their grip on power in the corporate hierarchy.[11] Historical examples[edit] Africa[edit] The divide and conquer strategy was used by foreign countries in parts of Africa
Africa
during the colonial and post-colonial period.

Germany and Belgium
Belgium
ruled Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi
Burundi
in a colonial capacity. Germany used the strategy of divide and conquer by placing members of the already dominant Tutsi
Tutsi
minority in positions of power. When Belgium
Belgium
took over colonial rule in 1916, the Tutsi
Tutsi
and Hutu
Hutu
groups were rearranged according to race instead of occupation. Belgium defined "Tutsi" as anyone with more than ten cows or a long nose, while "Hutu" meant someone with less than ten cows and a broad nose. The socioeconomic divide between Tutsis and Hutus continued after independence and was a major factor in the Rwandan Genocide. During British rule of Nigeria
Nigeria
from 1900 to 1960, different regions were frequently reclassified for administrative purposes. The conflict between the Igbo and Hausa made it easier for the British to consolidate their power in the region.[citation needed][12]

Asia[edit] Mongolian Empire[edit]

While the Mongols imported Central Asian Muslims to serve as administrators in China, the Mongols also sent Han Chinese and Khitans from China to serve as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara in Central Asia, using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands. Pakistan and India were also divided by this policy.[13]

Indian subcontinent[edit] The strategy of "Divide and Rule" was employed by most imperial powers in Indian subcontinent. The British and French backed various Indian states in conflicts between each other, both as a means of undermining each other's influence and consolidating their authority. Further, it is argued that the British used the strategy to destroy the harmony between various religions and use it for their benefits[14]; a Times Literary Supplement review suggests that although this was broadly the case a more nuanced approach might be closer to the facts[15]. Middle East[edit]

The Sykes-Picot Agreement
Sykes-Picot Agreement
is an example of a 'divide and rule' strategy.

Europe[edit]

Romans entered Macedonia from the south and defeated King Perseus of Macedon in the Battle of Pydna
Battle of Pydna
in 168 BC. Macedonia was then divided into four republics that were heavily restricted from relations with one another and other Hellenic states. A ruthless purge occurred, with allegedly anti-Roman citizens being denounced by their compatriots and deported in large numbers. During the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was able to use a divide and rule strategy to easily defeat the militarily strong Gauls. By the time the Gauls
Gauls
united under Vercingetorix, it was already too late for them.[16][17] Following the October revolution, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
engaged at various times in alliances with the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, some anarchists, and various non-Russian ethnic nationalist groups, against the White movement, Right Socialist-Revolutionaries, and other anarchist and ethnic nationalist groups. This was done to establish the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
(the Bolshevik party) as the sole legal party in the Soviet Union. Similar shifting alliances were played out amongst various dissident factions within the CPSU, such as the Workers Opposition and Left Communists, with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and his supporters gaining absolute power within the party by the mid-1920s. The Salami strategy of Hungarian Communist leader, Mátyás Rákosi.[citation needed] Alliances with various parties played a role in the Nazi Machtergreifung
Machtergreifung
and Gleichschaltung, the seizure and consolidation of total power by the National Socialist German Workers Party. The Enabling Act, which banned the Communist and Social Democratic parties, was supported by the Nazis' coalition partner, the German National People's Party, as well as by the Centre Party. Several months later, all political parties in Germany were banned except for the NSDAP.

Mexico[edit]

Chiapas conflict

See also[edit]

British Raj Culture of fear Destabilisation Divide and conquer algorithms Flying monkeys (psychology) Machiavellianism Marginalization Playing one person against another Right-wing populism § European countries Social undermining Toxic leader Toxic workplace Triangulation (psychology) Wedge issue

References[edit]

^ Ilia Xypolia. 'Divide et Impera: Vertical and Horizontal Dimensions of British Imperialism'. Critique: journal of socialist theory, vol 44, no. 3, pp. 221-231, 2016. P. 221. ^ 1 §136 and 2 §225 ^ http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au Archived 25 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Dell'arte della guerra: testo - IntraText CT". intratext.com.  ^ "Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book I, section 159". Perseus Project. Retrieved 2011-08-27.  ^ "Strabo, Geography, Book 8, chapter 7, section 1". Perseus Project. Retrieved 2011-08-27.  ^ "Constitutional Government: James Madison
James Madison
to Thomas Jefferson". Press-pubs.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-27.  ^ "The Federalist #10". constitution.org.  ^ "Immanuel Kant: Perpetual Peace: Appendix I". Constitution.org. Retrieved 2011-08-27.  ^ Hall J It’s You and Me Baby: Narcissist Head Games The Narcissist Family Files 27 Mar 2017 ^ Boddy, C. R. Corporate Psychopaths: Organizational Destroyers (2011) ^ "HISTORY OF NIGERIA". historyworld.net.  ^ BUELL, PAUL D. (1979). "SINO-KHITAN ADMINISTRATION IN MONGOL BUKHARA". Journal of Asian History. Harrassowitz Verlag. 13 (2): 137–8. JSTOR 41930343.  ^ Shashi Tharoor - Inglorious Empire What the British Did to India ^ Jon Wilson, 2016, India Conquered: Britain's Raj and the chaos of empire, cited in a review of Tharoor's work by Elizabeth Buettner in "Debt of Honour: why the European impact on India must be fully acknowledged", Times Literary Supplement, August 11 2017, pages 13-14. ^ "France: The Roman conquest". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 6, 2015. Because of chronic internal rivalries, Gallic resistance was easily broken, though Vercingetorix's Great Rebellion of 52 bce had notable successes.  ^ "Julius Caesar: The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 15, 2015. Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman. Rome's military superiority lay in its mastery of strategy, tactics, discipline, and military engineering. In Gaul, Rome also had the advantage of being able to deal separately with dozens of relatively small, independent, and uncooperative states. Caesar conquered these piecemeal, and the concerted attempt made by a number of them in 52 bce to shake off the Roman yoke came too late. 

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of divide and rule at Wiktionary

v t e

Aspects of workplaces

Topics

Absenteeism Abusive supervision Aggression Bullying Conflict Control freak Counterproductive behaviour Coworker backstabbing Culture of fear Cyber-aggression Democracy Deviance Discrimination Diversity Divide and rule Emotions Employee engagement Employee monitoring Employee morale Employee silence Employee surveys Empowerment Evaluation Feminisation Fit in or fuck off Friendship Gender inequality Gossip Happiness Harassment Health surveillance Humor Incivility Intervention Jargon Kick the cat Kiss up kick down Listening Machiavellianism Micromanagement Mobbing Narcissism Office
Office
politics Performance appraisal Personality clash Phobia Positive psychology Privacy Probation Profanity Psychopathy Queen bee syndrome Rat race Relationships Revenge Role conflict Romance Sabotage Safety and health Spirituality Staff turnover Strategy Stress Toxic workplace Training Undermining Violence Wellness Work–family conflict Workload

See also

Corporation Employment Factory Job Office Organization Whistleblower

Templates

Aspects of corporations Aspects of jobs Aspects of occupations Aspects of organizations Employment

v t e

Psychological manipulation

Rewarding: pleasant (positive reinforcement)

Attention Bribery Child grooming Flattery Gifts Ingratiation Love bombing Nudging Praise Seduction Smiling Superficial charm Superficial sympathy

Aversive: unpleasant (positive punishment)

Anger Character assassination Crying Emotional blackmail Fearmongering Frowning Glaring Guilt trip Inattention Intimidation Nagging Nit-picking criticism Passive aggression Relational aggression Sadism Shaming Silent treatment Social rejection Swearing Threats Victim blaming Victim playing Yelling

Intermittent or partial negative reinforcement

Climate of fear Traumatic bonding

Other techniques

Bait-and-switch Deception Denial Deprogramming Disinformation Distortion Diversion Divide and rule Double bind Entrapment Evasion Exaggeration Gaslighting Good cop/bad cop Indoctrination Low-balling Lying Minimisation Moving the goalposts Pride-and-ego down Rationalization Reid technique Setting up to fail Trojan horse You're either with us, or against us

Contexts

Abuse Abusive power and control Advertising Bullying Catholic guilt Confidence trick Guilt culture Interrogation Jewish guilt Jewish mother stereotype Moral panic Media manipulation Mind control Mind games Mobbing Propaganda Salesmanship Scapegoating Shame
Shame
culture Smear campaign Social engineering (blagging) Spin Suggestibility Whispering campaign

Related topics

Antisocial personality disorder Assertiveness Blame Borderline personality disorder Carrot and stick Dumbing down Enabling Fallacy Femme fatale Gaming the system Gullibility Histrionic personality disorder Impression management Machiavellianism Narcissism Narcissistic personality disorder Personal boundaries Persuasion Popularity Proj

.