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Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an optode in liquid media, usually water. The standard unit of oxygen saturation is percent (%). Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation can be measured regionally and noninvasively. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is commonly measured using pulse oximetry. Tissue saturation at peripheral scale can be measured using NIRS. This technique can be applied on both muscle and brain.

Contents

1 In medicine 2 In environmental science 3 See also 4 References

In medicine[edit] Main article: Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation (medicine) In medicine, oxygen saturation refers to oxygenation, or when oxygen molecules (O 2) enter the tissues of the body. In this case blood is oxygenated in the lungs, where oxygen molecules travel from the air and into the blood. Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation ((O 2) sats) measure the percentage of hemoglobin binding sites in the bloodstream occupied by oxygen. Fish, invertebrates, plants, and aerobic bacteria all require oxygen for respiration.[1] In environmental science[edit] Main article: Oxygenation (environmental) In aquatic environments, oxygen saturation is a ratio of the concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the water to the maximum amount of oxygen that will dissolve in the water at that temperature and pressure under stable equilibrium. Well-aerated water (such as a fast-moving stream) without oxygen producers or consumers is 100% saturated.[2] It is possible for stagnant water to become somewhat supersaturated with oxygen (i.e. reach more than 100% saturation) either because of the presence of photosynthetic aquatic oxygen producers or because of a slow equilibration after a change of atmospheric conditions.[2] Stagnant water in the presence of decaying matter will typically have an oxygen concentration much less than 100%.[citation needed] Environmental oxygenation can be important to the sustainability of a particular ecosystem. Refer to ([1] for a table of maximum equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentration versus temperature at atmospheric pressure. The optimal levels in an estuary for dissolved oxygen is higher than 6 ppm.[citation needed] Insufficient oxygen (environmental hypoxia), often caused by the decomposition of organic matter and/or nutrient pollution, may occur in bodies of water such as ponds and rivers, tending to suppress the presence of aerobic organisms such as fish. Deoxygenation increases the relative population of anaerobic organisms such as plants and some bacteria, resulting in fish kills and other adverse events. The net effect is to alter the balance of nature by increasing the concentration of anaerobic over aerobic species. See also[edit]

Oxygen
Oxygen
deficiency

References[edit]

^ "Dissolved Oxygen
Oxygen
- Environmental Measurement Systems". Environmental Measurement Systems. Retrieved 2015-10-08.  ^ a b "Environmental Dissolved Oxygen
Oxygen
Values Above 100% Air Saturation" (PDF). IOOS Website. YSI Environmental. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 

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Respiratory physiology

Respiration

breath

inhalation exhalation

respiratory rate respirometer pulmonary surfactant compliance elastic recoil hysteresivity airway resistance bronchial

hyperresponsiveness constriction dilatation

mechanical ventilation

Control

pons

pneumotaxic center apneustic center

medulla

dorsal respiratory group ventral respiratory group

chemoreceptors

central peripheral

pulmonary stretch receptors

Hering–Breuer reflex

Lung
Lung
volumes

VC FRC Vt dead space CC PEF

calculations respiratory minute volume FEV1/FVC ratio

Lung
Lung
function tests spirometry body plethysmography peak flow meter nitrogen washout

Circulation

pulmonary circulation hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction pulmonary shunt

Interactions

ventilation (V) Perfusion
Perfusion
(Q)

Ventilation/perfusion ratio V/Q scan

zones of the lung gas exchange pulmonary gas pressures alveolar gas equation alveolar–arterial gradient hemoglobin oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve ( Oxygen
Oxygen
saturation 2,3-BPG Bohr effect Haldane effect) carbonic anhydrase (chloride shift) oxyhemoglobin respiratory quotient arterial blood gas diffusion capacity (DLCO)

Insufficiency

high altitude oxygen toxicity hypoxia

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Wastewater

Sources

Acid mine drainage Ballast water Bathroom Blackwater (coal) Blackwater (waste) Boiler blowdown Brine Combined sewer Cooling tower Cooling water Fecal sludge Greywater Infiltration/Inflow Industrial effluent Ion exchange Leachate Manure Papermaking Produced water Return flow Reverse osmosis Sanitary sewer Septage Sewage Sewage
Sewage
sludge Toilet Urban runoff

Quality indicators

Adsorbable organic halides Biochemical oxygen demand Chemical oxygen demand Coliform index Dissolved oxygen Heavy metals pH Salinity Temperature Total dissolved solids Total suspended solids Turbidity

Treatment options

Activated sludge Aerated lagoon Agricultural wastewater treatment API oil-water separator Carbon filtration Chlorination Clarifier Constructed wetland Decentralized wastewater system Extended aeration Facultative lagoon Fecal sludge
Fecal sludge
management Filtration Imhoff tank Industrial wastewater treatment Ion exchange Membrane bioreactor Reverse osmosis Rotating biological contactor Secondary treatment Sedimentation Septic tank Settling basin Sewage
Sewage
sludge treatment Sewage
Sewage
treatment Sewer mining Stabilization pond Trickling filter Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation UASB Vermifilter Wastewater
Wastewater
treatment plant

Disposal options

Combined sewer Evaporation pond Groundwater recharge Infiltration basin Injection well Irrigation Marine dumping Marine outfall Reclaimed water Sanitary sewer Septic drain field Sewage
Sewage
farm Storm drain Surface runoff

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