In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory. Distinctive features are grouped into categories according to the natural classes of segments they describe: major class features, laryngeal features, manner features, and place features. These feature categories in turn are further specified on the basis of the phonetic properties of the segments in question. Since the inception of the phonological analysis of distinctive features in the 1950s, features traditionally have been specified by binary values to signify whether a segment is described by the feature; a positive value, denotes the presence of a feature, while a negative value, minus; indicates its absence. In addition, a phoneme may be unmarked with respect to a feature. It is also possible for certain phonemes to have different features across languages. For example, could be classified as a continuant or not in a given language depending on how it patterns with other consonants. In recent developments to the theory of distinctive features, phonologists have proposed the existence of single-valued features. These features, called univalent or privative features, can only describe the classes of segments that are said to possess those features, and not the classes that are without them.


This section lists and describes the features.

Major class

Major class features: The features that represent the major classes of sounds. #/− syllabicSyllabic segments may function as the nucleus of a syllable, while their counterparts, the minus;syllsegments, may not. Except in the case of syllabic consonants, syllabicdesignates all vowels, while minus;syllabicdesignates all consonants (including glides). #/− consonantalConsonantal segments are produced with an audible constriction in the vocal tract, such as obstruents, nasals, liquids, and trills. Vowels, glides and laryngeal segments are not consonantal. #/− approximantApproximant segments include vowels, glides, and liquids while excluding nasals and obstruents. #/− sonorantThis feature describes the type of oral constriction that can occur in the vocal tract. sondesignates the vowels and sonorant consonants (namely glides, liquids, and nasals) that are produced without an imbalance of air pressure in the vocal tract that might cause turbulence. minus;sondescribes the obstruents, articulated with a noticeable turbulence caused by an imbalance of air pressure in the vocal tract.


Laryngeal features: The features that specify the glottal states of sounds. #/− voiceThis feature indicates whether vibration of the vocal folds occurs with the articulation of the segment. #/− spread glottisUsed to indicate the aspiration of a segment, this feature denotes the openness of the glottis. For sg the vocal folds are spread apart widely enough for frication to occur; for minus;sg there is not the same friction-inducing spreading. #/− constricted glottisThe constricted glottis features denotes the degree of closure of the glottis. cgimplies that the vocal folds are held closely together, enough so that air cannot pass through momentarily, while minus;cgimplies the opposite.


Manner features: The features that specify the manner of articulation. #/−_[[continuant.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="continuant.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="/− [[continuant">/− [[continuant">continuant.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="/− [[continuant">/− [[continuantThis feature describes the passage of air through the vocal tract. [+cont] segments are produced without any significant obstruction in the tract, allowing air to pass through in a continuous stream. [−cont] segments, on the other hand, have such an obstruction, and so occlude the air flow at some point of articulation. #nasal.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="asalization.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="/− nasal">asalization.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="/−__[[Nasalization">nasalThis_feature_describes_the_position_of_the_[[Soft_palate.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Nasalization">nasal">asalization.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="/− [[Nasalization">nasalThis feature describes the position of the [[Soft palate">velum. [+nas] segments are produced by lowering the velum so that air can pass through the [[nasal cavity|nasal tract]]. [−nas] segments conversely are produced with a raised velum, blocking the passage of air to the nasal tract and shunting it to the oral tract. #/− stridentThe strident feature applies to obstruents only and refers to a type of friction that is noisier than usual. This is caused by high energy white noise. #lateral.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="lateral consonant">lateral">lateral consonant">lateralThis feature designates the shape and positioning of the tongue with respect to the oral tract. latsegments are produced as the center of the tongue rises to contact the roof of the mouth, thereby blocking air from flowing centrally through the oral tract and instead forcing more lateral flow along the lowered side(s) of the tongue. #/− delayed releaseThis feature distinguishes stops from affricates. Affricates are designated del rel


Place features: The features that specify the place of articulation. *LABIAL_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Labial consonant">LABIAL ">Labial consonant">LABIAL Labial segments are articulated with the lips. As consonants, these include bilabial and labiodental consonants. #/− round roundare produced with lip rounding, while minus;roundare not. *CORONAL_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Coronal consonant">CORONAL ">Coronal consonant">CORONAL Coronal sounds are articulated with the tip and/or blade of the tongue. These include a large number of consonants, which can be made with the tip, blade or underside of the tongue (apical, laminal, or subapical consonant, respectively), making contact with the upper lip (linguolabial), between the teeth (interdental), with the back of the teeth (dental), with the alveolar ridge (alveolar), behind the alveolar ridge (postalveolar), or on or in front of the hard palate ((pre)palatal). With postalveolar sibilants, additional tongue shapes need to be distinguished, i.e. "domed" or slightly palatalized ("hushing" or "palato-alveolar"), palatalized (alveolopalatal), and "closed" ("hissing-hushing"). #/− anterior Anterior segments are articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue at or in front of the alveolar ridge. Dental consonants are ant postalveolar and retroflex ones are minus;ant #/− distributed For distsegments the tongue is extended for some distance in the mouth. In other words, laminal dental and postalveolar consonants are marked as dist while apical alveolar and retroflex consonants are minus;dist *DORSAL_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Dorsal consonant">DORSAL ">Dorsal consonant">DORSAL Dorsal sounds are articulated by raising the dorsum of the tongue. All vowels are dorsal sounds. Dorsal consonants include palatal, velar and uvular consonants. #/− high highsegments raise the dorsum close to the palate. minus;highsegments do not. #/− low lowsegments bunch the dorsum to a position low in the mouth. #/− back backsegments are produced with the tongue dorsum bunched and retracted slightly to the back of the mouth. minus;backsegments are bunched and extended slightly forward. #/− tense This feature (mainly) applies to the position of the root of the tongue when articulating vowels. tensevowels have an advanced tongue root. In fact, this feature is often referred to as advanced tongue root (ATR), although there is a debate on whether tense and ATR are the same or different features. *RADICAL_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Radical consonant">RADICAL ">Radical consonant">RADICAL Radical sounds are articulated with the root of the tongue. These include epiglottal consonants. #/− advanced tongue root ATRsegments advance the root of the tongue. #/− retracted tongue root RTRsegments bunch the root of the tongue towards the pharyngeal wall and activate the pharyngeal constrictor muscles *GLOTTAL_.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Glottal consonant">GLOTTAL ">Glottal consonant">GLOTTAL Purely glottal sounds do not involve the tongue at all. These are the glottal consonants.

Vowel space

Vowels are distinguished by #/− back(back vowels) #/− high(close vowels) #/− low(low vowels) #/− tense(tense vowels) However, laryngoscopic studies suggest the features are #/− front(front vowels) #/− raised(raised vowels) #/− retracted(retracted vowels) #/− round(round vowels)

Jakobsonian system

This system is given by .


*/− vocalicvocalic, non-vocalic */− consonantalconsonantal, non-consonantal */− nasalnasal, oral */− compactforward-flanged: velar and palatal consonant, wide vowel */− diffusebackward-flanged: labial and coronal, narrow vowel */− abrupt*/− stridentstrident, mellow */− checked


*/− tense


* /− graveperipheral consonant, back vowel * /− acute* /− medialcoronal or palatal consonant, front vowel * /− flatnarrowed slit, wider slit * /− sharpwidened slit, narrower slit

Other uses

The concept of a distinctive feature matrix to distinguish similar elements is identified with phonology, but there have been at least two efforts to use a distinctive feature matrix in related fields. Close to phonology, and clearly acknowledging its debt to phonology, distinctive features have been used to describe and differentiate handshapes in fingerspelling in American Sign Language. Distinctive features have also been used to distinguish proverbs from other types of language such as slogans, clichés, and aphorisms.p. 73. Norrick, Neal. 1985. ''How Proverbs Mean: Semantic Studies in English Proverbs''. de Gruyter. Analogous feature systems are also used throughout Natural Language Processing (NLP). For example, part-of-speech tagging divides words into categories. These include "major" categories such as Noun vs. Verb, but also other dimensions such as person and number, plurality, tense, and others. Some mnemonics for part-of-speech tags conjoin multiple features, such as "NN" for singular noun, vs. "NNS" for plural noun, vs. "NNS$" for plural possessive noun (see Brown Corpus). Others provide more explicit separation of features, even formalizing them via markup such as the Text Encoding Initiative's feature structures. Modern statistical NLP uses vectors of very many features, although many of those features are not formally "distinctive" in the sense described here.

See also

* Feature geometry



* * *Flynn, Darin. (2006). Articulator Theory. University of Calgary. http://ucalgary.ca/dflynn/files/dflynn/Flynn06.pdf. *Hall, T. A. (2007). "Segmental features." In Paul de Lacy, ed., ''The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology''. 311–334. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * * *{{cite book |last1=Jakobson |first1=Roman |last2=Halle |first2=Morris |year=1971 |title=Fundamentals of Language |publisher=Mouton |location=The Hague Category:Phonology