Diospyros melanoxylon, the Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae native to India and Sri Lanka; it has a hard, dry bark. Its common name derives from Coromandel, the coast of southeastern India. Locally it is known as temburini or by its Hindi name tendu. In Odisha , Jharkhand, and Assam, it is known as kendu. The leaves can be wrapped around tobacco to create the Indian beedi,[3] which has outsold conventional cigarettes in India.[4]

Tendu patta (leaf) collection


The leaf of the tree contains valuable flavones.[5] The pentacyclic triterpenes found in the leaves possess antimicrobial properties,[6] while the bark shows antihyperglycemic activity.[7] The bark of four Diospyros species found in India has been determined to have significant antiplasmodial effects against Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria in humans.[8]


  1. ^ "Diospyros melanoxylon". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  3. ^ Lal, Pranay (25 May 2009). "Bidi – A short history" (PDF). Current Science. Bangalore, India: Current Science Association. 96 (10): 1335–1337. Retrieved 5 May June 2013.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)
  4. ^ "...bidis command 48 percent of the market while chewing tobacco commands 38 percent and cigarettes 14 percent..." Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., "The Tax Treatment of Bidis", tobaccofreeunion.org
  5. ^ NEW FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON, Uppuluri V. Mallavadhani and Anita Mahapatra
  6. ^ Antimicrobial Activity of Some Pentacyclic Triterpenes and Their Synthesized 3-O-Lipophilic Chains, Uppuluri Venkata MALLAVADHANI,*, a Anita MAHAPATRA, a Kaiser JAMIL, b and Peddi Srinivasa REDDY, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27(10) 1576—1579 (2004) Vol. 27, No. 10
  7. ^ Antihyperglycemic effect of Diospyros melanoxylon (Roxb.) bark against Alloxan-induced diabetic rats Jadhav J. K*.Masirkar V. J., Deshmukh V. N.International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN( USA): IJPRIF ISSN 0974-4304, Vol.1, No.2, pp 196-200, April–June 2009
  8. ^ Investigation of Indian Diospyros Species for Antiplasmodial Properties, V. S. Satyanarayana Kantamreddi and Colin W. Wright. eCAM 2008;5(2)187–190