Diet (nutrition)
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In
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, pr ...
, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other
organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...

organism
. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, pr ...
for
health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World Health Organization. (2006)''Constitution of the World He ...
or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are
omnivores An omnivore () is an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular ...
, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of
vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ...
s,
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (20 ...
s,
essential amino acid An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and Carboxylic acid, carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a Substituent, side chain (R group) spe ...
s from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also
food energy Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...
in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the
quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public heal ...

quality of life
,
health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World Health Organization. (2006)''Constitution of the World He ...

health
and
longevity Image:Comparison gender life expectancy CIA factbook.svg, 400px, Comparison of male and female life expectancy at birth for countries and territories as defined in the 2018 CIA Factbook, with selected bubbles labelled. The green dotted line corresp ...

longevity
.


Health

A healthy diet can improve and maintain optimal health. In
developed countries 450px, Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN in 2008.A developed country, industrialized country (or post-industrial country), more developed country (MDC), or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state ...
, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices. Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, and limiting alcohol intake. The
Dietary Guidelines for AmericansThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide nutritional advice (see diet) for Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Rick ...
is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition.


Dietary choices

Many do not eat food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g.
flexitarianism A semi-vegetarian diet (SVD), also called a flexitarian, is one that is centered on plant foods with the occasional inclusion of meat. ''Flexitarian'' is a portmanteau of the words ''flexible'' and ''vegetarian'', signifying its followers' less st ...
,
pescetarianism Pescetarianism (sometimes spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of using seafood as the only source of meat in a diet that is otherwise vegetarian.
, vegetarianism, veganism) for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect. Out of the above diets, veganism is the most selective. People on a balanced vegan diet can get all necessary nutrients, but may need to specifically focus on consumption of nutrients like Protein (nutrient), protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12. Raw foodism is another contemporary trend.


Weight management

A particular diet may be chosen to promote weight loss or weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management"''(dieting)'' are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management. If a person is overweight or obese, changing to a diet and lifestyle that allows them to burn more calories than they consume may improve their overall health, possibly preventing diseases that are attributed in part to weight, including heart disease and diabetes. Conversely, if a person is underweight due to illness or malnutrition, they may change their diet to promote weight gain. Intentional changes in weight, though often beneficial, can be potentially harmful to the body if they occur too rapidly. Unintentional rapid weight change can be caused by the body's reaction to some medications, or may be a sign of major medical problems including thyroid issues and cancer among other diseases.


Eating disorders

An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits and thoughts about food that may involve eating much more or much less than needed. Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and Binge eating disorder, binge-eating disorder. Eating disorders affect people of every gender, age, socioeconomic status, and body size.


Religious and cultural dietary choices

Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted in Judaism, and Halal foods in Islamic dietary laws, Islam. Although Buddhists are generally Buddhist vegetarianism, vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism, Diet in Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jainism, Jains are strictly vegetarian and in addition to that the consumption of any roots (ex: potatoes, carrots) is not permitted. In Christian dietary laws, Christianity there is no restriction on kinds of animals that can be eaten, Various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons. The most common diets used by Christians are Mediterranean diet, Mediterranean and Christian vegetarianism, Vegetarianism. p. 102 – "Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine."James A. Kelhoffer
''The Diet of John the Baptist''
, pp. 19–21
p. 104 – "And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: ''I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food.''"


Diet classification table


Notes


See also

* Diet food * Dieting * Dessert crop * Nutrition psychology


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Diet (Nutrition) Diets, *