A DIVAN or DIWAN (Persian : دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states , or its chief official (see dewan ).
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Creation and development under the early Caliphates
* 2.1 Establishment and Umayyad period * 2.2 Abbasid period
* 3 Later Islamic dynasties
* 3.1 Tahirids, Saffarids, Buyids and Samanids * 3.2 Seljuqs
* 4 Government councils * 5 Ministerial departments * 6 References * 7 Sources
The winter Diwan of a Mughal
The word, recorded in English since 1586, meaning "Oriental council
of a state," from Turkish divan, from
It is first attested in
Middle Persian spelled as dpywʾn and dywʾn,
itself hearkening back, via
Old Persian ,
In Arabic, the term was first used for the army registers, then generalized to any register, and by metonymy applied to specific government departments. The sense of the word evolved to "custom house" and "council chamber," then to "long, cushioned seat," such as are found along the walls in Middle-Eastern council chambers. The latter is the sense that entered European languages as divan (furniture) .
The modern French, Spanish, and Italian words douane, aduana, and dogana, respectively (meaning "customs house"), also come from diwan.
CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE EARLY CALIPHATES
ESTABLISHMENT AND UMAYYAD PERIOD
The first dīwān was created under Caliph
With the advent of the
Umayyad Caliphate , the number of dīwāns
increased. To the dīwān al-jund, the first Umayyad caliph, Mu\'awiya
(r. 661–680), added the bureau of the land tax (dīwān al-kharāj )
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r. 685–705), the practices of the
various departments were standardized and Arabized: instead of the
local languages (Greek in Syria , Coptic and Greek in Egypt , Persian
Under the Abbasid Caliphate the administration, partly under the increasing influence of Iranian culture, became more and more elaborate and complex. As part of this process, the dīwāns increased in number and sophistication, reaching their apogee in the 9th–10th centuries. At the same time, the office of vizier (wazīr) was also created to coordinate government. The administrative history of the Abbasid dīwāns is complex, since many were short-lived, temporary establishments for specific needs, while at times the sections of larger dīwān might be also be termed dīwāns, and often a single individual was placed in charge of more than one department.
Caliph al-Saffah (r. 749–754) established a department for the confiscated properties of the Umayyads after his victory in the Abbasid Revolution . This was probably the antecedent of the later dīwān al-ḍiyāʿ, administering the caliph's personal domains. Similarly, under al-Mansur (r. 754–775) there was a bureau of confiscations (dīwān al-muṣādara), as well as a dīwān al-aḥshām, probably in charge of palace service personnel, and a bureau of petitions to the Caliph (dīwān al-riḳāʿ). Caliph al-Mahdi (r. 775–785) created a parallel dīwān al-zimām (control bureau) for every one of the existing dīwāns, as well as a central control bureau (zimām al-azimma). These acted as comptrollers as well as coordinators between the various bureaus, or between individual dīwāns and the vizier. In addition, a dīwān al-maẓālim was created, staffed by judges, to hear complaints against government officials. The remit of the dīwān al-kharāj now included all land taxes (kharāj, zakāt, and jizya , both in money and in kind), while another department, the dīwān al-ṣadaḳa, dealt with assessing the zakāt of cattle. The correspondence of the dīwān al-kharāj was checked by another department, the dīwān al-khātam. As in Umayyad times, miniature copies of the dīwān al-kharāj, the dīwān al-jund and the dīwān al-rasāʾil existed in every province, but by the mid-9th century each province also maintained a branch of its dīwān al-kharāj in the capital.
The treasury department (bayt al-māl or dīwān al-sāmī) kept the records of revenue and expenditure, both in money and in kind, with specialized dīwāns for each category of the latter (e.g. cereals, cloth, etc.). Its secretary had to mark all orders of payment to make them valid, and it drew up monthly and yearly balance sheets. The dīwān al-jahbad̲ha, responsible for the treasury's balance sheets, was eventually branched off from it, while the treasury domains were placed under the dīwān al-ḍiyāʿ, of which there appear at times to have been several. In addition, a department of confiscated property (dīwān al-musādarīn) and confiscated estates (dīwān al-ḍiyāʿ al-maḳbūḍa) existed.
Caliph al-Mu\'tadid (r. 892–902) grouped the branches of the
provincial dīwāns present in the capital into a new department, the
dīwān al-dār (bureau of the palace) or dīwān al-dār al-kabīr
(great bureau of the palace), where "al-dār" probably meant the
vizier's palace. At the same time, the various zimām bureaux were
combined into a single dīwān al-zimām which re-checked all
assessments, payments and receipts against its own records and,
according to the 11th-century scholar al-Mawardi , was the "guardian
of the rights of bayt al-māl and the people". The dīwān
al-nafaḳāt played a similar role with regards to expenses by the
individual dīwāns, but by the end of the 9th century its role was
mostly restricted to the finances of the caliphal palace. Under
al-Muktafi (r. 902–908) the dīwān al-dār was broken up into three
departments, the bureaux of the eastern provinces (dīwān
al-mashriḳ ), of the western provinces (dīwān al-maghrib ), and of
Under Caliph al-Mutawakkil (r. 847–861), a bureau of servants and pages (dīwān al-mawālī wa ’l-ghilmān ), possibly an evolution of the dīwān al-aḥshām, existed for the huge number of slaves and other attendants of the palace. In addition, the dīwān al-khātam, now also known as the dīwān al-sirr (bureau of confidential affairs) grew in importance. Miskawayh also mentions the existence of a dīwān al-ḥaram, which supervised the women's quarters of the palace.
LATER ISLAMIC DYNASTIES
As the Abbasid Caliphate began to fragment in the 9th century, its administrative machinery was copied by the emergent successor dynasties, with the already extant local dīwān branches likely providing the base on which the new administrations were formed.
TAHIRIDS, SAFFARIDS, BUYIDS AND SAMANIDS
The administrative machinery of the autonomous
Tahirid dynasty of
Khurasan is almost unknown, except that their treasury was located in
their capital of
Buyids , who took over Baghdad and the remains of the Abbasid
Caliphate in 946, drew partly on the established Abbasid practice, but
was adapted to suit the nature of the rather decentralized Buyid
"confederation" of autonomous emirates. The Buyid bureaucracy was
headed by three great departments: the dīwān al-wazīr, charged with
finances, the dīwān al-rasāʾil as the state chancery, and the
dīwān al-jaysh for the army. The Buyid regime was a military
regime, its ruling caste composed of Turkish and Daylamite troops. As
a result, the army department was of particular importance, and its
head, the ʿariḍ al-jaysh, is frequently mentioned in the sources of
the period. Indeed, at the turn of the 11th century, there were two
ʿariḍs, one for the Turks and one for the Daylamites, hence the
department was often called "department of the two armies" (dīwān
al-jayshayn). A number of junior departments, like the dīwān
al-zimām, the dīwān al-ḍiyāʿ, or the dīwān al-barīd were
directly inherited from the Abbasid government. Under Adud al-Dawla
(r. 978–983), however, the dīwān al-sawād, which oversaw the rich
lands of lower Iraq, was moved from Baghdad to
The Great Seljuqs tended to cherish their nomadic origins, with their sultans leading a peripatetic court to their various capitals. Coupled with their frequent absence on campaign, the vizier assumed an even greater prominence, concentrating the direction of civil, military and religious affairs in his own bureau, the "supreme dīwān" (dīwān al-aʿlā). The dīwān al-aʿlā was further subdivided into a chancery (dīwān al-inshāʾ wa’l-ṭughrā, also called dīwān al-rasāʾil) under the ṭughrāʾī or munshī al-mamālik, an accounting department (dīwān al-zimām wa’l-istīfāʾ) under the mustawfī al-mamālik, a fiscal oversight office (dīwān al-ishrāf or dīwān al-muʿāmalāt) under the mushrif al-mamālik, and the army department (dīwān al-ʿarḍ or dīwān al-jaysh) under the ʿariḍ (further divided into the recruitment and supply bureau, dīwān al-rawātib, and the salary and land grants bureau, dīwān al-iqṭāʾ). A number of lesser departments is also attested, although they may not have existed at the same time: the office charged with the redress of grievances (dīwān al-maẓālim), the state treasury (bayt al-māl) and the sultan's private treasury (bayt al-māl al-khaṣṣ), confiscations (dīwān al-muṣādara), the land tax office (dīwān al-kharāj) and the department of religious endowments or waqfs (dīwān al-awqāf). A postal department (dīwān al-barīd) also existed but fell into disuse. The system was apparently partly copied in provincial centres as well.
Divan-ı Hümayun or
Sublime Porte was for many years the council
of ministers of the
In Javanese and related languages, the cognate DEWAN is the standard
word for chamber, as in the
In the sultanate of
* Diwan al-Alaf: Ministry of War. * Diwan al-Bahr: 'Ministry of the Sea', i.e. (overseas=) Foreign Ministry. * Diwan al-Shikayat (or - Chikayat): Ministry of Complaints.
* ^ A B de Blois 1995 , p. 432. * ^ A B C Duri 1991 , p. 323. * ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1977 , p. 533. * ^ Bosworth 1995 , pp. 432–433. * ^ A B C D E F Bosworth 1995 , p. 433. * ^ Duri 1991 , pp. 323–324. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Duri 1991 , p. 324. * ^ A B C D E F G H Duri 1991 , p. 325. * ^ Duri 1991 , pp. 324, 325. * ^ A B C D E Bosworth 1995 , p. 434. * ^ Lambton 1988 , pp. 28–29. * ^ A B Korobeinikov 2014 , p. 84. * ^ A B Bosworth 1995 , p. 435.
* Bosworth, C. E. (1995). "DĪVĀN – ii. GOVERNMENT OFFICE". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopaedia Iranica. VII. pp. 432–438. * de Blois, François (1995). "DĪVĀN – i. THE TERM". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopaedia Iranica. VII. p. 432. * Duri, A. A. (1991). "Dīwān i.—The caliphate". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 323–327. ISBN 90-04-07026-5 . * Holt, P. M. ; Lambton, Ann K. S. ; Lewis, Bernard , eds. (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam, Volume 2B: Islamic Society and Civilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5 . * Korobeinikov, Dimitri (2014). Byzantium and the Turks in the Thirteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870826-1 . * Lambton, Ann K. S. (1988). Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-133-8 .
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