The Info List - Dissolved Oxygen

saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an optode in liquid media, usually water. The standard unit of oxygen saturation is percent (%). Oxygen
saturation can be measured regionally and noninvasively. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is commonly measured using pulse oximetry. Tissue saturation at peripheral scale can be measured using NIRS. This technique can be applied on both muscle and brain.


1 In medicine 2 In environmental science 3 See also 4 References

In medicine[edit] Main article: Oxygen
saturation (medicine) In medicine, oxygen saturation refers to oxygenation, or when oxygen molecules (O 2) enter the tissues of the body. In this case blood is oxygenated in the lungs, where oxygen molecules travel from the air and into the blood. Oxygen
saturation ((O 2) sats) measure the percentage of hemoglobin binding sites in the bloodstream occupied by oxygen. Fish, invertebrates, plants, and aerobic bacteria all require oxygen for respiration.[1] In environmental science[edit] Main article: Oxygenation (environmental) In aquatic environments, oxygen saturation is a ratio of the concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the water to the maximum amount of oxygen that will dissolve in the water at that temperature and pressure under stable equilibrium. Well-aerated water (such as a fast-moving stream) without oxygen producers or consumers is 100% saturated.[2] It is possible for stagnant water to become somewhat supersaturated with oxygen (i.e. reach more than 100% saturation) either because of the presence of photosynthetic aquatic oxygen producers or because of a slow equilibration after a change of atmospheric conditions.[2] Stagnant water in the presence of decaying matter will typically have an oxygen concentration much less than 100%.[citation needed] Environmental oxygenation can be important to the sustainability of a particular ecosystem. Refer to ([1] for a table of maximum equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentration versus temperature at atmospheric pressure. The optimal levels in an estuary for dissolved oxygen is higher than 6 ppm.[citation needed] Insufficient oxygen (environmental hypoxia), often caused by the decomposition of organic matter and/or nutrient pollution, may occur in bodies of water such as ponds and rivers, tending to suppress the presence of aerobic organisms such as fish. Deoxygenation increases the relative population of anaerobic organisms such as plants and some bacteria, resulting in fish kills and other adverse events. The net effect is to alter the balance of nature by increasing the concentration of anaerobic over aerobic species. See also[edit]



^ "Dissolved Oxygen
- Environmental Measurement Systems". Environmental Measurement Systems. Retrieved 2015-10-08.  ^ a b "Environmental Dissolved Oxygen
Values Above 100% Air Saturation" (PDF). IOOS Website. YSI Environmental. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 

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Respiratory physiology



inhalation exhalation

respiratory rate respirometer pulmonary surfactant compliance elastic recoil hysteresivity airway resistance bronchial

hyperresponsiveness constriction dilatation

mechanical ventilation



pneumotaxic center apneustic center


dorsal respiratory group ventral respiratory group


central peripheral

pulmonary stretch receptors

Hering–Breuer reflex


VC FRC Vt dead space CC PEF

calculations respiratory minute volume FEV1/FVC ratio

function tests spirometry body plethysmography peak flow meter nitrogen washout


pulmonary circulation hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction pulmonary shunt


ventilation (V) Perfusion

Ventilation/perfusion ratio V/Q scan

zones of the lung gas exchange pulmonary gas pressures alveolar gas equation alveolar–arterial gradient hemoglobin oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve ( Oxygen
saturation 2,3-BPG Bohr effect Haldane effect) carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift) oxyhemoglobin respiratory quotient arterial blood gas diffusion capacity (DLCO)


high altitude oxygen toxicity hypoxia

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