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The DINARIC ALPS or DINARIDES is a mountain chain which spans from Italy
Italy
in the northwest, over Slovenia
Slovenia
, Croatia
Croatia
, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, to Albania
Albania
in the southeast.

They extend for 645 kilometres (401 mi) along the coast of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
(northwest-southeast), from the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
in the northwest down to the Šar -Korab massif , where the mountain direction changes to north-south. The highest mountain of the Dinaric Alps
Alps
are Prokletije
Prokletije
, a mountain extending from Albania
Albania
to Kosovo
Kosovo
and eastern Montenegro
Montenegro
. Its highest peak, Maja Jezercë is located in Albania, standing at 2,694 metres (8,839 ft).

The Dinaric Alps
Alps
are the fifth most rugged and extensively mountainous area of Europe after the Caucasus Mountains , Alps
Alps
, Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and Scandinavian Mountains . They are formed largely of Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Cenozoic
Cenozoic
sedimentary rocks of dolomite , limestone , sand and conglomerates formed by seas and lakes that had once covered the area. During the Alpine earth movements that occurred 50–100 million years ago, immense lateral pressures folded and overthrust the rocks in a great arc around the old rigid block of the northeast. The Dinaric Alps
Alps
were thrown up in more or less parallel ranges, stretching like necklaces from the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
as far as northern Albania
Albania
and Kosovo, where the mountainous terrain subsides to make way for the waters of the Drin River and the plains of Kosovo.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geology

* 2.1 Rivers in Dinaric karst

* 3 Human activity * 4 Mountain passes * 5 Tunnels

* 6 Mountains and plateaus

* 6.1 Albania
Albania
* 6.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* 6.3 Croatia
Croatia
* 6.4 Italy
Italy
* 6.5 Kosovo
Kosovo
* 6.6 Montenegro
Montenegro
* 6.7 Serbia
Serbia
* 6.8 Slovenia
Slovenia

* 7 Notes and references * 8 External links

NAME

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The Dinarides are named after Mount Dinara (1,913 m), a prominent peak in the center of the mountain range on the border of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia. The chain is called Alpet Dinaride or Alpet Dinarike in Albanian , Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi in Bosnian and Croatian , Dinarske planine or Динариди in Serbian , Dinarsko gorstvo in Slovene and Alpi Dinariche in Italian .

GEOLOGY

Valbona Pass, northern Albania
Albania

The Mesozoic
Mesozoic
limestone forms a very distinctive region of the Balkans , notable for features such as the Karst , which has given its name to all such terrains of limestone eroded by groundwater. The Quaternary ice ages had relatively little direct geologic influence on the Balkans. No permanent ice caps existed, and there is little evidence of extensive glaciation . Only the highest summits of Durmitor
Durmitor
, Orjen and Prenj
Prenj
have glacial valleys and moraines as low as 600 m (1,969 ft). However, in the Prokletije, a range on the northern Albanian border that runs east to west (thus breaking the general geographic trend of the Dinaric system), there is evidence of major glaciation. One geological feature of great importance to the present-day landscape of the Dinarides must be considered in more detail: that of the limestone mountains, often with their attendant faulting. They are hard and slow to erode, and often persist as steep jagged escarpments, through which steep-sided gorges and canyons are cleft by the rivers draining the higher slopes. The partially submerged western Dinaric Alps
Alps
form the numerous islands and harbors along the Croatian coast. Mount Mučanj , lower Dinarides, western Serbia
Serbia

RIVERS IN DINARIC KARST

The most extensive example of limestone mountains in Europe are those of the Karst of the Dinaric Alps. Here, all the characteristic features are encountered again and again as one travels through this wild and underpopulated country. Limestone
Limestone
is a very porous rock, yet very hard and resistant to erosion . Water is the most important corrosive force , dissolving the limestone by chemical action of its natural acidity. As it percolates down through cracks in the limestone it opens up fissures and channels, often of considerable depth, so that whole systems of underground drainage develop. During subsequent millennia these work deeper, leaving in their wake enormous waterless caverns , sinkholes and grottoes and forming underground labyrinths of channels and shafts. The roofs of some of these caverns may eventually fall in, to produce great perpendicular-sided gorges, exposing the water to the surface once more.

The Dinaric rivers carved many canyons characteristic for Dinaric Alps, and in particular karst. Among largest and most well known are the Neretva
Neretva
, the Rakitnica , the Prača (river) , the Drina , the Sutjeska , the Vrbas , Ugar , the Piva , the Tara , the Komarnica , the Morača , the Cem/Ciijevna , the Lim , and the Drin .

Only along the Dinaric gorges is communication possible across the Karst, and roads and railways tunnel through precipitous cliffs and traverse narrow ledges above roaring torrents. A number of springs and rivers rise in the Dinaric range, including Jadro Spring noted for having been the source of water for Diocletian\'s Palace at Split. At the same time, the purity of these rocks is such that the rivers are crystal clear, and there is little soil-making residue. Water quality testing of the Jadro River , for example, indicates the low pollutant levels present. Rock faces are often bare of vegetation and glaring white, but what little soil there is may collect in the hollows and support lush lime-tolerant vegetation , or yield narrow strips of cultivation.

HUMAN ACTIVITY

Ruins of fortresses dot the mountainous landscape, evidence of centuries of war and the refuge the Dinaric Alps
Alps
have provided to various armed forces. During the Roman period, the Dinarides provided shelter to the Illyrians
Illyrians
resisting Roman conquest of the Balkans, which began with the conquest of the eastern Adriatic coast in the 3rd century BC. Rome conquered the whole of Illyria in 168 BC, but these mountains sheltered Illyrian resistance forces for many years until the area's complete subjugation by 14 AD. More recently, the Ottoman Empire failed to fully subjugate the mountainous areas of Montenegro
Montenegro
. In the 20th century, too, the mountains provided favourable terrain for guerrilla warfare , with Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
organising one of the most successful Allied resistance movements of World War II
World War II
.

The area remains underpopulated, and forestry and mining remain the chief economic activities in the Dinaric Alps. The people of the Dinaric Alps
Alps
are on record as being the tallest in the world, with a male average height of 185.6 cm (6 ft 1.1 in) and a female average height of 171.0 cm (5 ft 7.3 in). The people of Bosnia and Herzegovina have the highest recorded average of any single country, with 183.9 cm average for men and 172.72 cm for women.

MOUNTAIN PASSES

The main mountain passes of the Dinaric Alps
Alps
are:

* Postojna Gate (Postojnska vrata), Slovenia
Slovenia
(606 m or 1,988 ft), * Vratnik pass , Croatia
Croatia
(850 m or 2,789 ft) * Debelo brdo , Serbia
Serbia
(1,094 m or 3,589 ft) * Knin Gate (Kninska vrata), Croatia
Croatia
(about 700 m or 2,297 ft) * Vaganj, Croatia/Bosnia-Herzegovina (1,137 m or 3,730 ft) * Ivan-Saddle (Ivan-sedlo), Bosnia-Herzegovina (967 m or 3,173 ft) * Kupres Gate (Kupreška vrata), Bosnia-Herzegovina (1,384 m or 4,541 ft) * Čemerno, Bosnia-Herzegovina (1,329 m or 4,360 ft) * Crkvine, Montenegro
Montenegro
(1,045 m or 3,428 ft) * Čakor, Montenegro
Montenegro
(1,849 m or 6,066 ft)

TUNNELS

Major tunnels transversing the Dinaric Alps
Alps
include:

* Tuhobić Tunnel , Croatia * Sveti Rok Tunnel , Croatia * Mala Kapela Tunnel , Croatia

MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS

Geomorphological subdivisions of Dinaric Alps
Alps

The mountains and plateaus within the Dinarides are found in the following regions:

ALBANIA

* Maja Jezercë , highest peak * Maja Grykat e Hapëta * Maja Radohimës * Maja e Popljuces * Maja Briaset

* Maja Hekurave * Maja Shnikut * Maja Tat * Kolata e Mirë

* Maja Rosit * Maja Kokervhake * Maja Shkurt * Maja Malësores * Maja e Ragamit

* Maja Bojs * Maja Vukoces * Shkëlzen * Maja e Kakisë * Rrasa e Zogut

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

* Bjelašnica * Cincar * Crvanj * Čabulja * Čvrsnica
Čvrsnica
* Dinara , the eponym of the chain. * Grmeč * Igman
Igman

* Jahorina * Javor * Kamešnica * Klekovača * Konjuh * Kozara * Lebršnik * Lelija

* Orjen
Orjen
* Osječenica * Ozren * Maglić (with 2,386 m the highest peak of BiH) * Majevica * Motajica * Prenj
Prenj
* Plješivica

* Raduša * Ravan planina * Romanija * Trebević * Treskavica * Šator * Trebava * Velež

* Visočica * Vlasulja * Vlašić * Volujak * Vran
Vran
* Vranica * Zelengora * Zvijezda

CROATIA

* Dinara * Kamešnica * Kozjak * Mosor * Omiška Dinara * Biokovo * Vrgorsko gorje

* Učka * Ćićarija * Velebit * Svilaja * Velika Kapela * Mala Kapela * Žumberak

ITALY

* Karst Plateau

KOSOVO

* Đeravica/Gjeravica * Gusan/ Maja Gusanit * Marijaš/ Marijash

MONTENEGRO

* Bijela gora
Bijela gora
* Durmitor
Durmitor
* Hajla * Lovćen * Maganik * Njegoš * Orjen
Orjen
* Prokletije
Prokletije
* Rumija * Sinjajevina

SERBIA

* Tara * Zlatibor * Zlatar * Golija
Golija
* Jadovnik * Javor * Ozren * Mučanj

* Povlen * Radočelo * Maljen * Čemerno * Žilindar * Bobija * Pešter
Pešter
* Giljeva

* Jelica * Jablanik * Medvednik * Kamena Gora * Jabuka * Nemić * Čemernica * Javorje

* Gajeva planina * Kukutnica * Ovčar * Sokolska planina * Boranja * Pobijenik * Murtenica * Gradina

* Rogozna * Subjel * Bić * Crvena gora * Jagodnja * Kablar * Magleš * Kozomor

* Jarut * Bitovik * Golubac * Ninaja
Ninaja
* Banjsko brdo * Projić * Krstac * Drmanovina

* Crnokosa * Oštrik * Crni Vrh * Malič * Blagaja * Hum

* Zvijezda * Drežnička Gradina * Mokra Gora * Suvobor * Gučevo * Debela gora * Debelo Brdo * Stojkovačka planina

SLOVENIA

* Gorjanci * Kambreško and the Banjšice Plateau * The Trnovo Forest Plateau (Slovene : Trnovski gozd), Nanos , and Hrušica * Javornik Hills and Snežnik * Idrija Hills

* Krim Hills and Menišija * Bloke * The Velika Mountain , Stojna and the Gotenica Mountain * The Mala Mountain , the Kočevski Rog and the Poljane Mountain * Dry Carniola and Dobrepolje * Radulja Hills

NOTES AND REFERENCES

NOTES:

* ^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states .

REFERENCES:

* ^ Profile, dictionary.reference.com; accessed 25 August 2015. * ^ "Visit Dinaric Alps". * ^ "C.Michael Hogan, "Diocletian\'s Palace", A. Burnham ed, 6 October 2007". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 19 August 2012. * ^ "The Pollution Load by Nitrogen and Phosphorus IN the Jadro River". Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 123: 13–30. doi :10.1007/s10661-005-9066-8 . Retrieved 19 August 2012. * ^ Pineau, JC; Delamarche, P; Bozinovic, S (24 May 2012). "Average height of adolescents in the Dinaric Alps. They are also reputed to have the tallest males in Europe. Study claims it is not complete as yet". C. R. Biol. 328: 841–6. PMID 16168365 . doi :10.1016/j.crvi.2005.07.004 . * ^ Stevo Popović; Gabriela Doina Tanase; Duško Bjelica (2015). "Body Height and Arm Span in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults," (.pdf). mjssm.me. Montennegro Journal of Sports Sci. Medicine 4 (2015) 1: Original scientific paper. pp. 29–36. Retrieved 4 September 2016.

* ^ "Countries With The Tallest Average Heights". * ^ "BiH na prvom mjestu liste zemalja s najvišim ljudima u svijetu". * ^ Summitpost. Dinaric Alps: Passes in the Dinaric Alps, accessed 11-19-2008 * ^ DINARIC ALPS, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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