DIOGENES (/daɪˈɒdʒəˌniːz/ ; Greek : Διογένης,
_Diogenēs_ ) was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of
Cynic philosophy. Also known as DIOGENES THE CYNIC (
Ancient Greek :
Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, _Diogenēs ho Kunikos_), he was
born in Sinope (modern-day
Sinop, Turkey ), an Ionian colony on the
Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BC and died at
Corinth in 323 BC.
Diogenes was a controversial figure. His father minted coins for a
living, and when
Diogenes took to debasement of currency , he was
banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to
criticized many cultural conventions of the city.
himself on the example of
Heracles . He believed that virtue was
better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle
and behaviour to criticize the social values and institutions of what
he saw as a corrupt or at least confused society. In a highly
non-traditional fashion, he had a reputation of sleeping and eating
wherever he chose and took to toughening himself against nature. He
declared himself a cosmopolitan and a citizen of the world rather than
claiming allegiance to just one place. There are many tales about him
Antisthenes ' footsteps and becoming his "faithful hound".
Diogenes made a virtue of poverty. He begged for a living and often
slept in a large ceramic jar in the marketplace. He became notorious
for his philosophical stunts such as carrying a lamp in the daytime,
claiming to be looking for an honest man. He criticized and
Plato , disputed his interpretation of
sabotaged his lectures, sometimes distracting attendees by bringing
food and eating during the discussions.
Diogenes was also noted for
having publicly mocked
Alexander the Great .
After being captured by pirates and sold into slavery , Diogenes
eventually settled in
Corinth . There he passed his philosophy of
Cynicism to Crates , who taught it to
Zeno of Citium , who fashioned
it into the school of
Stoicism , one of the most enduring schools of
Greek philosophy. None of Diogenes' many writings have survived, but
details of his life come in the form of anecdotes (_chreia _),
Diogenes Laërtius , in his book _Lives and Opinions
of Eminent Philosophers _. All that is available are a number of
anecdotes concerning his life and sayings attributed to him in a
number of scattered classical sources.
* 1 Life
* 1.1 In
* 1.2 In
Diogenes and Alexander
* 1.4 Death
* 2 Philosophy
* 2.1 Cynicism
* 2.2 Obscenity
Diogenes as dogged or dog-like
* 2.4 Contemporary theory
* 4 Depictions
* 4.1 Art
* 4.2 Comics
* 4.3 Literature
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
Part of a series on
Topics and concepts
Do it yourself
* Self reliance
Diogenes of Sinope
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Miguel Giménez Igualada
Hipparchia of Maroneia
H. L. Mencken
John Stuart Mill
Ludwig von Mises
Michel de Montaigne
Horst Matthai Quelle
Marquis de Sade
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
James L. Walker
Left-wing market anarchism
* Social engineering
Tyranny of the majority
Nothing is known about Diogenes' early life except that his father
Hicesias was a banker. It seems likely that
Diogenes was also
enrolled into the banking business aiding his father. At some point
(the exact date is unknown), Hicesias and
Diogenes became embroiled in
a scandal involving the adulteration or debasement of the currency,
Diogenes was exiled from the city, lost his citizenship, and all
his material possessions. This aspect of the story seems to be
corroborated by archaeology: large numbers of defaced coins (smashed
with a large chisel stamp) have been discovered at Sinope dating from
the middle of the 4th century BC, and other coins of the time bear the
name of Hicesias as the official who minted them. During this time
there was a lot of counterfeit money circulating in Sinope. The coins
were deliberately defaced in order to render them worthless as legal
tender. Sinope was being disputed between pro-Persian and pro-Greek
factions in the 4th century, and there may have been political rather
than financial motives behind the act.
Diogenes Sitting in his Tub_ by
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1860)
According to one story,
Diogenes went to the Oracle at Delphi to ask
for its advice and was told that he should "deface the currency".
Following the debacle in Sinope,
Diogenes decided that the oracle
meant that he should deface the political currency rather than actual
coins. He traveled to
Athens and made it his life's goal to challenge
established customs and values. He argued that instead of being
troubled about the true nature of evil, people merely rely on
customary interpretations. This distinction between nature ("physis ")
and custom ("nomos ") is a favorite theme of ancient Greek philosophy,
and one that
Plato takes up in _The Republic ,_ in the legend of the
Ring of Gyges .
Diogenes arrived in
Athens with a slave named Manes who abandoned him
shortly thereafter. With characteristic humor,
Diogenes dismissed his
ill fortune by saying, "If Manes can live without Diogenes, why not
Diogenes without Manes?"
Diogenes would mock such a relation of
extreme dependency. He found the figure of a master who could do
nothing for himself contemptibly helpless. He was attracted by the
ascetic teaching of
Antisthenes , a student of Socrates. When Diogenes
Antisthenes to mentor him,
Antisthenes ignored him and
reportedly "eventually beat him off with his staff". Diogenes
responds, "Strike, for you will find no wood hard enough to keep me
away from you, so long as I think you've something to say." Diogenes
became Antisthenes' pupil, despite the brutality with which he was
initially received. Whether the two ever really met is still
uncertain, but he surpassed his master in both reputation and the
austerity of his life. He considered his avoidance of earthly
pleasures a contrast to and commentary on contemporary Athenian
behaviors. This attitude was grounded in a disdain for what he
regarded as the folly, pretense, vanity, self-deception, and
artificiality of human conduct. _
Diogenes Searching for an Honest
Man_, attributed to J. H. W. Tischbein (c. 1780)
The stories told of
Diogenes illustrate the logical consistency of
his character. He inured himself to the weather by living in a clay
wine jar belonging to the temple of
Cybele . He destroyed the
single wooden bowl he possessed on seeing a peasant boy drink from the
hollow of his hands. He then exclaimed: "Fool that I am, to have been
carrying superfluous baggage all this time!" It was contrary to
Athenian customs to eat within the marketplace, and still he would eat
there, for, as he explained when rebuked, it was during the time he
was in the marketplace that he felt hungry. He used to stroll about in
full daylight with a lamp ; when asked what he was doing, he would
answer, "I am just looking for an honest man."
Diogenes looked for a
human being but reputedly found nothing but rascals and scoundrels.
Plato gave Socrates's definition of man as "featherless bipeds"
and was much praised for the definition,
Diogenes plucked a chicken
and brought it into Plato's Academy , saying, "Behold! I've brought
you a man." After this incident, "with broad flat nails " was added to
According to a story which seems to have originated with
Diogenes was captured by pirates while on voyage to Aegina
and sold as a slave in
Crete to a Corinthian named
Xeniades . Being
asked his trade, he replied that he knew no trade but that of
governing men, and that he wished to be sold to a man who needed a
master. In fact, this was a pun. In ancient Greek this would sound
both as "Governing men" and "Teaching values to people". Xeniades
liked his spirit and hired
Diogenes to tutor his children. As tutor to
Xeniades's two sons, it is said that he lived in
Corinth for the rest
of his life, which he devoted to preaching the doctrines of virtuous
self-control. There are many stories about what actually happened to
him after his time with Xeniades's two sons. There are stories stating
he was set free after he became "a cherished member of the household",
while one says he was set free almost immediately, and still another
states that "he grew old and died at Xeniades's house in Corinth." He
is even said to have lectured to large audiences at the Isthmian Games
Although most of the stories about him living in a jar are located
in Athens, there are some accounts of him living in a jar near the
Craneum gymnasium in Corinth:
A report that
Philip II of Macedon was marching on the town had
Corinth into a bustle; one was furbishing his arms, another
wheeling stones, a third patching the wall, a fourth strengthening a
battlement, every one making himself useful somehow or other. Diogenes
having nothing to do – of course no one thought of giving him a job
– was moved by the sight to gather up his philosopher's cloak and
begin rolling his tub energetically up and down the Craneum; an
acquaintance asked for the reason, and got the explanation: "I do not
want to be thought the only idler in such a busy multitude; I am
rolling my tub to be like the rest."
DIOGENES AND ALEXANDER
Alexander the Great Visits
Diogenes at Corinth_ by W. Matthews
(1914) Main article:
Diogenes and Alexander
It was in
Corinth that a meeting between
Alexander the Great and
Diogenes is supposed to have taken place. These stories may be
apocryphal . The accounts of
Diogenes Laërtius recount
that they exchanged only a few words: while
Diogenes was relaxing in
the morning sunlight, Alexander, thrilled to meet the famous
philosopher, asked if there was any favour he might do for him.
Diogenes replied, "Yes, stand out of my sunlight." Alexander then
declared, "If I were not Alexander, then I should wish to be
Diogenes." In another account of the conversation, Alexander found
the philosopher looking attentively at a pile of human bones. Diogenes
explained, "I am searching for the bones of your father but cannot
distinguish them from those of a slave."
There are conflicting accounts of Diogenes's death. He is alleged
variously to have held his breath; to have become ill from eating raw
octopus; or to have suffered an infected dog bite. When asked how he
wished to be buried, he left instructions to be thrown outside the
city wall so wild animals could feast on his body. When asked if he
minded this, he said, "Not at all, as long as you provide me with a
stick to chase the creatures away!" When asked how he could use the
stick since he would lack awareness, he replied "If I lack awareness,
then why should I care what happens to me when I am dead?" At the
Diogenes made fun of people's excessive concern with the "proper"
treatment of the dead. The Corinthians erected to his memory a pillar
on which rested a dog of
Parian marble .
Crates of Thebes ,
Diogenes is considered
one of the founders of Cynicism . The ideas of Diogenes, like those of
most other Cynics, must be arrived at indirectly. No writings of
Diogenes survive even though he is reported to have authored over ten
books, a volume of letters and seven tragedies. Cynic ideas are
inseparable from Cynic practice; therefore what we know about Diogenes
is contained in anecdotes concerning his life and sayings attributed
to him in a number of scattered classical sources. _ Diogenes_ by
Jules Bastien-Lepage (1873)
Diogenes maintained that all the artificial growths of society were
incompatible with happiness and that morality implies a return to the
simplicity of nature. So great was his austerity and simplicity that
Stoics would later claim him to be a wise man or "sophos". In his
words, "Humans have complicated every simple gift of the gods."
Socrates had previously identified himself as belonging to
the world, rather than a city,
Diogenes is credited with the first
known use of the word "cosmopolitan ". When he was asked where he came
from, he replied, "I am a citizen of the world (_cosmopolites_)".
This was a radical claim in a world where a man's identity was
intimately tied to his citizenship of a particular city-state. An
exile and an outcast, a man with no social identity,
Diogenes made a
mark on his contemporaries.
Diogenes had nothing but disdain for
Plato and his abstract
Antisthenes as the true heir to Socrates
, and shared his love of virtue and indifference to wealth , together
with a disdain for general opinion.
Diogenes shared Socrates's belief
that he could function as doctor to men's souls and improve them
morally, while at the same time holding contempt for their obtuseness.
Plato once described
Diogenes as "a
Socrates gone mad."
Diogenes taught by living example. He tried to demonstrate that
wisdom and happiness belong to the man who is independent of society
and that civilization is regressive. He scorned not only family and
political social organization, but also property rights and
reputation. He even rejected normal ideas about human decency.
Diogenes is said to have eaten in the marketplace, urinated on some
people who insulted him, defecated in the theatre , and masturbated
in public. When asked about his eating in public he said, "If taking
breakfast is nothing out of place, then it is nothing out of place in
the marketplace. But taking breakfast is nothing out of place,
therefore it is nothing out of place to take breakfast in the
marketplace." On the indecency of his masturbating in public he
would say, "If only it were as easy to banish hunger by rubbing my
From _Life of Diogenes_: "Someone took him into a magnificent house
and warned him not to spit, whereupon, having cleared his throat, he
spat into the man's face, being unable, he said, to find a meaner
DIOGENES AS DOGGED OR DOG-LIKE
Many anecdotes of
Diogenes refer to his dog-like behavior, and his
praise of a dog's virtues. It is not known whether
insulted with the epithet "doggish" and made a virtue of it, or
whether he first took up the dog theme himself. When asked why he was
called a dog he replied, "I fawn on those who give me anything, I yelp
at those who refuse, and I set my teeth in rascals." Diogenes
believed human beings live artificially and hypocritically and would
do well to study the dog. Besides performing natural body functions in
public with ease, a dog will eat anything, and make no fuss about
where to sleep. Dogs live in the present without anxiety, and have no
use for the pretensions of abstract philosophy. In addition to these
virtues, dogs are thought to know instinctively who is friend and who
is foe. Unlike human beings who either dupe others or are duped, dogs
will give an honest bark at the truth.
Diogenes stated that "other
dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them." Statue
The term "cynic" itself derives from the Greek word κυνικός,
_kynikos_, "dog-like" and that from κύων, _kyôn_, "dog "
(genitive : _kynos_). One explanation offered in ancient times for
why the Cynics were called _dogs_ was because
Antisthenes taught in
Cynosarges gymnasium at
Athens . The word _Cynosarges_ means the
place of the _white dog_. Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to
their advantage, as a later commentator explained:
There are four reasons why the _Cynics_ are so named. First because
of the _indifference_ of their way of life, for they make a cult of
indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot,
and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog
is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as
being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that
the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their
philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating
animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do
they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and
receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs,
by barking at them.
As noted (see Death ), Diogenes' association with dogs was
memorialized by the Corinthians, who erected to his memory a pillar on
which rested a dog of
Parian marble .
Diogenes is discussed in a 1983 book by German philosopher Peter
Sloterdijk (English language publication in 1987). In his _Critique of
Cynical Reason _,
Diogenes is used as an example of Sloterdijk's idea
of the "kynical" – in which personal degradation is used for
purposes of community comment or censure. Calling the practice of this
tactic "kynismos", Sloterdijk explains that the kynical actor actually
embodies the message he is trying to convey. The goal here is
typically a false regression that mocks authority – especially
authority that the kynical actor considers corrupt, suspect or
There is another discussion of
Diogenes and the Cynics in Michel
Foucault 's book _Fearless Speech_. Here Foucault discusses Diogenes'
antics in relation to the speaking of truth (_parrhesia _) in the
ancient world. Foucault expands this reading in his last course at the
Collège de France, _The Courage of Truth._ In this course Foucault
tries to establish an alternative conception of militancy and
revolution through a reading of
Diogenes and Cynicism.
Diogenes's name has been applied to a behavioural disorder
characterised by involuntary self-neglect and hoarding . The disorder
afflicts the elderly and has no relation to Diogenes's deliberate
rejection of material comfort.
_ Alexander and Diogenes_ by
Caspar de Crayer (c. 1650)
Alexander the Great in
Both in ancient and in modern times, Diogenes's personality has
appealed strongly to sculptors and to painters. Ancient busts exist in
the museums of the Vatican , the
Louvre , and the Capitol . The
Diogenes and Alexander is represented in an ancient
marble bas-relief found in the
Villa Albani .
Among artists who have painted the famous encounter of
Alexander, there are works by de Crayer , de Vos , Assereto , Langetti
, Sevin ,
Sebastiano Ricci , Gandolfi , Johann Christian Thomas Wink
(de), Abildgaard , Monsiau , Martin , and Daumier . The famous story
Diogenes searching for an "honest man" has been depicted by
Jordaens , van Everdingen , van der Werff , Pannini , Steen and
Corinth . Others who have painted him with his famous lantern include
de Ribera , Castiglione , Petrini , Gérôme , Bastien-Lepage , and
Waterhouse . The scene in which
Diogenes discards his cup has been
painted by Poussin , Rosa , and Martin ; and the story of Diogenes
begging from a statue has been depicted by Restout . In
fresco _The School of
Athens _, a lone reclining figure in the
foreground represents Diogenes.
Diogenes has also been the subject of sculptures, with famous
bas-relief images by Puget and Pajou .
The Adventures of Nero _ album _Het Zeespook_ (1948) Nero meets a
character who claims to be Diogenes. Two scenes in the comic depict
famous anecdotes of Diogenes' life, namely the moment when he was
looking for a human and the moment when he asked Alexander to get out
of his sun. He is also portrayed living in a barrel.
In the _
Suske en Wiske _ album _De Mottenvanger_
Suske and Wiske
travel back to ancient Greece, where they meet Diogenes.
A 17th century depiction of
Diogenes is referred to in
Anton Chekhov 's story "Ward No. 6";
William Blake 's _
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell _; François
Rabelais ' _
Gargantua and Pantagruel _; Goethe 's poem _Genialisch
Treiben_; as well as in the first sentence of
Søren Kierkegaard 's
novelistic treatise _Repetition _. The story of
Diogenes and the lamp
is referenced by the character Foma Fomitch in
Fyodor Dostoevsky 's
"The Friend of the Family" as well as "The Idiot". In Cervantes '
short story "The Man of Glass" ("
El licenciado Vidriera "), part of
Novelas Ejemplares _ collection, the (anti-)hero unaccountably
begins to channel
Diogenes in a string of tart _chreiai _ once he
becomes convinced that he is made of glass.
Diogenes gives his own
life and opinions in
Christoph Martin Wieland 's novel _Socrates
Mainomenos_ (1770; English translation _
Socrates Out of His Senses_,
Diogenes is the primary model for the philosopher Didactylos in
Terry Pratchett 's _
Small Gods _. He is mimicked by a beggar-spy in
Jacqueline Carey 's _Kushiel\'s Scion _ and paid tribute to with a
costume in a party by the main character in its sequel, _Kushiel\'s
Justice _. The character Lucy Snowe in
Charlotte Brontë 's novel
_Villette _ is given the nickname Diogenes.
Diogenes also features in
Part Four of Elizabeth Smart 's _By Grand Central Station I Sat Down
and Wept _. He is a figure in
Seamus Heaney 's _
The Haw Lantern _. In
Christopher Moore 's _Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ\'s
Childhood Pal _, one of
Jesus ' apostles is a devotee of Diogenes,
complete with his own pack of dogs which he refers to as his own
disciples. His story opens the first chapter of Dolly Freed's 1978
book _Possum Living _. The dog that
Paul Dombey befriends in Charles
Dombey and Son is called Diogenes. Alexander's meeting with
Diogenes is portrayed in
Valerio Manfredi 's _(Alexander Trilogy) "The
Ends of the Earth" _.
William S. Burroughs has been described as
Diogenes with a knife and gun"
The many allusions to dogs in Shakespeare's _Timon of
Athens _ are
references to the school of Cynicism that could be interpreted as
suggesting a parallel between the misanthropic hermit, Timon, and
Diogenes; but Shakespeare would have had access to Michel de Montaigne
's essay, "Of Democritus and Heraclitus", which emphasised their
differences: Timon actively wishes men ill and shuns them as
Diogenes esteems them so little that contact with
them could not disturb him "Timonism" is in fact often contrasted
with "Cynicism": "Cynics saw what people could be and were angered by
what they had become; Timonists felt humans were hopelessly stupid ">.
The group is the focus of a number of Holmes pastiches by
Kim Newman .
Rodgers and Hart musical _
The Boys From Syracuse _ (1938), the
song _Oh Diogenes!_—which extols the philosopher's
virtues—contains the lyrics "there was an old zany/ who lived in a
tub;/ he had so many flea-bites / he didn't know where to rub."
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _
Diogenes of Sinope_ "The Zen of Disengagement:
Diogene of Sinope". Voice in the Wilderness. Archived from the
original on 2015-10-17.
* ^ Laërtius Dio Chrysostom, _Orations_, viii. 1–4; Aelian, x.
16; Stobaeus, _Florilegium_, 13.19
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ The original Greek word describing Diogenes' "jar"
is _pithos _, a large jar for storing wine, grain or olive oil. Modern
variations include _barrel_, _tub_, _vat_, _wine-vat_, and _kennel_.
Desmond, William (2008). _Cynics_. University of California Press. p.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Laërtius Plutarch, _Alexander_, 14, _On Exile_, 15.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Plutarch , _Alexander_ 14
* ^ _A_ _B_ John M. Dillon (2004). _
Morality and Custom in Ancient
Greece_. Indiana University Press. pp. 187–88. ISBN
* ^ _
Diogenes of Sinope_ "The Basics of Philosophy". Retrieved
November 13, 2011.
* ^ (Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:20). A _trapezites_ was a
banker/money-changer who could exchange currency, arrange loans, and
was sometimes entrusted with the minting of currency.
* ^ Navia, _
Diogenes the Cynic_, p. 226: "The word _paracharaxis_
can be understood in various ways such as the defacement of currency
or the counterfeiting of coins or the adulteration of money."
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Examined Lives from
Socrates to Nietzsche by James
Miller p. 76
* ^ _A_ _B_ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:20–21
* ^ C. T. Seltman, _
Diogenes of Sinope, Son of the Banker
Hikesias_, in _Transactions of the International Numismatic Congress
1936_ (London 1938).
* ^ Plato, _Republic,_ 2.359–2.360.
* ^ Laërtius Seneca, _De Tranquillitate Animi_, 8.7.; Aelian,
_Varia Historia,_ 13.28.
* ^ Laërtius Aelian, _Varia Historia_, 10.16.; Jerome, _Adversus
* ^ Long 1996 , p. 45
* ^ Dudley 1937 , p. 2
* ^ Prince 2005 , p. 77
* ^ _A_ _B_ Examined Lives from
Socrates to Nietzsche by James
Miller p. 78
* ^ Laërtius Jerome, _Adversus Jovinianum_, 2.14.
* ^ Examined lives from
Socrates to Nietzsche by James Miller
* ^ Laërtius Seneca, _Epistles_, 90.14.; Jerome, _Adversus
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:41. Modern sources often say that
Diogenes was looking for an "honest man", but in ancient sources he is
simply looking for a "human" (_anthrôpos_). The unreasoning behavior
of the people around him means that they do not qualify as human.
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:32
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:40
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:29
* ^ Συνάντηση Διογένη Κυνικού μετά
Μακεδόνος Βασιλέως Αλεξάνδρου
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:30–31
* ^ "
Diogenes of Sinope". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
2006-04-26. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
* ^ Dio Chrysostom, Or. 8.10
* ^ Lucian, _Historia_, 3.
* ^ Laërtius Cicero, _Tusculanae Quaestiones_, 5.32.; Plutarch,
_Alexander_, 14, _On Exile_, 15; Dio Chrysostom, Or. 4.14
* ^ There is a similar anecdote in one of the dialogues of Lucian
(_Menippus_, 15) but that story concerns
Menippus in the underworld .
* ^ Laërtius Athenaeus, 8.341.
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:77
* ^ Cicero, _Tusculanae Quaestiones_, 1.43.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Laërtius Greek Anthology, 1.285.; Pausanias, 2.2.4.
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:80
* ^ Laërtius Plutarch, _On Exile_, 5.; Epictetus, _Discourses_,
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:63. Compare: Laërtius & Hicks
1925 , Ⅵ:72, Dio Chrysostom, Or. 4.13, Epictetus, _Discourses_,
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:24
* ^ Plato, _Apology_, 41e.
* ^ Xenophon, _Apology_, 1.
* ^ Laërtius Aelian, _Varia Historia_, 14.33.
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:58, 69. Eating in public places
was considered bad manners.
* ^ Laërtius Julian, _Orations_, 6.202c.
* ^ Examined Lives from
Socrates to Nietzsche by James Miller p. 80
* ^ Examined Lives from
Socrates to Nietzsche by James Miller p. 80
* ^ Laërtius Epictetus, _Discourses_, iii.2.11. Pointing with
one's middle finger was considered insulting; with the finger pointing
_UP_ instead of to another person, the finger gesture is considered
obscene in modern times.
* ^ Cf. Plato, _Republic_ Book II
Diogenes of Sinope, quoted by Stobaeus, _Florilegium_, iii. 13.
* ^ _Kynikos_, "A Greek-English Lexicon", Liddell and Scott, at
* ^ Laërtius & Hicks 1925 , Ⅵ:13. Cf. _The Oxford Companion to
Classical Literature _, 2nd edition, p. 165.
* ^ Scholium on Aristotle's _Rhetoric_, quoted in Dudley 1937 , p.
Sloterdijk, Peter (1983). _Critique of Cynical Reason_.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 1–600. ISBN
0816615861 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ See the 7 March lecture Michel Foucault, The Courage of the
Truth Lectures at the Collège de France (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)
* ^ Hanon C, Pinquier C, Gaddour N, Saïd S, Mathis D, Pellerin J
(2004). "". _Encephale_ (in French). 30 (4): 315–22. PMID 15538307 .
* ^ Navia, _
Diogenes the Cynic_, p. 31
* ^ _Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling_, by Ross King
* ^ _Possum Living_ by Dolly Freed Archived January 21, 2009, at
Wayback Machine .
* ^ _Alexander: The Ends of the Earth by Valerio Manfredi_.
Richard Seaver , "Rebel, Rebel," Los Angeles Times, 10 Aug 1997
* ^ Hugh Grady, "A Companion to Shakespeare's Works", Dutton. R
repr. in _The Best Comics of the Decade 1980-1990 Vol. 1_, Seattle,
1990, ISBN 1-56097-035-9 , p. 23.
* Desmond, William D. 2008. _Cynics_. Acumen / University of
* Dudley, Donald R. (1937). "A History of Cynicism from