Diomedes (/ˌdaɪəˈmiːdiːz/ or /ˌdaɪˈɒmɪdiːz/) or Diomede
Διομήδης Diomēdēs 'God-like cunning, advised by
Zeus') is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in
the Trojan War.
He was born to
Deipyle and later became King of Argos,
succeeding his maternal grandfather, Adrastus. In Homer's Iliad
Diomedes is regarded alongside Ajax as one of the best warriors of all
the Achaeans (behind only
Achilles in prowess). Later, he founded ten
or more Italian cities. After his death,
Diomedes was worshipped as a
divine being under various names in
Italy and also in Greece.
1 Early myths
2 Trojan War
2.1 Diomedes' place among Achaeans
Diomedes in Aulis
Diomedes in the Iliad
2.7 A dispute with Achilles
2.8 Antilochus' funeral games
2.9 Achilles' funeral games
2.11 Another prophecy
2.12 The Palladium
2.13 The Wooden Horse
3.1 After the fall of Troy
3.2 Life in Italy
3.3 Cities founded by Diomedes
Hero cult of Diomedes
Troilus and Cressida
Troilus and Cressida legend
6 See also
8 External links
Diomedes was, on his father’s side, an Aetolian, and on his mother's
an Argive. This is because his father
Calydon and fled to
Argos in order to avoid being persecuted by his uncle Agrius. He
married King Adrastus's daughter Deipyle.
Tydeus was one of the Seven Against Thebes. This expedition failed and
all leaders, including Tydeus, were killed.
Tydeus was Athena’s
favourite warrior at the time, and when he was dying she wanted to
offer him a magic elixir (which she had obtained from her father) that
would make him immortal. However, she withdrew the intended privilege
in apparent disgust when
Tydeus gobbled down the brains of the hated
enemy who had wounded him.
According to some,
Diomedes was four years old when his father was
killed. At the funeral of their fathers, the sons of Seven Against
Thebes (Aegialeus, Alcmaeon, Amphilocus, Diomedes, Euryalus,
Promachus, Sthenelus, Thersander) met and vowed to vanquish Thebes one
day. They called themselves "Epigoni" because they were born "after
everything has happened".
Ten years later, the
Epigoni appointed Alcmaeon as their commander in
chief and gathered an army. They added to their forces from Argos
contingents from Messenia, Arcadia, Corinth, and Megara. This army,
however, was a small one compared to the forces of Thebes.
Epigoni war is remembered as the most important expedition in
Greek Mythology before the Trojan War. It was a favorite topic for
epics, but, unfortunately, all of these epics are now lost. The main
battle took place at Glisas where the warrior Aegialeus (son of King
Adrastus of Argos) was slain by King Laodamas.
Diomedes was fifteen
years old by then and was considered the mightiest of all. Vanquished
by the Epigoni, the Thebans followed the counsel of
Tiresias and fled.
Epigoni took the city, and most
Argive commanders returned rich to
their countries after having sacked Thebes, but the city they handed
over to Thersander.
Adrastus died of grief when he learned that his son Aegialeus had
perished in the battle at Glisas. Aegialeus was married to Comaetho,
Tydeus (sister of Diomedes). Diomedes, in turn, married
Aegialeus's daughter Aegialia when he returned from battle. He was
then appointed as the King of
Argos and thus became one of the most
powerful rulers of Hellas at such a young age.
According to some,
Argos for more than five years and
brought much wealth and stability to the city during his time. He was
a skilled politician and was greatly respected by other rulers. He
still kept an eye on Calydonian politics (his father’s homeland),
and when the sons of
Agrius (led by Thersites) put Oeneus (Diomedes’
grandfather) in jail and their own father on the throne, Diomedes
decided to restore the throne to Oeneus.
Diomedes attacked and ceded the kingdom, slaying all the traitors
except Thersites, Onchestus (who escaped to Peloponnesus) and Agrius
(who killed himself) restoring his grandfather to the throne. Later,
Oeneus passed the Kingdom to his son-in-law Andraemon and headed for
Argos to meet Diomedes. He was assassinated on the way (in Arcadia) by
Thersites and Onchestus. Unable to find the murderers, Diomedes
founded a mythical city called "Oenoe" at the place where his
grandfather was buried to honour his death. Later,
against the Trojans in the
Trojan War and noble
Diomedes did not
mistreat him (however,
Thersites was hated by all Achaeans). In fact,
Thersites was brutally slain by
Achilles (after having mocked him
when the latter cried over Penthesilia's dead body)
Diomedes was the
only person who wanted to punish Achilles.
Diomedes became one of the suitors of Helen and, as such, he was bound
by the oath of Tyndareus, which established that all the suitors would
defend and protect the man who was chosen as Helen's husband against
any wrong done against him in regard to his marriage. Accordingly,
when the seducer Paris stole Menelaus' wife, all those who had sworn
the oath were summoned by
Agamemnon (Menelaus’ brother), so that
they would join the coalition that was to sail from Aulis to Troy in
order to demand the restoration of Helen and the Spartan property that
Diomedes is known primarily for his participation in the Trojan War.
According to Homer,
Diomedes enters the war with a fleet of 80 ships,
third only to the contributions of
Agamemnon (100 ships) and Nestor
Euryalus (former Epigoni) fought under his
command with their armies.
Sthenelus was the driver of Diomedes’
chariot and probably his closest friend. All the troops from Argos,
Tiryns, Troezen and some other cities were headed by Diomedes.
Diomedes' place among Achaeans
Although he was the youngest of the Achaean kings,
considered the most experienced leader by many scholars (he had fought
more battles than others, including the most important war expedition
Trojan War – even old Nestor had not participated in such
Second only to Achilles,
Diomedes is considered to be the mightiest
and the most skilled warrior among the Achaeans. He was overwhelming
Telamomian Ajax in an armed sparring contest when the watching
Achaeans bade the men to stop and take equal prizes because they
feared for Ajax's life. Ajax gave
Diomedes the prize (long sword)
Diomedes drew the first blood. He vanquished (and could have
Aeneas (the second best Trojan warrior) once.
Odysseus were the only Achaean heroes who participated in
covert military operations that demanded discipline, bravery, courage,
cunning, and resourcefulness.
Diomedes received the most direct divine help and protection. He was
the favorite warrior of
Athena (who even drove his chariot once). He
was also the only hero except Heracles, son of Zeus, that attacked -
and even wounded - Olympian gods (most notably Ares, whom he struck
with his spear). Once, he was even granted divine vision in order to
Menelaus were offered immortality and became gods in
Hephaestus made Diomedes' cuirass for him. He was the only
Achaean warrior apart from
Achilles who carried such an arsenal of
gear made by Hera's son. He also had a round shield with the mark of a
boar. In combat, he also carried a spear as well as his father's
sword. His golden armor bore a crest of a boar on the breast. It was
created by a mortal smith but was blessed by Athena, who gave it to
Tydeus. When he died, it passed to Diomedes. A skilled smith created
the sword for Tydeus, which bore designs of a lion and a big boar.
Diomedes in Aulis
In Aulis, where Achaean leaders gathered,
Diomedes met his brother in
arms Odysseus, with whom he shared several adventures. Both of them
were favorite heroes of
Athena and each shared characteristics of
their patron goddess--
Odysseus her wisdom and cunning, and Diomedes
her courage and skill in battle; though neither was wholly bereft of
either aspect. They began to combine their efforts and actions already
when being in Aulis.
Odysseus were Agamemnon’s most trusted officers. When
the sacrifice of
Iphigenia (Agamemnon’s daughter) became a necessity
for Achaeans to sail away from Aulis, king
Agamemnon had to choose
between sacrificing his daughter and resigning from his post of high
commander among Achaeans (in which case
Diomedes would probably become
the leader). When he decided to sacrifice his daughter to Artemis,
Odysseus were among the few Achaean officers familiar
with his plans. The two unscrupulous friends carried out this order of
Agamemnon by luring
Iphigenia from Mycenae to Aulis, where murder,
disguised as wedding, awaited her.
Once in Troy,
Odysseus murdered Palamedes (the commander who outwitted
Odysseus in Ithaca, forcing him to stand by his oath and join the
alliance), drowning him while he was fishing. According to other
stories, when Palamedes advised the Achaeans to return home, Odysseus
accused him of being a traitor and forged false evidence and found a
fake witness to testify against him, whereupon Palamedes was stoned
Some say that both
Odysseus drowned Palamedes. Another
version says that he conspired with
Odysseus against Palamedes, and
under the pretence of having discovered a hidden treasure, they let
him down into a well and there stoned him to death. Others say
Diomedes guessed or knew about the plot, he did not try
to defend Palamedes, because
Odysseus was essential for the fall of
Diomedes in the Iliad
Diomedes is one of the main characters in the Iliad. This epic
narrates a series of events that took place during the final year of
the great war.
Diomedes is the key fighter in the first third of the
epic. According to some interpretations,
Diomedes is represented in
the epic as the most valiant soldier of the war, who avoids committing
hubris. He is regarded as the perfect embodiment of traditional heroic
values. While striving to become the best warrior and attain honor and
glory, he does not succumb to the madness which 'menos' might entail.
He was the only human except for Heracles, to be granted strength
(with permission) to directly fight with immortals themselves and
injures two Olympian immortals (both
Ares and Aphrodite) in a single
day. However, he still displays self-restraint and humility to retreat
Ares and give way to Apollo thus remaining within mortal
limits. This is in contrast to
Patroclus (who does not give way when
opposed by Apollo) and
Achilles (who resorts to fight the river
Scamander on his own).
His character also helps to establish one of the main themes of the
epic; how human choices and efforts become insignificant when fate and
immortals are in control.
Diomedes follows Homeric tradition closely
and having absolute faith on the superiority of fate, he predicts the
conclusion of Achilles' efforts to go against fate.
Apart from his outstanding fighting abilities and courage,
on several crucial occasions shown to possess great wisdom, which is
acknowledged and respected by his much older comrades, including
Agamemnon and Nestor. Diomedes, Nestor and
Odysseus were some of the
greatest Achaean strategists. Throughout the Iliad,
Nestor are frequently seen speaking first in war-counsel.
Instances of Diomedes' maturity and intelligence as described in parts
of the epic:
In Book IV
Diomedes by calling him a far inferior
fighter compared to his father. His enraged comrade
Diomedes to stand up to
Agamemnon by responding that he has bested his
father and avenged his death by conquering Thebes.
that it was part of Agamemnon's tasks as a leader to urge forward the
Achaean soldiers, and that men of valour should have no problem
withstanding such insults. However, when
Agamemnon later uses the same
kind of taunting on Odysseus, the latter responds with anger.
Diomedes dismissed Agamemnon’s taunting with respect, he
did not hesitate to point out Agamemnon’s inadequacy as a leader in
certain crucial situations. In Book IX,
Agamemnon proposes going back
to Hellas because Zeus has turned against them.
Diomedes then reminds
him of the previous insult and tells him that his behavior is not
proper for a leader. Achaean council – Book IX
Diomedes points out that because Troy is destined to fall, they should
continue fighting regardless of Zeus’ interventions. Fate and Gods
were with Achaeans at the start and therefore Zeus’ interventions
could only be temporary. Even if all other Achaeans have lost their
faith and goes home, he and
Sthenelus would still remain and continue
to fight till Troy is sacked.
"The sons of the Achaeans shouted applause at the words of Diomed, and
presently Nestor rose to speak. 'Son of Tydeus,' said he, 'in war your
prowess is beyond question, and in council you excel all who are of
your own years; no one of the Achaeans can make light of what you say
nor gainsay it, but you have not yet come to the end of the whole
matter. You are still young- you might be the youngest of my own
children—still you have spoken wisely and have counselled the chief
of the Achaeans not without discretion;'" Achaean council – Book IX
Agamemnon tried to appease Achilles's wrath so that he would
fight again, by offering him many gifts, Nestor appointed three envoys
Achilles (Book IX). They had to return empty handed; Achilles
had told them that he will leave Troy and never return. The Achaeans
were devastated at this.
Diomedes points out the folly of offering
these gifts which ultimately served only to encourage Achilles' pride
to the level that he now wishes to defy fate.
Diomedes then makes a
prediction (based on Homeric tradition) that eventually becomes true.
He says that even if
Achilles somehow manages to leave Troy, he will
never be able to stay away from battle because human efforts and
choice cannot defy fate; "let him go or stay—the gods will make sure
that he will fight." In Book XV, Zeus says to Hera that he had already
made a plan to make sure that
Achilles will eventually enter the
Diomedes also encourages
Agamemnon to take the lead of next day's
battle. "But when fair rosy-fingered morn appears, forthwith bring out
your host and your horsemen in front of the ships, urging them on, and
yourself fighting among the foremost." (Book IX)
this counsel and the next day's battle starts with his "aristeia"
where he becomes the hero of the day.
Diomedes' aristeia ("excellence"—the great deeds of a hero) begins
in Book V and continues in Book VI. This is the longest aristeia in
the epic. Some scholars claim that this part of the epic was
originally a separate, independent poem (describing the feats of
Homer adapted and included in the Iliad. Diomedes'
aristeia represents many of his heroic virtues such as outstanding
fighting skills, bravery, divine protection/advice, carefully planned
tactics of war, leadership, humility and self-restraint.
Book V begins with Athena, the war-like goddess of wisdom putting
valour into the heart of her champion warrior. She also makes a stream
of fire flare from his shield and helmet.
Diomedes then slays a number
of Trojan warriors including Phegeus (whose brother was spirited away
by Hera’s son before being slain by Diomedes) until
him with an arrow.
Diomedes then prays to
Athena for the slaughter of
Pandarus. She responds by offering him a special vision to distinguish
gods from men and asks him to wound
Aphrodite if she ever comes to
battle. She also warns him not to engage any other god.
He continues to make havoc among the Trojans by killing Astynous,
Hypeiron, Abas, Polyidus, Xanthus, Thoon, Echemmon and Chromius (two
sons of Priam). Finally,
Aeneas (son of Aphrodite) asks
mount his chariot so that they may fight
Diomedes together. Sthenelus
warns his friend of their approach.
Diomedes faces this situation by displaying both his might and wisdom.
Although he can face both of these warriors together, he knows that
Aphrodite may try to save her son. He also knows the history of
Aeneas' two horses (they descend from Zeus's immortal horses). Since
he has to carry out Athena's order, he orders
Sthenelus to steal the
horses while he faces Aphrodite’s son.
Diomedes attacking Aeneas-
Aphrodite stands behind him
Pandarus throws his spear first and brags that he has killed the son
of Tydeus. The latter responds by saying "at least, one of you will be
slain" and throws his spear.
Pandarus is killed and
Aeneas is left to
Diomedes (now unarmed). Not bothering with weapons, Diomedes
picks up a huge stone and crushes his enemy's hip with it. Aeneas
faints and is rescued by his mother before
Diomedes can kill him.
Mindful of Athena's orders,
Diomedes runs after
Aphrodite and wounds
her arm. Dropping her son, the goddess flees towards Olympus. Apollo
now comes to the rescue of the Trojan hero. Disregarding Athena's
Diomedes attacks Apollo twice before Apollo warns him not to
match himself against immortals. Respecting Apollo,
withdraws himself from that combat. Although he has failed in killing
Aeneas, Sthenelus, following his orders, has already stolen the two
valuable horses of Aeneas.
Diomedes then became the owner of the
second best pair of horses (after Achilles’ immortal ones) among
Athena attacking Ares
Aphrodite complained to her mother about Diomedes' handiwork. The
latter reminded her of mighty
Heracles (now, an Olympian himself) who
held the record of wounding not one but two Olympians as a human.
The transgression of
Diomedes by attacking Apollo had its
consequences. Urged by Apollo,
Ares came to the battlefield to help
Trojans. Identifying the god of war,
Diomedes protected the Achaeans
by ordering them to withdraw towards their ships. Hera saw the havoc
created by her son and together with Athena, she came to the Achaeans'
Diomedes resting near his horses, she mocked him,
reminding him of
Tydeus who frequently disobeyed her advice. Diomedes
replied "Goddess, I know you truly and will not hide anything from
you. I am following your instructions and retreating for I know that
Ares is fighting among the Trojans".
Athena answered "
dear to my heart, do not fear this immortal or any other god for I
will protect you." Throwing
Sthenelus out of the chariot and mounting
it herself, the goddess (who invented the chariot and taught humans to
drive it) drove straight at Ares. She also put on the helmet of Hades,
making her invisible to even gods.
Ares saw only
Diomedes in the
chariot and threw his spear which was caught by Athena.
threw his spear (which was guided by Athena) at Ares, wounding his
stomach. The god screamed in a voice of ten thousand men and fled
away. This was how
Diomedes became the only human to wound two
Olympians in a single day.
Book VI -
Diomedes continued his feats by killing
Axylus and Calesius.
Helenus described Diomedes' fighting skills in this
manner: "He fights with fury and fills men's souls with panic. I hold
him mightiest of them all; we did not fear even their great champion
Achilles, son of an immortal though he be, as we do this man: his rage
is beyond all bounds, and there is none can vie with him in prowess."
Helenus then sent
Hector to the city of Troy to tell their mother
about what was happening. According to the instructions of Helenus,
Priam's wife gathered matrons at the temple of
Athena in the acropolis
and offered the goddess the largest, fairest robe of Troy. She also
promised the sacrifice of twelve heifers if
Athena could take pity on
them and break the spear of Diomedes. Athena, of course, did not grant
Meanwhile, one brave Trojan named Glaucus challenged the son of Tydeus
to a single combat. Impressed by his bravery and noble appearance,
Diomedes inquired if he were an immortal in disguise. Although Athena
has previously told him not to fear any immortal,
his humility by saying, "I will not fight any more immortals."
Diomedes and Glaucus
Glaucus told the story of how he was descended from Bellerophon who
killed the Chimaera and the Amazons.
Diomedes realized that his
grandfather Oeneus hosted Bellerophon, and so
Diomedes and Glaucus
must also be friends. They resolved to not fight each other and
Diomedes proposed exchanging their armours. Cunning
Diomedes only gave
away a bronze armour for the golden one he received. The phrase
‘Diomedian swap’ originated from this incident.
Book VII -
Diomedes was among the nine Achaean warriors who came
forward to fight
Hector in a single combat. When they cast lots to
choose one among those warriors, the Achaeans prayed "Father Zeus,
grant that the lot fall on Ajax, or on the son of Tydeus, or upon
Agamemnon." Ajax was chosen to fight Hector.
Idaeus of the Trojans came for a peace negotiation, and he offered to
give back all the treasures Paris stole plus more—everything except
Helen. In the Achaean council,
Diomedes was the first one to speak:
"Let there be no taking, neither treasure, nor yet Helen, for even a
child may see that the doom of the Trojans is at hand." These words
were applauded by all and
Agamemnon said, "This is the answer of the
Book VIII - Zeus ordered all other deities to not interfere with the
battle. He made the Trojans stronger so they could drive away the
Achaeans from battle. Then he thundered aloud from Ida and sent the
glare of his lightning upon the Achaeans. Seeing this, all the great
Achaean warriors—including the two Ajaxes, Agamemnon,
Odysseus—took flight. Nestor could not escape because one of his
horses was wounded by Paris’ arrow. He might have perished if not
This incident is the best example for Diomedes’ remarkable bravery.
Seeing that Nestor's life was in danger, the son of
Tydeus shouted for
Odysseus' help. The latter ignored his cry and ran away. Left alone in
Diomedes took his stand before Nestor and ordered
him to take Sthenelus’ place. Having Nestor as the driver, Diomedes
bravely rushed towards Hector. Struck by his spear, Hector’s driver
Eniopeus was slain. Taking a new driver, Archeptolemus, Hector
advanced forward again. Zeus saw that both
Hector and Archeptolemus
were about to be slain by
Diomedes and decided to intervene. He took
his mighty Thunderbolt and shot its lightning in front of Diomedes’
chariot. Nestor advised
Diomedes to turn back since no person should
try to transgress Zeus’ will.
Diomedes answered, "
Hector will talk
among the Trojans and say, 'The son of
Tydeus fled before me to the
ships.' This is the vaunt he will make, and may the earth then swallow
me." Nestor responded, "Son of Tydeus, though
Hector say that you are
a coward the Trojans and Dardanians will not believe him, nor yet the
wives of the mighty warriors whom you have laid low." Saying these
words, Nestor turned the horses back. Hector, seeing that they had
turned back from battle, called
Diomedes a "woman and a coward" and
promised to slay him personally.
Diomedes thought three times of
turning back and fighting Hector, but Zeus thundered from heaven each
When all the Achaean seemed discouraged, Zeus sent an eagle as a good
Diomedes was the first warrior to read this omen, and he
immediately attacked the Trojans and killed Agelaus.
At the end of the day's battle,
Hector made one more boast, "Let the
women each of them light a great fire in her house, and let watch be
safely kept lest the town be entered by surprise while the host is
outside... I shall then know whether brave Diomed will drive me back
from the ships to the wall, or whether I shall myself slay him and
carry off his bloodstained spoils. Tomorrow let him show his mettle,
abide my spear if he dare. I ween that at break of day, he shall be
among the first to fall and many another of his comrades round him.
Would that I were as sure of being immortal and never growing old, and
of being worshipped like
Athena and Apollo, as I am that this day will
bring evil to the Argives."
These words subsequently turned out to be wrong. In spite of careful
Diomedes managed to launch an attack upon the sleeping Trojans.
Hector was vanquished by
Diomedes yet again and it was
ended up being worshipped as an immortal.
Book IX -
Agamemnon started shedding tears and proposed to abandon the
war for good because Zeus was supporting the Trojans.
out that this behavior was inappropriate for a leader like Agamemnon.
He also declared that he will never leave the city unvanquished for
the gods were originally with them. This speech signifies the nature
of Homeric tradition where fate and divine interventions have
superiority over human choices.
Diomedes believed that Troy was fated
to fall and had absolute and unconditional faith in victory.
However, this was one of the two instances where Diomedes' opinion was
criticized by Nestor. He praised Diomedes’ intelligence and declared
that no person of such young age could equal
Diomedes in counsel. He
Diomedes for not making any positive proposal to
replace Agamemnon's opinion – a failure which Nestor ascribed to his
youth. Nestor believed in the importance of human choices and proposed
to change Achilles' mind by offering many gifts. This proposal was
approved by both
Agamemnon and Odysseus.
The embassy failed because
Achilles himself had more faith in his own
choices than fate or divine interventions. He threatened to leave
Troy, never to return believing that this choice will enable him to
live a long life. When the envoys returned,
Nestor’s decision and Achilles' pride saying that Achilles’
personal choice of leaving Troy is of no importance (therefore, trying
to change it with gifts is useless).
Diomedes said, "Let
or leave if he wishes to, but he will fight when the time comes.
Let’s leave it to the gods to set his mind on that." (In Book 15,
Zeus tells Hera that he has already planned the method of bringing
Achilles back to battle, confirming that
Diomedes was right all along)
Book X –
Menelaus rounded up their principal
commanders to get ready for battle the next day. They woke up
Odysseus, Nestor, Ajax,
Diomedes and Idomeneus. While the others were
sleeping inside their tents, king
Diomedes was seen outside his tent
clad in his armour sleeping upon an ox skin, already well-prepared for
any problem he may encounter at night. During the Achaean council
Agamemnon asked for a volunteer to spy on the Trojans. Again, it
Diomedes who stepped forward.
The son of
Tydeus explained "If another will go with me, I could do
this in greater confidence and comfort. When two men are together, one
of them may see some opportunity which the other has not caught sight
of; if a man is alone he is less full of resource, and his wit is
weaker." These words inspired many other heroes to step forward.
Diomedes in charge of the mission and asked him to
choose a companion himself. The hero instantly selected
he was loved by
Athena and was quick witted. Although
Diomedes in the battlefield that very day, instead of bashing
him, the latter praised his bravery in front of others. Odysseus'
words hinted that he actually did not wish to be selected.
Meanwhile, in a similar council held by Hector, not a single prince or
king would volunteer to spy on Achaeans. Finally
Hector managed to
send Dolon, a good runner, after making a false oath (promising him
Achilles' horses after the victory).
On their way to the Trojan camp,
Dolon approaching the Achaean camp. The two kings lay among the
corpses till Dolon passed them and ran after him. Dolon proved to be
the better runner but
Athena infused fresh strength into the son of
Tydeus for she feared some other Achaean might earn the glory of being
first to hit Dolon.
Diomedes threw his spear over Dolon’s shoulders
and ordered him to stop.
Dolon gave them several valuable pieces of information. According to
Hector and the other councilors were holding conference by the
monument of great Ilus, away from the general tumult. In addition, he
told about a major weakness in Trojan army. Only the Trojans had
watchfires; they, therefore, were awake and kept each other to their
duty as sentinels; but the allies who have come from other places were
asleep and left it to the Trojans to keep guard. It is never explained
in the epic why Dolon, specially mentioned as a man of lesser
intelligence, came to notice this flaw while
Hector (in spite of all
his boasting) completely missed/ignored it.
On further questioning,
Odysseus learnt that among the
various allies, Thracians were the most vulnerable for they had come
last and were sleeping apart from the others at the far end of the
camp. Rhesus was their king and Dolon described Rhesus’ horses in
this manner; "His horses are the finest and strongest that I have ever
seen, they are whiter than snow and fleeter than any wind that blows".
Having truthfully revealed valuable things, Dolon expected to be taken
as a prisoner to the ships, or to be tied up, while the other two
found out whether he had told them the truth or not. But
him: "You have given us excellent news, but do not imagine you are
going to get away, now that you have fallen into our hands. If we set
you free tonight, there is nothing to prevent your coming down once
more to the Achaean ships, either to play the spy or to meet us in
open fight. But if I lay my hands on you and take your life, you will
never be a nuisance to the Argives again." Having said this, Diomedes
cut off the prisoner's head with his sword, without giving him time to
plead for his life.
Although the original purpose of this night mission was spying on the
Trojans, the information given by Dolon persuaded the two friends to
plan an attack upon the Thracians.They took the spoils and set them
upon a tamarisk tree in honour of Athena. Then they went where Dolon
had indicated, and having found the Thracian king,
Diomedes let him
and twelve of his soldiers pass from one kind of sleep to another; for
they were all killed in their beds, while asleep. Meanwhile, Odysseus
gathered the team of Rhesus’ horses.
Diomedes was wondering when to
stop. He was planning to kill some more Thracians and stealing the
chariot of the king with his armour when
Athena advised him to back
off for some other god may warn the Trojans.
Odysseus stealing Rhesus' horses
This first night mission demonstrates another side of these two kings
where they employed stealth and treachery along with might and
bravery. In Book XIII,
Idomeneus praises Meriones and claims the best
warriors do in fact excel in both types of warfare, 'lokhos' (ambush)
and 'polemos' (open battle). Idomeneus’ words portray ambush, "the
place where the merit of men most shines through, where the coward and
the resolute man are revealed", as type of warfare only for the
The first night mission also fulfills one of the prophecies required
for the fall of Troy: that Troy will not fall while the horses of
Rhesus feed upon its plains. According to another version of the
story, it had been foretold by an oracle that if the stallions of
Rhesus were ever to drink from the river Scamander, which cuts across
the Trojan plain, then the city of Troy would never fall. The Achaeans
never allowed the horses to drink from that river for all of them were
Odysseus shortly after their arrival. In a
different story (attributed to Pindar), Rhesus fights so well against
the Achaeans that Hera sends
Diomedes to kill him
secretly at night. Another version (Virgil and Servius) says that
Rhesus was given an oracle that claims he will be invincible after he
and his horses drink from the Scamander. In all these versions,
killing Rhesus by
Diomedes was instrumental for the victory. The
horses of Rhesus were given to king Diomedes.
According to some scholars, the rest of Thracians, deprived of their
king, left Troy to return to their kingdom. This was another bonus of
the night mission.
Book XI- In the forenoon, the fight was equal, but
the fortune of the day towards the Achaeans until he got wounded and
left the field.
Hector then seized the battlefield and slew many
Achaeans. Beholding this,
Odysseus continued to fight
with a lot of valor, giving hope to the Achaeans. The king of Argos
slew Thymbraeus, two sons of Merops, and Agastrophus.
Hector soon marked the havoc
Odysseus were making, and
Diomedes immediately threw his spear at Hector,
aiming for his head. This throw was dead accurate but the helmet given
by Apollo saved Hector's life. Yet, the spear was sent with such great
Hector swooned away. Meanwhile,
Diomedes ran towards Hector
to get his spear.
Hector recovered and mingled with the crowd, by
which means he saved his life from
Diomedes for the second time.
Diomedes shouted after
Hector calling him a dog. The son
of Tydeus, frequently referred to as the lord of war cry, was not seen
speaking disrespectful words to his enemies before.
Shortly after that Paris jumped up in joy for he managed to achieve a
great feat by fixing Diomedes' foot to the ground with an arrow.
Dismayed at this,
Diomedes said "Seducer, a worthless coward like you
can inflict but a light wound; when I wound a man though I but graze
his skin it is another matter, for my weapon will lay him low. His
wife will tear her cheeks for grief and his children will be
fatherless: there will he rot, reddening the earth with his blood, and
vultures, not women, will gather round him." Under Odysseus' cover,
Diomedes withdrew the arrow but unable to fight with a limp, he
retired from battle.
Book XIV- The wounded kings (Diomedes,
Agamemnon and Odysseus) held
council with Nestor regarding the possibility of Trojan army reaching
Agamemnon proposed drawing the ships on the beach into
the water but
Odysseus rebuked him and pointed out the folly of such
Agamemnon said, "Someone, it may be, old or young, can offer
us better counsel which I shall rejoice to hear." Wise
"Such a one is at hand; he is not far to seek, if you will listen to
me and not resent my speaking though I am younger than any of you ...
I say, then, let us go to the fight as we needs must, wounded though
we be. When there, we may keep out of the battle and beyond the range
of the spears lest we get fresh wounds in addition to what we have
already, but we can spur on others, who have been indulging their
spleen and holding aloof from battle hitherto." This council was
approved by all.
Book XXIII- In the funeral games of Patroclus,
wounded) won all the games he played. First, he participated in the
chariot race where he had to take the last place in the starting-line
(chosen by casting lots).
Diomedes owned the fastest horses after
Achilles (who did not participate). A warrior named Eumelus took the
Diomedes could have overtaken him easily but Apollo (who had
a grudge against him) made him drop the whip. Beholding this trick
played by the sun-god,
Athena reacted with great anger. She not only
gave the whip back to the son of
Tydeus but also put fresh strength to
his horses and went after Eumelus to break his yoke. Poor Eumelus was
thrown down and his elbows, mouth, and nostrils were all torn.
Antilochus told his horses that there is no point trying to overtake
Athena wishes his victory.
Diomedes won the first prize
– "a woman skilled in all useful arts, and a three-legged cauldron".
The chariot race is considered as the most prestigious competition in
the funeral games and the most formal occasion for validating the
status of the elite. In this way
Diomedes asserts his status as the
foremost Achaean hero after Achilles.
Next, he fought with great Ajax in an armed sparring contest where the
winner was to draw blood first. Ajax attacked
Diomedes where his
armour covered his body and achieved no success. Ajax owned the
biggest armour and the tallest shield which covered most of his body
leaving only two places vulnerable; his neck and armpits. So, Diomedes
maneuvered his spear above Ajax's shield and attacked his neck,
drawing blood. The Achaean leaders were scared that another such blow
would kill Ajax and they stopped the fight.
Diomedes received the
prize for the victor. This is the final appearance of
Diomedes in the
It is seen that although
Diomedes received Athena’s help without
asking for it,
Odysseus prayed for help even before the start of the
footrace he participated.
It is generally accepted that
Athena is closest to
Diomedes in the
epic. In the early traditions,
Athena (a virgin goddess) is described
as being shy in the company of males. But she spoke
to the hero without any disguise in Book V where he could see her in
the true divine form (a special vision was granted to him). Such an
incident doesn’t happen even in the other Homeric Epic, The Odyssey
Athena disguises herself while speaking to Odysseus.
Penthesileia led a small army of
Amazons to Troy for the last year of
the Trojan War. Two of her warriors, named Alcibie and Derimacheia,
were slain by Diomedes.
A dispute with Achilles
Penthesileia killed many Achaeans in battle. She was, however, no
match for Achilles, who killed her. When
Penthesileia of her armour, he saw that the woman was young and very
beautiful, and seemingly falls madly in love with her.
regrets killing her.
Achilles for his behaviour,
because the hero was mourning his enemy. Enraged,
Thersites with a single blow to his face.
Thersites was so quarrelsome and abusive in character, that only his
cousin, Diomedes, mourned for him.
Diomedes wanted to avenge
Thersites, but the other leaders persuaded the two mightiest Achaean
warriors against fighting each other. Hearkening to prayers of
comrades, the two heroes reconciled at last. According to Quintus
Smyrnaeus, the Achaean leaders agreed to the boon of returning her
body to the Trojans for her funeral pyre. According to some other
Diomedes angrily tossed Penthesileia's body into the river,
so neither side could give her decent burial.
Antilochus' funeral games
Nestor's son was killed by Memnon, and
Achilles held funeral games for
Diomedes won the sprint.
Achilles' funeral games
After Achilles' death, the Achaeans piled him a mound and held
magnificent games in his honor. According to Apollodorus,
the footrace. Smyrnaeus says that the wrestling match between he and
Ajax the Great
Ajax the Great came to a draw.
After the death of Achilles, it was prophesied that Troy could not be
Neoptolemus (Achilles's son) would not come and fight.
According to Quintus Smyrnaeus,
Diomedes came to Scyros
to bring him to the war at Troy. According to the Epic Cycle, Odysseus
and Phoenix did this.
The Achaean seer named
Calchas prophesied that
Philoctetes (whom the
Achaeans had abandoned on the island of Lemnos due to the vile odour
from snakebite) and the bow of
Heracles are needed to take Troy.
Philoctetes hated Odysseus,
Agamemnon and Menelaus, because they were
responsible for leaving him behind.
Odysseus were charged with achieving this prophecy also.
Philoctetes would never agree to come with them, they
sailed to the island and stole the bow of
Heracles by a trick.
According to Little Iliad,
Odysseus wanted to sail home with the bow
Diomedes refused to leave
Heracles (now a god)
Athena then persuaded
Philoctetes to join the Achaeans again (with
the promise that he will be healed) and he agreed to go with Diomedes.
The bow of
Heracles and the poisoned arrows were used by Philoctetes
to slay Paris; this was a requirement to the fall of Troy.
According to some,
Odysseus were sent into the city of
Troy to negotiate for peace after the death of Paris.
Diomedes with The Palladium-Johan Tobias Sergel, Konstakademin,
After Paris' death,
Helenus left the city but was captured by
Odysseus. The Achaeans somehow managed to persuade the seer/warrior to
reveal the weakness of Troy. The Achaeans learnt from Helenus, that
Troy would not fall, while the Palladium, image or statue of Athena,
remained within Troy's walls. The difficult task of stealing this
sacred statue again fell upon the shoulders of
Diomedes with the Palladium approaches an altar
Odysseus stealing the Palladium
Odysseus, some say, went by night to Troy, and leaving Diomedes
waiting, disguised himself and entered the city as a beggar. There he
was recognized by Helen, who told him where the Palladium was.
Diomedes then climbed the wall of Troy and entered the city. Together,
the two friends killed several guards and one or more priests of
Athena's temple and stole the Palladium "with their bloodstained
Diomedes is generally regarded as the person who
physically removed the Palladium and carried it away to the ships.
There are several statues and many ancient drawings of him with the
Diomedes with The Palladium-Glyptothek Munich
According to the Little Iliad, on the way to the ships, Odysseus
plotted to kill
Diomedes and claim the Palladium (or perhaps the
credit for gaining it) for himself. He raised his sword to stab
Diomedes in the back.
Diomedes was alerted to the danger by glimpsing
the gleam of the sword in the moonlight. He turned round, seized the
sword of Odysseus, tied his hands, and drove him along in front,
beating his back with the flat of his sword. From this action was
said to have arisen the Greek proverbial expression “Diomedes’
necessity”, applied to those who act under compulsion. The
expression 'Diomedeian Compulsion' also originated from this. (The
incident was commemorated in 1842 by the French sculptor Pierre-Jules
Cavelier in a muscle-bound plaster statue). Because
essential for the destruction of Troy,
Diomedes refrained from
Diomedes took the Palladium with him when he left Troy. According to
some, he brought it to
Argos where it remained until Ergiaeus, one of
his descendants, took it away with the assistance of the Laconian
Leagrus, who conveyed it to Sparta. Others say that he brought it
to Italy. Some say that
Diomedes was robbed of the palladium by
Demophon in Attica, where he landed one night on his return from Troy,
without knowing where he was. According to another tradition, the
Palladium failed to bring
Diomedes any luck due to the unrighteous way
he obtained it. He was informed by an oracle, that he should be
exposed to unceasing sufferings unless he restored the sacred image to
the Trojans. Therefore, he gave it back to his enemy, Aeneas.
Stealing the Palladium after killing the priests was viewed as the
greatest transgression committed by
Odysseus by Trojans.
Odysseus used this sentiment to his advantage when he invented the
Trojan Horse stratagem.
The Wooden Horse
This stratagem invented by
Odysseus made it possible to take the city.
Diomedes was one of the warriors inside. He slew many Trojan warriors
inside the city.
According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, while slaughtering countless Trojans,
Diomedes met an elderly man named
Ilioneus who begged for mercy.
Despite his fury of war,
Diomedes held back his sword so that the old
man might speak.
Ilioneus begged "Oh compassionate my suppliant hands!
To slay the young and valiant is a glorious thing; but if you smite an
old man, small renown waits on your prowess. Therefore turn from me
your hands against young men, if you hope ever to come to grey hairs
such as mine." Firmly resolved in his purpose,
Diomedes answered. "Old
man, I look to attain to honored age; but while my Strength yet
exists, not a single foe will escape me with life. The brave man makes
an end of every foe." Having said this,
Diomedes slew Ilioneus.
Some of the other Trojan warriors slain by
Diomedes during that night
were Coroebus who came to Troy to win the hand of Cassandra,
Eurydamas and Eurycoon. Cypria says that Polyxena died after being
Diomedes in the capture of the city.
After the fall of Troy
During the sacking and looting of the great city, the seeress
Cassandra, daughter of
Priam and Hecuba, clung to the statue of
Athena, but the Lesser Ajax raped her. Odysseus, unsuccessfully, tried
to persuade the Achaean leaders to put Ajax to death, by stoning the
Locrian leader (to divert the goddess's anger).
Diomedes and other
Achaean leaders disagreed because Ajax himself clung to the same
Athena in order to save himself. The failure of Achaean
leaders to punish Ajax the lesser for the sacrilege of Athena's altar
resulted in earning her wrath. However, she did not punish Diomedes.
Athena caused a quarrel between
Menelaus about the
voyage from Troy.
Agamemnon then stayed on to appease the anger of
Diomedes and Nestor held a discussion about the situation and
decided to leave immediately. They took their vast armies and left
Troy. They managed to reach home safely but
Athena called upon
Poseidon to bring a violent storm upon most of other Achaean ships.
Diomedes is one of the few Achaean commanders to return home safely.
Since the other Achaeans suffered during their respective 'nostoi'
(Returns) because they committed an atrocity of some kind, Diomedes'
safe nostos implies that he had the favour of the gods during his
The Palamedes affair haunted several Achaean Leaders including
Diomedes. Palamedes's brother Oeax went to
Argos and reported to
Aegialia, falsely or not, that her husband was bringing a woman he
preferred to his wife. Others say that Aegialia herself had taken a
lover, Cometes (son of Sthenelus), being persuaded to do so by
Palamedes's father Nauplius. Still others say that despite Diomedes's
noble treatment of her son Aeneas,
Aphrodite never managed to forget
Argive spear that had once pierced her flesh in the fields
of Troy. She helped Aegialia to obtain not one, but many lovers.
(According to different traditions, Aegialeia was living in adultery
with Hippolytus, Cometes or Cyllabarus.)
In any case Aegialia, being helped by the Argives, prevented Diomedes
from entering the city. Or else, if he ever entered Argos, he had to
take sanctuary at the altar of Hera, and thence flee with his
companions by night. Cometes was shortly the king of Argos, in
Diomedes' absence, but was quickly replaced by the rightful heir,
Cyanippus, who was the son of Aegialeus.
Life in Italy
Diomedes then migrated to Aetolia, and thence to Daunia (Apulia) in
Italy. He went to the court of King Daunus, King of the Daunians. The
king was honored to accept the great warrior. He begged
help in warring against the Messapians, for a share of the land and
marriage to his daughter.
Diomedes agreed the proposal, drew up his
men and routed the Messapians. He took his land which he assigned to
the Dorians, his followers. The two nations 'Monadi' and the 'Dardi'
were vanquished by
Diomedes along with the two cities of 'Apina' and
Diomedes later married Daunus's daughter Euippe and had two sons named
Diomedes and Amphinomus. Some say that, after the sack of Troy,
Diomedes came to Libya (due to a storm), where he was put in prison by
King Lycus (who planned on sacrificing him to Ares). It is said that
it was the king's daughter Callirrhoe, who loosing
Diomedes from his
bonds, saved him.
Diomedes is said to have thanklessly sailed away,
and the girl killed herself with a halter.
Cities founded by Diomedes
The Greeks and Romans credited
Diomedes with the foundation of several
Greek settlements in
Magna Graeca in southern Italy: Argyrippa or
Arpi, Aequum Tuticum (Ariano Irpino), Beneventum (Benevento),
Brundusium (Brindisi), Canusium (Canosa),
Venafrum (Venafro), Salapia,
Spina, Garganum, Sipus (near Santa Maria di Siponto), Histonium
(Vasto),Drione (San Severo), and Aphrodisia or
Venusia (Venosa). The last was made as a peace-offering to the
goddess, including temples in her honor.
Aeneid describes the beauty and prosperity of Diomedes'
kingdom. When war broke out between
Aeneas and Turnus, Turnus tried to
Diomedes to aid them in the war against the Trojans. Diomedes
told them he had fought enough Trojans in his lifetime and urged
Turnus that it was best to make peace with
Aeneas than to fight the
Trojans. He also said that his purpose in
Italy is to live in
peace. Venulus, one of Latinus' messengers, recalls the mission to
Diomedes after they seek his help in the war against the Rutulians. He
states that when he found Diomedes, he was laying the foundations of
his new city, Argyrippa.
Diomedes eventually speaks and states
that, as punishment for his involvement at Troy, he never reached his
Argos and that he never saw his beloved wife again.The
hero also states that birds pursue him and his soldiers, birds which
used to be his companions and cry out everywhere they land, including
the sea cliffs. Ovid, on the other hand, writes that Venulus came
to the home of exiled
Diomedes in vain, but he was erecting walls with
the favour of Iapygian Daunus, his new father-in-law, which would make
the city Luceria, not Argyrippa.
The worship and service of gods and heroes was spread by
and wide : in and near
Argos he caused temples of
Athena to be
built. His armour was preserved in a temple of
Athena at Luceria
in Apulia, and a gold chain of his was shown in a temple of Artemis in
Peucetia. At Troezene he had founded a temple of Apollo Epibaterius
and instituted the Pythian games there. Other sources claim that
Diomedes had one more meeting with his old enemy
Aeneas where he gave
the Palladium back to the Trojans.
Hero cult of Diomedes
Hero cults became much more commonplace from the beginning of the 8th
century onwards, and they were widespread throughout several Greek
cities in the Mediterranean by the last quarter of the century.
Diomedes’ cults were situated predominantly in Cyprus, Metapontum,
and other cities on the coast of the Adriatic sea (The archaeological
evidence for the hero cult of
Diomedes comes mostly from this area).
There are also vestiges of this cult in areas like Cyprus and some
mainland Greek cities, given the inscriptions on votive offerings
found in temples and tombs, but the popularity is most evident along
the Eastern coast of Italy. This cult reached so far East in the
Mediterranean due to the Achaean migration during the 8th century.
The most distinct votive offerings to the hero were actually found
within the island of Palagruža on the Adriatic.
Strabo claims that the votive offerings in the Daunian temple of
Athena at Luceria contained votive offerings specifically addressing
Diomedes was worshipped as a hero not only in Greece, but on the coast
of the Adriatic, as at Thurii and Metapontum. At Argos, his native
place, during the festival of Athena, his shield was carried through
the streets as a relic, together with the Palladium, and his statue
was washed in the river Inachus.
There are two islands named after the hero (Islands of Diomedes) on
the Adriatic. Strabo mentions that one was uninhabited. A passage in
Aelian's On Animals explains the significance of this island and the
mysterious birds which inhabit it. Strabo reflects on the
peculiarities of this island, including the history tied to Diomedes'
excursions and the regions and peoples among which he had the most
influence. He writes that
Diomedes himself had sovereignty over the
areas around the Adriatic, citing the islands of
Diomedes as proof of
this, as well as the various tribes of people who worshiped him even
in contemporary times, including the Heneti and the Dauni. The Heneti
sacrificed a white horse to
Diomedes in special groves where wild
animals grew tame.
This cult was not widespread; cults like those of Herakles and Theseus
had a much more prominent function in the Greek world due to the
benefits which they granted their followers and the popular
mythological traditions of these figures.
Strabo lists four different traditions about the hero's life in Italy.
For one, he claims that at the city of Urium,
Diomedes was making a
canal to the sea when he was summoned home to Argos. He left the city
and his undertakings half-finished and went home where he died. The
second tradition claims the opposite, that he stayed at Urium until
the end of his life. The third tradition claims he disappeared on
Diomedea, the uninhabited island (called after him) in the Adriatic
where the Shearwaters who were formerly his companions live, which
implies some kind of deification. The fourth tradition comes from the
Heneti, who claim
Diomedes stayed in their country and eventually had
a mysterious apotheosis.
One Legend says that on his death, the albatrosses got together and
sang a song (their normal call). Others say his companions were turned
into birds afterwards. The family name for albatrosses (Diomedea)
originates from Diomedes.
On San Nicola Island of the Tremiti Archipelago there is an Hellenic
period tomb called Diomedes's Tomb. According to a legend, the goddess
Venus seeing the men of
Diomedes cry so bitterly transformed them into
birds (Diomedee) so that they could stand guard at the grave of their
king. In Fellini's movie 8½, a cardinal tells this story to actor
Marcello Mastroianni.
According to the post Homeric stories,
Diomedes was given immortality
by Athena, which she had not given to his father. Pindar mentions the
hero's deification in Nemean X, where he says "the golden-haired,
gray-eyed goddess made
Diomedes an immortal god."
In order to attain immortality, a scholiast for Nemean X says Diomedes
married Hermione, the only daughter of
Menelaus and Helen, and lives
with the Dioscuri as an immortal god while also enjoying honours in
Metapontum and Thurii.
He was worshipped as a divine being under various names in
Statues of him existed at Argyripa, Metapontum, Thurii, and other
places. There was a temple consecrated to
Diomedes called 'The
Timavum' at the Adriatic. There are traces in Greece also of the
worship of Diomedes.
The first two traditions listed by Strabo give no indication of
divinity except later through a hero cult, and the other two declare
strongly for Diomedes' immortality as more than a mere cult hero.
There are less known versions of Diomedes' afterlife. A drinking song
to Harmodius, one of the famous tyrannicides of Athens, includes a
Diomedes as an inhabitant of the Islands of the Blessed,
Achilles and Harmodius.
In his Inferno, Dante sees
Diomedes in the Eighth Circle of Hell,
where the "counsellors of fraud" are imprisoned for eternity in sheets
of flame. His offenses include advising the theft of the Palladium
and, of course, the strategem of the Trojan Horse. The same damnation
is imposed on Odysseus, who is also punished for having persuaded
Achilles to fight in the Trojan war, without telling him that this
would inevitably lead to his death.
Troilus and Cressida
Troilus and Cressida legend
Diomedes plays an important role in the medieval legend of Troilus and
Cressida, in which he becomes the girl's new lover when she is sent to
the Greek camp to join her traitorous father. In Shakespeare's play of
Diomedes is often seen fighting Troilus over her.
1437 Diomedes, a minor asteroid
Diomedes (Thracian king)
HMS Diomede - 4 British ships named after Diomedes
^ Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds.
Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP,
^ Cypria testimonium 30 [Bernabé] = Pausanias 10.31.2
^ "Cypria" fragment 27. Greek Epic Fragments: From the Seventh to the
Fifth Centuries BC, translated by M.L. West (Loeb Classical Library,
^ Dict. Cret. ii. 15 ; comp. Paus. x. 31. § 1.
^ D.B. Monro (ed.), The Iliad: Books I-XII, p. 309
^ Nassos Papalexandrou, The Visual Poetics of Power: Warriors, Youths,
and Tripods in Early Greece [Lanham: Lexington Books, 2005], 28–29
^ Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 993 ; Dict. Cret. iv. 3.
^ "Aethiopis" argument 4. Greek Epic Fragments, 113.
^ Dict. Cret. v. 4
^ "Little Iliad" argument 4. Greek Epic Fragments, 123.
^ Virg. Aen. ii. 163
^ Eustath. ad Hom. p. 822.
^ Plato, Republic 493D
^ Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 1029; Plato, Republic 493D; Zenobius
^ Plut. Quaest. Graec. 48.
^ Pausanias, Description of Greece I.28.9.
^ Serv. ad Aen. ii. 166, iii. 407, iv, 427, v. 81.
^ "Little Iliad" argument 24. Greek Epic Fragments, 137.
^ Scholia to Euripides
^ "Returns" argument 1. Greek Epic Fragments, 155.
Dictys Cretensis 6. 2;
Lycophron 609; Servius on Aeneid
^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, III. 16.—The Second Region
^ Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. 23.
^ Serv. ad Aen viii. 9, xi. 246; Strab. vi. pp. 283, 284; Plin. H. N.
iii. 20; Justin, xii. 2.
^ Serv. on Verg. A. 11.246.
^ Paus. i. 11; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 9.
^ Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.457.
^ Plut. de Flum. 18; Paus. ii. 24. § 2
^ Schol. ad Pind. Nem. x. 12 ; Scylax, Peripl. p. 6; comp. Strab.
v. p. 214, &c.
^ Farnell, Lewis Richard. Greek
Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality.
Ares Publishers Inc., 1921: 290)
^ Robert Parker, On Greek Religion (Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
^ Strabo, Geography 6.3.9. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones. Loeb
Classical Press, 1923.
^ Callimachus, Λοετρὰ Παλλάδος, line 35., Farnell 1921:
^ Strabo, Geography 5.1.9. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones. Loeb
Classical Press, 1923.
^ Strabo, Geography 6.3.9. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones. Loeb
Classical Press, 1923.
^ Gotch, A. F. (1995) . "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and
Petrels". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific
Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts
on File. p. 190. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3.
^ J.B. Bury, Pindar: Nemean Odes (Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1965),
^ Strabo, Geography 5.1.9
^ Skolion 894. Taken from Nagy 1999: 197.
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