A DIASPORA (from Greek διασπορά, "scattering, dispersion")
is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller
Diaspora can also refer to the movement of the
population from its original homeland.
Diaspora has come to refer
particularly to historical mass dispersions of an involuntary nature,
such as the expulsion of Jews from
Judea and the fleeing of Greeks
after the fall of
Constantinople . Other examples are the African
Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade , the southern Chinese or
Hindus of South
Asia during the coolie trade, the Irish during and after the Irish
Famine , the
Palestinian diaspora , and the Jewish exodus from Arab
and Muslim countries in the 20th century, the exile and deportation of
Circassians , and the emigration of
Anglo-Saxon warriors and their
families after the
Norman Conquest of England
Norman Conquest of England , many of whom found
Constantinople and bolstered the elite bodyguard of the
Varangian Guard .
Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of
diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism , trade or labor
migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora
community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora
communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other
qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of
return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack
of full integration into the host country.
* 1 Origins and development of the term
* 1.1 Expanding definition
* 3 Asian diasporas
* 4 European diasporas
* 5 Internal diasporas
* 6 Twentieth century
World War II
World War II and the end of colonial rule
* 6.2 The
Cold War and the formation of post-colonial states
* 7 21st century
Middle East conflicts
* 7.2 Venezuela\'s
Diaspora populations on the Internet
* 9 In popular culture
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 References
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERM
The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω
(diaspeirō), "I scatter", "I spread about" and that from διά
(dia), "between, through, across" + the verb σπείρω (speirō),
"I sow, I scatter". In
Ancient Greece the term διασπορά
(diaspora) hence meant "scattering" and was inter alia used to refer
to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land
with the purpose of colonization , to assimilate the territory into
the empire. An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the
century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the
Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the
Its use began to develop from this original sense when the Hebrew
Bible was translated into Greek; the first mention of a diaspora
created as a result of exile is found in the
Septuagint , first in
Deuteronomy 28:25, in the phrase ἔσῃ ἐν διασπορᾷ
ἐν πάσαις ταῖς βασιλείαις τῆς γῆς,
esē en diaspora en pasais tais basileiais tēs gēs, translated to
mean "thou shalt be a dispersion in all kingdoms of the earth"
and secondly in
Psalms 146(147).2, in the phrase οἰκοδομῶν
Ἰερουσαλὴμ ὁ Kύριος καὶ τὰς
διασπορὰς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπισυνάξει,
oikodomōn Ierousalēm ho
Kyrios kai tas diasporas tou Israēl
episynaxē, translated to mean "The Lord doth build up Jerusalem: he
gathereth together the outcasts of Israel".
So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word
then have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between
740–722 BC from
Israel by the Assyrians, as well as Jews,
Benjaminites, and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BCE
by the Babylonians , and from
Roman Judea in 70 CE by the Roman Empire
. It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical
movements of the dispersed ethnic population of Israel, to the
cultural development of that population or to that population itself.
In English when capitalized and without modifiers (that is simply, the
Diaspora), the term refers specifically to the
Jewish diaspora ; when
uncapitalized the word diaspora may be used to refer to refugee or
immigrant populations of other origins or ethnicities living "away
from an established or ancestral homeland". The wider application of
diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of
conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part.
According to the
Oxford English Dictionary Online , the first known
recorded usage of the word diaspora in the
English language was in
1876 referring "extensive diaspora work (as it is termed) of
evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent".
The term became more widely assimilated into English by the mid
1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other
particular countries or regions also being referred to as a diaspora.
An academic field, diaspora studies , has become established relating
to this sense of the word.
In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement the
population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated
from its national territory, and usually its people have a hope, or at
least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point, if the
"homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers have
noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single
home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In
this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their
diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of
attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development often assumes a
different course from that of the population in the original place of
settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in
culture, traditions, language and other factors. The last vestiges of
cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community
resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional
In an article published in 1991,
William Safran set out six rules to
distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. These included
criteria that the group maintains a myth or collective memory of their
homeland; they regard their ancestral homeland as their true home, to
which they will eventually return; being committed to the restoration
or maintenance of that homeland; and they relate "personally or
vicariously" to the homeland to a point where it shapes their
identity. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of
the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term.
Rogers Brubaker (2005) also notes that use of the term diaspora has
been widening. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use
"involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening
set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population
category that is to some extent dispersed in space". Brubaker has
WorldCat database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on
diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora.
The majority of works in the 1960s were also about the Jewish
diaspora, but in 2002 only two out of 20 books sampled (out of a total
of 253) were about the Jewish case, with a total of eight different
Brubaker outlines the original use of the term diaspora as follows:
Most early discussions of diaspora were firmly rooted in a conceptual
'homeland'; they were concerned with a paradigmatic case, or a small
number of core cases. The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish
diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did
not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that
Brubaker argues that the initial expansion of the use of the phrase
extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian and Greek
diasporas . More recently, it has been applied to emigrant groups that
continue their involvement in their homeland from overseas, such as
the category of long-distance nationalists identified by Benedict
Anderson . Brubaker notes that (as examples): Albanians, Basques,
Hindu Indians, Irish, Japanese, Kashmiri, Koreans, Kurds,
Tamils have been conceptualised as diasporas in this
sense. Furthermore, "labour migrants who maintain (to some degree)
emotional and social ties with a homeland" have also been described as
In further cases of the use of the term, "the reference to the
conceptual homeland – to the 'classical' diasporas – has become
more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether". Here,
Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic
categories...such as Francophone , Anglophone and Lusophone
'communities'", along with Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Confucian, Huguenot,
Muslim and Catholic 'diasporas'. Brubaker notes that, as of 2005 ,
there were also academic books or articles on the
Dixie , white,
liberal, gay, queer and digital diasporas.
Some observers have labeled evacuation from
New Orleans and the Gulf
Coast in the wake of
Hurricane Katrina the
New Orleans diaspora ,
since a significant number of evacuees have not been able to return,
yet maintain aspirations to do so. Agnieszka Weinar (2010) notes the
widening use of the term, arguing that recently, "a growing body of
literature succeeded in reformulating the definition, framing diaspora
as almost any population on the move and no longer referring to the
specific context of their existence". It has even been noted that as
charismatic Christianity becomes increasingly globalized, many
Christians conceive of themselves as a diaspora, and form an imaginary
that mimics salient features of ethnic diasporas.
Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland
can also be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are
communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their
homeland. In an article published in 1996, Khachig Tölölyan argues
that the media have used the term corporate diaspora in a rather
arbitrary and inaccurate fashion, for example as applied to
“mid-level, mid-career executives who have been forced to find new
places at a time of corporate upheaval” (10) The use of corporate
diaspora reflects the increasing popularity of the diaspora notion to
describe a wide range of phenomena related to contemporary migration,
displacement and transnational mobility. While corporate diaspora
seems to avoid or contradict connotations of violence, coercion and
unnatural uprooting historically associated to the notion of diaspora,
its scholarly use may heuristically describe the ways in which
corporations function alongside diasporas. In this way, corporate
diaspora might foreground the racial histories of diasporic formations
without losing sight of the cultural logic of late capitalism in which
corporations orchestrate the transnational circulation of people,
images, ideologies and capital.
One of the largest diaspora of modern times is that of Sub-Saharan
Africans, which dates back several centuries. During the Atlantic
slave trade , 9.4 to 12 million people from
West Africa survived
transportation to arrive in the
Americas as slaves . This population
and their descendants were major influences on the culture of British
, French , Portuguese , and Spanish
New World colonies. Prior to the
trans-Atlantic slave trade, millions of Africans had moved and settled
as merchants, seamen and slaves in different parts of
Europe and Asia
. From the 8th through the 19th centuries, an Arab-controlled slave
trade dispersed millions of Africans to
Asia and the islands of the
Indian Ocean .
Europe and the African Diaspora, Alexander Weheliye writes a
section and clearly explains diaspora this way: "
pathways that retrace laverings of difference in the aftermath of
colonialism and slavery, as well as the effects of other forms of
migration and displacement. Thus, diaspora enables the desedimentation
of the nation from the ‘interior’ by taking into account the
groups that fail to comply with the reigning definition of the people
as a cohesive political subject due to sharing one culture, one race,
one language, one religion, and so on, and from the 'exterior' by
drawing attention to the movements that cannot be contained by the
nation’s administrative and ideological borders".
Currently, migrant Africans can only enter 13 African countries
without advanced visas. In pursuing a unified future, the African
Union (AU) will allow people to move freely between the 54 countries
of the AU under a visa free passport and encourage migrants to return
Bukharan Jews in Samarkand, Central Asia, c. 1910
The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the Jewish diaspora, the
majority of which can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion,
and enslavement of the Jewish population of
Judea , and whose
descendants became the Ashkenazim , Sephardim , and Mizrahim of today.
Similarly, the Romani trace their origins to the Indian
subcontinent , and their presence in
Europe is first attested to in
the Middle Ages.
Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese Diaspora; see also
Overseas Chinese ) first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass
emigration that occurred from the 19th century to 1949 was caused
mainly by wars and starvation in mainland China , as well as political
corruption. Most immigrants were illiterate or poorly educated
peasants and coolies (Chinese: 苦力, literally "hard labor"), who
immigrated to developing countries in need of labor, such as the
South Africa , Southeast
Asia , Malaya and
The largest Asian diaspora outside of Southeast
Asia is the Indian
diaspora . The overseas Indian community, estimated at over 25
million, is spread across many regions in the world, on every
continent. It constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global
community representing different regions, languages, cultures, and
At least three waves of Nepalese diaspora can be identified. The
earliest wave dates back to hundreds of years as early marriage and
high birthrates propelled Hindu settlement eastward across Nepal, then
Bhutan . A backlash developed in the 1980s as Bhutan's
political elites realized that Bhutanese Buddhists were at risk of
becoming a minority in their own country. At least 60,000 ethnic
Bhutan have been resettled in the
United States . A
second wave was driven by British recruitment of mercenary soldiers
beginning around 1815 and resettlement after retirement in the British
Isles and southeast Asia. The third wave began in the 1970s as land
shortages intensified and the pool of educated labor greatly exceeded
job openings in Nepal. Job-related emigration created Nepalese
enclaves in India, the wealthier countries of the Middle East, Europe
and North America. Current estimates of the number of Nepalese living
Nepal range well up into the millions.
In Siam, regional power struggles among several kingdoms in the
region led to a large diaspora of ethnic Lao between the 1700s–1800s
by Siamese rulers to settle large areas of the Siamese kingdom's
northeast region, where Lao ethnicity is still a major factor in 2012.
During this period, Siam decimated the Lao capital, capturing,
torturing and killing the Lao king Anuwongse.
European diaspora Greek Homeland and
Diaspora 6th century BCE
European history contains numerous diaspora-like events. In ancient
times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from
Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion
and language around the
Black Sea basins,
establishing Greek city-states in
Magna Graecia (
Sicily , southern
Italy ), northern
Libya , eastern
Spain , the south of
France , and
Black Sea coasts.
Greeks founded more than 400 colonies. Tyre and
Carthage also colonised the Mediterranean.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great 's conquest of the
Achaemenid Empire marked the
beginning of the
Hellenistic period , characterized by a new wave of
Greek colonization in
Africa , with Greek ruling-classes
established in Egypt , southwest
Asia and northwest
Subsequent waves of colonization and migration during the Middle Ages
added to the older settlements, or created new ones, thus replenishing
Greek diaspora and making it one of the most long-standing and
widespread in the world.
The Migration-Period relocations, which included several phases, are
just one set of many in history. The first phase Migration-Period
displacement (between CE 300 and 500) included relocation of the Goths
Franks , various other Germanic
Alemanni , Varangians and
Alans and numerous Slavic tribes
. The second phase, between CE 500 and 900, saw Slavic , Turkic , and
other tribes on the move, resettling in Eastern
Europe and gradually
leaving it predominantly Slavic, and affecting
Anatolia and the
Caucasus as the first Turkic tribes (Avars ,
Pechenegs ), as well as
Bulgars , and possibly
Magyars arrived. The
last phase of the migrations saw the coming of the Hungarian Magyars
and the Viking expansion out of
Scandinavia into southern and eastern
Such colonizing migrations cannot be considered indefinitely as
diasporas; over very long periods, eventually the migrants assimilate
into the settled area so completely that it becomes their new mental
homeland. Thus the modern
Hungary do not feel that they
belong in the Western
Siberia that the Hungarian
Magyars left 12
centuries ago; and the English descendants of the
Jutes do not yearn to reoccupy the plains of Northwest Germany.
In 1492 a Spanish-financed expedition headed by Christopher Columbus
arrived in the
Americas , after which European exploration and
colonization rapidly expanded. Historian
James Axtell estimates that
240,000 people left
Europe for the
Americas in the 16th century.
Emigration continued. In the 19th century alone over 50 million
Europeans migrated to North and South America. Other Europeans moved
to Siberia, Africa, and Australasia.
A specific 19th-century example is the
Irish diaspora , beginning in
the mid-19th century and brought about by An Gorta Mór or "the Great
Hunger" of the Irish Famine . An estimated 45% to 85% of Ireland's
population emigrated to areas including Britain, the
United States of
America, Canada, Argentina,
New Zealand . The size of
Irish diaspora is demonstrated by the number of people around the
world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to
From the 1860s the Circassian people, originally from Eastern Europe,
were dispersed through Anatolia, Australia, the Balkans, the Levant,
North America and West Europe, leaving less than 10% of their
population in the homeland - parts of historical Circassia (in the
modern-day Russian portion of the
In the United States, approximately 4.3 million people moved outside
their home states in 2010, according to IRS tax exemption data. In a
2011 TEDx presentation, Detroit native Garlin Gilchrist referenced the
formation of distinct "Detroit diaspora" communities in Seattle and
Washington, D.C., while layoffs in the auto industry also led to
substantial blue-collar migration from Michigan to Wyoming in the mid
2000s. In response to a statewide exodus of talent, the State of
Michigan continues to host "MichAGAIN" career recruiting events in
places throughout the
United States with significant Michigan diaspora
In Mainland China, millions of migrant workers have sought greater
opportunity in the country's booming coastal metropolises, though this
trend has slowed with the further development of China's interior.
Migrant social structures in these Chinese megacities are often based
on place of origin, such as a shared hometown or province, and it is
common for recruiters and foremen to select entire work crews from the
same village. In two separate June 2011 incidents, Sichuanese migrant
workers organized violent protests against alleged police misconduct
and migrant labor abuse near the southern manufacturing hub of
The twentieth century saw huge population movements. Some involved
large-scale transfers of people by government action. Some migrations
occurred to avoid conflict and warfare. Other diasporas were created
as a consequence of political decisions, such as the end of
WORLD WAR II AND THE END OF COLONIAL RULE
World War II
World War II unfolded, Nazi Germany deported and killed millions
of Jews and many millions of others were likewise enslaved or
murdered, including Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. Some Jews
fled from persecution to unoccupied parts of western
Europe and the
Americas before borders closed. Later, other eastern European refugees
moved west, away from Soviet annexation, and the
Iron Curtain regimes
after World War II. Hundreds of thousands of these anti-Soviet
political refugees and Displaced Persons ended up in western Europe,
Australia, Canada and the
United States of America.
After World War II, the
Soviet Union and Communist-controlled Poland
Yugoslavia expelled millions of ethnic
Germans , most of whom were descendants of immigrants who had settled
in those areas nearly two centuries before. This was allegedly in
retaliation for the German Nazi invasion and their pan-German attempts
at annexation. Most of the refugees moved to the West, including
western Europe, and with tens of thousands seeking refuge in the
Spain sent many political activists into exile during Franco 's
military regime from 1936 to his death in 1975.
Following World War II, the creation of the state of
Israel , and a
series of uprisings against colonialist rule, the
Middle East nations
became more hostile in relation to their historic Jewish populations,
sepharadim and mizrahiml, of nearly 1 million people. Most of them
emigrated, with the majority resettling in Israel.
At the same time, the
Palestinian diaspora resulted from Israel's
creation in 1948, in which 750,000 people were expelled or fled from
their homes. The diaspora was enlarged by the effects of the 1967
Arab–Israeli War . Many Palestinians continue to live in refugee
camps maintained by Middle Eastern nations, but others have resettled
Middle East and other countries.
The 1947 Partition resulted in the migration of millions of people
Pakistan . Millions were murdered in the religious
violence of the period, with estimates of fatalities up to 2 million
people. Thousands of former subjects of the
British Raj went to the UK
Indian subcontinent after
independent in 1947.
From the late 19th century, and formally from 1910, Japan made Korea
a colony. Millions of Chinese fled to western provinces not occupied
by Japan (that is, in particular Ssuchuan/Szechwan and Yunnan in the
Southwest and Shensi and Kansu in the Northwest) and to Southeast
Asia. More than 100,000 Koreans moved across the Amur River into
Russia (then the Soviet Union) away from the Japanese.
THE COLD WAR AND THE FORMATION OF POST-COLONIAL STATES
During and after the
Cold War -era, huge populations of refugees
migrated from conflict, especially from then-developing countries .
Upheaval in the
Middle East and Central Asia, some of which was
related to power struggles between the
United States and the Soviet
Union , created new refugee populations which developed into global
Asia , many
Vietnamese people emigrated to
later millions to the United States,
Australia and Canada after the
Vietnam War . Later, 30,000 French colons from
Cambodia were displaced after being expelled by the
Khmer Rouge regime
Pol Pot . A small, predominantly Muslim ethnic group, the Cham
people long residing in Cambodia, were nearly eradicated. The mass
Vietnamese people from Vietnam coined the term 'Boat people
Southwest China , many
Tibetan people emigrated to India,
14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama in 1959 after the failure of his Tibetan
uprising . This wave lasted until the 1960s, and another wave followed
when Tibet was opened up to trade and tourism in the 1980s. It is
estimated that about 200,000 Tibetans live now dispersed worldwide,
half of whom in are
Bhutan . In lieu of lost
citizenship papers, the
Central Tibetan Administration offers Green
Book identity documents to Tibetan refugees.
Sri Lankan Tamils have historically migrated to find work, notably
during the British colonial period. Since the beginning of the civil
war in 1983, more than 800,000
Tamils have been displaced within Sri
Lanka as local diaspora, and over a half million
Tamils living as the
Tamil diaspora in destinations such as India, Australia, New Zealand,
Canada, the UK and Europe.
The Afghan diaspora resulted from the 1979 invasion by the former
Soviet Union; both official and unofficial records indicate that the
war displaced over 6 million people, resulting in the creation of the
largest refugee population worldwide today.
Many Iranians fled the 1979
Iranian Revolution which culminated in
the fall of the USA/British-ensconced Shah .
The Assyrian diaspora expanded by the Civil War in
Lebanon , the
coming into power of the Islamic republic of
Iran , the Ba\'athist
Iraq , and the present-day unrest in
Assyrians on the roads of exile.
Africa , a new series of diasporas formed following the end of
colonial rule. In some cases as countries became independent, numerous
minority descendants of Europeans emigrated; others stayed in the
lands which had been family homes for generations.
80,000 South Asians in 1972 and took over their businesses and
properties. The 1990s Civil war in
Rwanda between rival ethnic groups
Tutsi turned deadly and produced a mass efflux of refugees.
Latin America , following the 1959
Cuban Revolution and the
introduction of communism , over a million people have left
There was a
Jamaican diaspora around the start of the 21st century.
More than 1 million Dominicans live abroad a majority living in the
US."Nearly 20 Percent of All Dominicans Live Abroad". Dominican Today
A million Colombian refugees have left
Colombia since 1965 to escape
the country's violence and civil wars. In
South America , thousands of
Argentinan , Chilean and Uruguayan refugees fled to
periods of military rule in the 1970s and 1980s. In
Central America ,
Nicaraguans , Salvadorans , Guatemalans , Hondurans , Costa Ricans
(however, the country had no dictators) and Panamanians fled conflict
and poor economic conditions.
Hundreds of thousands of people fled from the
Rwandan Genocide in
1994 into neighboring countries. Thousands of refugees from
deteriorating conditions in
Zimbabwe have gone to
South Africa . The
long war in Congo , in which numerous nations have been involved, has
also created millions of refugees.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April
MIDDLE EAST CONFLICTS
Iraq War , nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced
as of 2011, with 1.3 million within
Iraq and 1.6 million in
neighboring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria. The Syrian Civil War
has forced further migration, with at least 4 million displaced as per
VENEZUELA\'S BOLIVARIAN DIASPORA
Following the presidency of
Hugo Chávez and the establishment of his
Bolivarian Revolution , over 1.6 million Venezuelans emigrated from
Venezuela in what has been called the
Bolivarian diaspora . The
analysis of a study by the
Central University of Venezuela titled
Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile by El Universal
states that the
Bolivarian diaspora in Venezuela has been caused by
the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant
crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the
DIASPORA POPULATIONS ON THE INTERNET
There are numerous web-based news portals and forum sites dedicated
to specific diaspora communities, often organized on the basis of an
origin characteristic and a current location characteristic. The
location-based networking features of mobile applications such as
WeChat have also created de facto online diaspora communities
when used outside of their home markets. Now, large companies from
the emerging countries are looking at leveraging diaspora communities
to enter the more mature market.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Gran Torino , a 2008 drama starring
Clint Eastwood , was the first
mainstream American film to feature the
Hmong American diaspora.
List of diasporas
Long Walk of the Navajo
1948 Palestinian exodus
Trail of Tears
* ^ A B C D E F διασπορά. Liddell, Henry George ; Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon at the
* ^ A B C "Diaspora".
Merriam Webster . Retrieved 22 February 2011.
* ^ A B C
Melvin Ember ,
Carol R. Ember and Ian Skoggard , ed.
(2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and
Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora
Communities. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9 .
* ^ Rozen, Mina (2008). Homelands and Diasporas: Greeks, Jews and
Their Migrations (International Library of Migration Studies). London,
England: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1845116429 .
* ^ "English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian
Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness » De Re Militari".
* ^ pp.1-2, Tetlow
* ^ p.81, Kantor
* ^ Assyrian captivity of
* ^ pp.53, 105-106, Kantor
* ^ p.1, Barclay
* ^ pp.96-97, Galil & Weinfeld
* ^ "diaspora, n.".
Oxford English Dictionary Online . November
2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
* ^ Brubaker 2005 , p. 5.
* ^ A B Weinar 2010 , p. 75.
* ^ Cohen 2008 , p. 6.
* ^ Cohen 2008 , p. 4.
* ^ Brubaker 2005 , p. 3.
* ^ A B Brubaker 2005 , p. 14.
* ^ A B Brubaker 2005 , p. 2.
* ^ Brubaker 2005 , pp. 2–3.
* ^ Kennedy, Bruce (31 August 2010). "The Economic Impact of the
\'Katrina Diaspora\'". Daily Finance. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
* ^ Walden, Will (1 September 2005). "Katrina scatters a grim
diaspora". BBC News. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
* ^ McAlister, Elizabeth. "Listening for Geographies". Routledge.
Retrieved 5 November 2012.
* ^ Burns, William (9 December 2013). "The Potential of Science
Diasporas". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (4).
* ^ Tölölyan, Khachig (December 1996). "Rethinking Diaspora(s):
Stateless Power in the Transnational Moment". Diaspora: A Journal of
Transnational Studies. 3 (36).
* ^ ""Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica\'s Guide to Black
History", \'\'Encyclopædia Britannica\'\'". Britannica.com. Retrieved
5 January 2014.
* ^ Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African
Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton:
Africa World Press
* ^ Weheliye, Alexander (2009). Black
Europe and the African
Diaspora. p. 162. ISBN 9780252076572 .
* ^ Monks, Kieron. "
African Union launches all-
CNN. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
Josephus War of the Jews 9:2.
* ^ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14
* ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An
Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early
Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of
Biblical Literature , 2005
* ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding
the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7 .
* ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person
belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were
themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
* "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim),
were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest
sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite
at Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that
were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
* ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the
Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3 .
* ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X .
* ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish
People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9 .
* ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the
Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Sold at the London
Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim.
* ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved
November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19.
* ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies
(Romanies) (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. xxxvii. The Gypsies, or Romt
it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India
some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crosanies, are an
ethnic group that arrived in
Europe around the 14th century. Scholars
argue about when and how they left India, bused the
Middle East and
came into Europe.
* ^ Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gresham, D; Calafell, F (2001). "Genetic
studies of the Roma (Gypsies): A review". BMC Medical Genetics. 2: 5.
PMC 31389 . PMID 11299048 . doi :10.1186/1471-2350-2-5 . Retrieved
16 June 2008.
* ^ Ma, Laurence J. C.; Cartier, Carolyn L. (2003). The Chinese
diaspora: space, place, mobility, and identity. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1
* ^ Bhaumik, Subir (7 November 2007). "
Bhutan refugees are
\'intimidated\'". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
* ^ "Early development of Greek society". Highered.mcgraw-hill.com.
Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
* ^ "Hellenistic Civilization".
* ^ Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic
in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18.
JSTOR 4636419 .
Archived from the original on 19 November 2009.
* ^ Eltis, Kingston David (1987). Economic Growth and the Ending of
the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN
* ^ Bruner, Jon (16 November 2011). "Migration in America". Forbes.
Retrieved 30 September 2013.
* ^ Gilchrist, Garlin (6 August 2011). "From Detroit. To Detroit".
TEDxLansing. TED. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
* ^ Silke Carty, Sharon (5 December 2006). "Wyoming wins over
Michigan job seekers". USA Today. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
* ^ Walsh, Tom (10 April 2011). "MichAgain program aims to return
talented people, investments to Michigan". Detroit Free Press.
Retrieved 1 October 2013.
* ^ Kenneth, Rapoza (19 February 2013). "Chinese Migrant Workers
Enticed To Stay Home". Forbes. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
* ^ "China\'s migrant workers". Wildcat. Winter 2007/08 (80).
Retrieved 1 October 2013.
* ^ Demick, Barbara (13 June 2011). "China tries to restore order
after migrant riots". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
* ^ "An International Conference on the Baltic Archives Abroad".
Kirmus.ee. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
* ^ Codeswitching Worldwide II, by Rodolfo Jacobson
* ^ "1959: The Cuban Revolution". Upfront: The Newsmagazine for
* ^ Sengupta, Kim (16 December 2011). "Will Iraq\'s 1.3 million
refugees ever be able to go home?".
The Independent . London.
* ^ (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR
Refugee Response". Retrieved 15 September 2015.
* ^ A B Olivares, Francisco (13 September 2014). "Best and
brightest for export". El Universal. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
* ^ "Hugo Chavez is Scaring Away Talent". Newsweek. 30 June 2009.
Retrieved 24 September 2014.
* ^ "La emigración venezolana a diferencia de otras "se va con un
diploma bajo el brazo"". El Impulso. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 21
* ^ Van Den Bos, Matthijs; Nell, Liza (2006). "Territorial bounds
to virtual space: transnational online and offline networks of Iranian
and Turkish–Kurdish immigrants in the Netherlands" (PDF). Global
Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs. 6 (2): 201–220. doi
:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00141.x . Retrieved 30 September 2013.
* ^ Chester, Ken (7 August 2013). "How
WeChat And Zalo Shine a
Light On The Asian American Diaspora". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 30
* ^ "The Globe:
Diaspora Marketing, Nirmalya Kumar and Jan-Benedict
Steenkamp". Harvard Business Review. October 2013.
* ^ Peterson-de la Cueva, Lisa (24 November 2008). "Gran Torino
connects Hmong Minnesotans with Hollywood". Twin Cities Daily Planet.
Retrieved 30 September 2013.
* Barclay, John M. G., (ed.), Negotiating Diaspora: Jewish
Strategies in the Roman Empire, Continuum International Publishing
* Baser, B and Swain, A. “Diasporas as Peacemakers: Third Party
Mediation in Homeland Conflicts” with Ashok Swain. International
Journal on World Peace 25, 3, September 2008.
* Braziel, Jana Evans. 2008.
Diaspora - an introduction. Malden, MA:
* Brubaker, Rogers (2005). "The \'diaspora\' diaspora" (PDF). Ethnic
and Racial Studies. 28 (1): 1–19. doi :10.1080/0141987042000289997 .
Retrieved 22 February 2011.
* Bueltmann, Tanja, et al. eds. Locating the English Diaspora,
1500-2010 (Liverpool University Press, 2012)
* Cohen, Robin (2008). Global Diasporas: An Introduction (2nd ed.).
Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-43550-1 .
* Galil, Gershon , & Weinfeld, Moshe , Studies in Historical
Geography and Biblical Historiography: Presented to Zekharyah Ḳalai,
* Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, People of Palestine (Chiang
Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2012), ASIN: B0094TU8VY
* Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African Diaspora
in the Indian Ocean. Trenton:
Africa World Press
* Kenny, Kevin, Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2013.
* Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: a year-by-year
history from Creation to the Present, (New updated edition), Jason
Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1992
* Luciuk, Lubomyr, "Searching for Place: Ukrainian Displaced
Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory," University of Toronto
* Oonk, G, 'Global Indian Diasporas: trajectories of migration and
theory, Amsterdam University Press, 2007Free download:
* Shain, Yossi, Kinship and Diasporas in International Politics,
Michigan University Press, 2007
* Sami Mahroum, Cynthia Eldridge, Abdallah S Daar (2006),
Transnational diaspora options: How developing countries could benefit
from their emigrant populations. International Journal on
Multicultural Societies, 2006.
* S Mahroum, P De Guchteneire (2007), Transnational Knowledge
Diaspora Networks-Editorial. International Journal of
Multicultural Societies 8 (1), 1-3
* Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier, Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient
Law and Society, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005
* Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X .
* Weinar, Agnieszka (2010). "Instrumentalising diasporas for
development: International and European policy discourses". In
Bauböck, Rainer; Faist, Thomas.
Diaspora and Transnationalism:
Concepts, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
pp. 73–89. ISBN 90-8964-238-2 .
* B. Xharra and M. Wählisch, Beyond Remittances: Public Diplomacy
and Kosovo's Diaspora, Foreign Policy Club, Pristina (2012),
* Weheliye, Alexander G. "My Volk to Come: Peoplehood in Recent
Diaspora Discourse and Afro-German Popular Music." Black
the African Diaspora. Ed. Darlene Clark. Hine, Trica Danielle. Keaton,
and Stephen Small. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2009. 161-79. Print.
* Gewecke, Frauke. "Diaspora" (2012). University Bielefeld - Center
for InterAmerican Studies.
Look up DIASPORA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to DIASPORAS .
* Livius.org: Diaspora
* http://dare.uva.nl/aup/en/record/260518 Open access book on