The Info List - Diaspora

--- Advertisement ---

A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. [1][2] In particular, Diaspora
has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from Judea
and the fleeing of Greeks
after the fall of Constantinople. Other examples are the African Trans-Atlantic slave trade, the southern Chinese or Indians during the coolie trade, the Irish during and after the Irish Famine, the Palestinian diaspora,[2][3] the exile and deportation of Circassians, and the emigration of Anglo-Saxon
warriors and their families after the Norman Conquest of England, many of whom found employment in Constantinople
and bolstered the elite bodyguard of the emperor, the Varangian
Guard.[4] Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host country.[2]


1 Origins and development of the term

1.1 Expanding definition

2 African diaspora 3 Asian diasporas 4 European diasporas 5 Internal diasporas 6 Twentieth century

6.1 World War II
World War II
and the end of colonial rule 6.2 The Cold War
Cold War
and the formation of post-colonial states

7 21st century

7.1 Middle East
Middle East
conflicts 7.2 Venezuela's Bolivarian diaspora

8 Diaspora
populations on the Internet 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Origins and development of the term[edit] The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω (diaspeirō), "I scatter", "I spread about" and that from διά (dia), "between, through, across" and the verb σπείρω (speirō), "I sow, I scatter". In Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
the term διασπορά (diaspora) hence meant "scattering"[5] and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization, to assimilate the territory into the empire.[6] An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the Peloponnesian wars." Its use began to develop from this original sense when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek;[7] the first mention of a diaspora created as a result of exile is found in the Septuagint, first in

28:25, in the phrase ἔσῃ ἐν διασπορᾷ ἐν πάσαις ταῖς βασιλείαις τῆς γῆς, esē en diaspora en pasais tais basileiais tēs gēs, translated to mean "thou shalt be a dispersion in all kingdoms of the earth"

and secondly in

146(147).2, in the phrase οἰκοδομῶν Ἰερουσαλὴμ ὁ Kύριος καὶ τὰς διασπορὰς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπισυνάξει, oikodomōn Ierousalēm ho Kyrios
kai tas diasporas tou Israēl episynaxē, translated to mean "The Lord doth build up Jerusalem: he gathereth together the outcasts of Israel".

So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word diaspora would then have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between 740–722 BC from Israel
by the Assyrians,[8] as well as Jews, Benjaminites, and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BCE by the Babylonians, and from Roman Judea
Roman Judea
in 70 CE by the Roman Empire.[9] It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical movements of the dispersed ethnic population of Israel, to the cultural development of that population or to that population itself.[10] In English when capitalized and without modifiers (that is simply, the Diaspora), the term refers specifically to the Jewish diaspora;[1] when uncapitalized the word diaspora may be used to refer to refugee or immigrant populations of other origins or ethnicities living "away from an established or ancestral homeland".[1] The wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part.[11] According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language
English language
was in 1876 referring "extensive diaspora work (as it is termed) of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent".[12] The term became more widely assimilated into English by the mid 1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions also being referred to as a diaspora.[citation needed] An academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word. In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement the population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, and usually its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point, if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers[who?] have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions, language and other factors. The last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice.[citation needed] Expanding definition[edit] William Safran in an article published in 1991[13], set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. These included criteria that the group maintains a myth or collective memory of their homeland; they regard their ancestral homeland as their true home, to which they will eventually return; being committed to the restoration or maintenance of that homeland; and they relate "personally or vicariously" to the homeland to a point where it shapes their identity.[14][15][16] While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term.[17] Rogers Brubaker (2005) also notes that use of the term diaspora has been widening. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space".[18] Brubaker has used the WorldCat
database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora. The majority of works in the 1960s were also about the Jewish diaspora, but in 2002 only two out of 20 books sampled (out of a total of 253) were about the Jewish case, with a total of eight different diasporas covered.[19] Brubaker outlines the original use of the term diaspora as follows:

Most early discussions of diaspora were firmly rooted in a conceptual 'homeland'; they were concerned with a paradigmatic case, or a small number of core cases. The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case.[20]

Brubaker argues that the initial expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian and Greek diasporas. More recently, it has been applied to emigrant groups that continue their involvement in their homeland from overseas, such as the category of long-distance nationalists identified by Benedict Anderson. Brubaker notes that (as examples): Albanians, Basques, Hindu Indians, Irish, Japanese, Kashmiri, Koreans, Kurds, Palestinians, and Tamils
have been conceptualised as diasporas in this sense. Furthermore, "labour migrants who maintain (to some degree) emotional and social ties with a homeland" have also been described as diasporas.[20] In further cases of the use of the term, "the reference to the conceptual homeland – to the 'classical' diasporas – has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether". Here, Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic categories...such as Francophone, Anglophone and Lusophone 'communities'", along with Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Confucian, Huguenot, Muslim and Catholic 'diasporas'.[21] Brubaker notes that, as of 2005[update], there were also academic books or articles on the Dixie, white, liberal, gay, queer and digital diasporas.[19] Some observers have labeled evacuation from New Orleans
New Orleans
and the Gulf Coast in the wake of Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
the New Orleans
New Orleans
diaspora, since a significant number of evacuees have not been able to return, yet maintain aspirations to do so.[22][23] Agnieszka Weinar (2010) notes the widening use of the term, arguing that recently, "a growing body of literature succeeded in reformulating the definition, framing diaspora as almost any population on the move and no longer referring to the specific context of their existence".[15] It has even been noted that as charismatic Christianity becomes increasingly globalized, many Christians conceive of themselves as a diaspora, and form an imaginary that mimics salient features of ethnic diasporas.[24] Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can also be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland.[25] In an article published in 1996, Khachig Tölölyan[26] argues that the media have used the term corporate diaspora in a rather arbitrary and inaccurate fashion, for example as applied to “mid-level, mid-career executives who have been forced to find new places at a time of corporate upheaval” (10) The use of corporate diaspora reflects the increasing popularity of the diaspora notion to describe a wide range of phenomena related to contemporary migration, displacement and transnational mobility. While corporate diaspora seems to avoid or contradict connotations of violence, coercion and unnatural uprooting historically associated to the notion of diaspora, its scholarly use may heuristically describe the ways in which corporations function alongside diasporas. In this way, corporate diaspora might foreground the racial histories of diasporic formations without losing sight of the cultural logic of late capitalism in which corporations orchestrate the transnational circulation of people, images, ideologies and capital. African diaspora[edit] Further information: African diaspora One of the largest diaspora of modern times is that of Sub-Saharan Africans, which dates back several centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade, 9.4 to 12 million people from West Africa
West Africa
survived transportation to arrive in the Americas
as slaves.[27] This population and their descendants were major influences on the culture of British, French, Portuguese, and Spanish New World
New World
colonies. Prior to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, millions of Africans had moved and settled as merchants, seamen and slaves in different parts of Europe and Asia. From the 8th through the 19th centuries, an Arab-controlled slave trade dispersed millions of Africans to Asia
and the islands of the Indian Ocean.[28] In Black Europe
and the African Diaspora, Alexander Weheliye writes a section and clearly explains diaspora this way: " Diaspora
offers pathways that retrace laverings of difference in the aftermath of colonialism and slavery, as well as the effects of other forms of migration and displacement. Thus, diaspora enables the desedimentation of the nation from the ‘interior’ by taking into account the groups that fail to comply with the reigning definition of the people as a cohesive political subject due to sharing one culture, one race, one language, one religion, and so on, and from the 'exterior' by drawing attention to the movements that cannot be contained by the nation’s administrative and ideological borders".[29] Currently, migrant Africans can only enter 13 African countries without advanced visas. In pursuing a unified future, the African Union (AU) will allow people to move freely between the 54 countries of the AU under a visa free passport and encourage migrants to return to Africa.[30] Asian diasporas[edit]

Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
in Samarkand, Central Asia, c. 1910

The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the Jewish diaspora, the majority of which can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion, and enslavement of the Jewish population of Judea,[31] and whose descendants became the Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Mizrahim of today.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42] Similarly, the Romani trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent, and their presence in Europe
is first attested to in the Middle Ages.[43][44] Chinese emigration
Chinese emigration
(also known as the Chinese Diaspora; see also Overseas Chinese)[45] first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass emigration that occurred from the 19th century to 1949 was caused mainly by wars and starvation in mainland China, as well as political corruption. Most immigrants were illiterate or poorly educated peasants and coolies (Chinese: 苦力, literally "hard labor"), who immigrated to developing countries in need of labor, such as the Americas, Australia, South Africa, Southeast Asia, Malaya and other places. The largest Asian diaspora outside of Southeast Asia
is the Indian diaspora. The overseas Indian community, estimated at over 25 million, is spread across many regions in the world, on every continent. It constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global community representing different regions, languages, cultures, and faiths (see Desi). At least three waves of Nepalese diaspora can be identified. The earliest wave dates back to hundreds of years as early marriage and high birthrates propelled Hindu settlement eastward across Nepal, then into Sikkim
and Bhutan. A backlash developed in the 1980s as Bhutan's political elites realized that Bhutanese Buddhists were at risk of becoming a minority in their own country. At least 60,000 ethnic Nepalese from Bhutan
have been resettled in the United States.[46] A second wave was driven by British recruitment of mercenary soldiers beginning around 1815 and resettlement after retirement in the British Isles and southeast Asia. The third wave began in the 1970s as land shortages intensified and the pool of educated labor greatly exceeded job openings in Nepal. Job-related emigration created Nepalese enclaves in India, the wealthier countries of the Middle East, Europe and North America. Current estimates of the number of Nepalese living outside Nepal
range well up into the millions. In Siam, regional power struggles among several kingdoms in the region led to a large diaspora of ethnic Lao between the 1700s–1800s by Siamese rulers to settle large areas of the Siamese kingdom's northeast region, where Lao ethnicity is still a major factor in 2012. During this period, Siam decimated the Lao capital, capturing, torturing and killing the Lao king Anuwongse. European diasporas[edit] Further information: European diaspora

Greek Homeland and Diaspora
6th century BCE

European history contains numerous diaspora-like events. In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans
and Asia
Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean
and Black Sea
Black Sea
basins, establishing Greek city-states in Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(Sicily, southern Italy), northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
coasts. Greeks
founded more than 400 colonies.[47] Tyre and Carthage also colonised the Mediterranean. Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia
and Africa, with Greek ruling-classes established in Egypt, southwest Asia
and northwest India.[48] Subsequent waves of colonization and migration during the Middle Ages added to the older settlements, or created new ones, thus replenishing the Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
and making it one of the most long-standing and widespread in the world. The Migration-Period relocations, which included several phases, are just one set of many in history. The first phase Migration-Period displacement (between CE 300 and 500) included relocation of the Goths ( Ostrogoths
and Visigoths), Vandals, Franks, various other Germanic peoples (Burgundians, Lombards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alemanni, Varangians and Normans), Alans
and numerous Slavic tribes. The second phase, between CE 500 and 900, saw Slavic, Turkic, and other tribes on the move, resettling in Eastern Europe
and gradually leaving it predominantly Slavic, and affecting Anatolia
and the Caucasus
as the first Turkic tribes (Avars, Huns, Khazars, Pechenegs), as well as Bulgars, and possibly Magyars
arrived. The last phase of the migrations saw the coming of the Hungarian Magyars. The Viking expansion out of Scandinavia
into southern and eastern Europe, Iceland and Greenland.The recent application of the word "diaspora" to the Viking lexicon highlights their cultural profile distinct from their predatory reputation in the regions they settled, especially in the North Atlantic.[49] The more positive connotations associated with the social science term helping to view the movement of the Scandinavian peoples in the Viking Age in a new way.[50] Such colonizing migrations cannot be considered indefinitely as diasporas; over very long periods, eventually the migrants assimilate into the settled area so completely that it becomes their new mental homeland. Thus the modern Magyars
of Hungary
do not feel that they belong in the Western Siberia
that the Hungarian Magyars
left 12 centuries ago; and the English descendants of the Angles, Saxons
and Jutes
do not yearn to reoccupy the plains of Northwest Germany. In 1492 a Spanish-financed expedition headed by Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded. Historian James Axtell estimates that 240,000 people left Europe
for the Americas
in the 16th century.[51] Emigration continued. In the 19th century alone over 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America.[52] Other Europeans moved to Siberia, Africa, and Australasia. A specific 19th-century example is the Irish diaspora, beginning in the mid-19th century and brought about by An Gorta Mór or "the Great Hunger" of the Irish Famine. An estimated 45% to 85% of Ireland's population emigrated to areas including Britain, the United States
United States
of America, Canada, Argentina, Australia
and New Zealand. The size of the Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora
is demonstrated by the number of people around the world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to 100 million. From the 1860s the Circassian people, originally from Eastern Europe, were dispersed through Anatolia, Australia, the Balkans, the Levant, North America and West Europe, leaving less than 10% of their population in the homeland - parts of historical Circassia (in the modern-day Russian portion of the Caucasus). Internal diasporas[edit] In the United States, approximately 4.3 million people moved outside their home states in 2010, according to IRS tax exemption data.[53] In a 2011 TEDx presentation, Detroit native Garlin Gilchrist referenced the formation of distinct "Detroit diaspora" communities in Seattle and Washington, D.C.,[54] while layoffs in the auto industry also led to substantial blue-collar migration from Michigan to Wyoming in the mid 2000s.[55] In response to a statewide exodus of talent, the State of Michigan continues to host "MichAGAIN" career recruiting events in places throughout the United States
United States
with significant Michigan diaspora populations.[56] In Mainland China, millions of migrant workers have sought greater opportunity in the country's booming coastal metropolises, though this trend has slowed with the further development of China's interior.[57] Migrant social structures in these Chinese megacities are often based on place of origin, such as a shared hometown or province, and it is common for recruiters and foremen to select entire work crews from the same village.[58] In two separate June 2011 incidents, Sichuanese migrant workers organized violent protests against alleged police misconduct and migrant labor abuse near the southern manufacturing hub of Guangzhou.[59] Twentieth century[edit] The twentieth century saw huge population movements. Some involved large-scale transfers of people by government action. Some migrations occurred to avoid conflict and warfare. Other diasporas were created as a consequence of political decisions, such as the end of colonialism. World War II
World War II
and the end of colonial rule[edit] As World War II
World War II
unfolded, Nazi Germany deported and killed millions of Jews and many millions of others were likewise enslaved or murdered, including Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. Some Jews fled from persecution to unoccupied parts of western Europe
and the Americas before borders closed. Later, other eastern European refugees moved west, away from Soviet annexation,[60] and the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
regimes after World War II. Hundreds of thousands of these anti-Soviet political refugees and Displaced Persons ended up in western Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States
United States
of America. After World War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Communist-controlled Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary
and Yugoslavia
expelled millions of ethnic Germans, most of whom were descendants of immigrants who had settled in those areas nearly two centuries before. This was allegedly in retaliation for the German Nazi invasion and their pan-German attempts at annexation. Most of the refugees moved to the West, including western Europe, and with tens of thousands seeking refuge in the United States. Spain
sent many political activists into exile during Franco's military regime from 1936 to his death in 1975. Following World War II, the creation of the state of Israel, and a series of uprisings against colonialist rule, the Middle East
Middle East
nations became more hostile in relation to their historic Jewish populations, sepharadim and mizrahiml, of nearly 1 million people. Most of them emigrated, with the majority resettling in Israel. At the same time, the Palestinian diaspora
Palestinian diaspora
resulted from Israel's creation in 1948, in which 750,000 people were expelled or fled from their homes. The diaspora was enlarged by the effects of the 1967 Arab–Israeli War. Many Palestinians continue to live in refugee camps maintained by Middle Eastern nations, but others have resettled in the Middle East
Middle East
and other countries. The 1947 Partition resulted in the migration of millions of people between India
and Pakistan. Millions were murdered in the religious violence of the period, with estimates of fatalities up to 2 million people. Thousands of former subjects of the British Raj
British Raj
went to the UK from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
after India
and Pakistan
became independent in 1947. From the late 19th century, and formally from 1910, Japan made Korea a colony. Millions of Chinese fled to western provinces not occupied by Japan (that is, in particular Ssuchuan/Szechwan and Yunnan in the Southwest and Shensi and Kansu in the Northwest) and to Southeast Asia. More than 100,000 Koreans moved across the Amur River into Eastern Russia
(then the Soviet Union) away from the Japanese.[citation needed] The Cold War
Cold War
and the formation of post-colonial states[edit] During and after the Cold War-era, huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from then-developing countries. Upheaval in the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia, some of which was related to power struggles between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union, created new refugee populations which developed into global diasporas. In Southeast Asia, many Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
emigrated to France
and later millions to the United States, Australia
and Canada after the Cold War-related Vietnam War. Later, 30,000 French colons from Cambodia
were displaced after being expelled by the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
regime under Pol Pot.[citation needed] A small, predominantly Muslim ethnic group, the Cham people long residing in Cambodia, were nearly eradicated.[citation needed] The mass exodus of Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
from Vietnam coined the term 'Boat people'. In Southwest China, many Tibetan people
Tibetan people
emigrated to India, following the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
in 1959 after the failure of his Tibetan uprising. This wave lasted until the 1960s, and another wave followed when Tibet was opened up to trade and tourism in the 1980s. It is estimated that about 200,000 Tibetans live now dispersed worldwide, half of whom in are India, Nepal
and Bhutan. In lieu of lost citizenship papers, the Central Tibetan Administration
Central Tibetan Administration
offers Green Book identity documents to Tibetan refugees. Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
have historically migrated to find work, notably during the British colonial period. Since the beginning of the civil war in 1983, more than 800,000 Tamils
have been displaced within Sri Lanka as local diaspora, and over a half million Tamils
living as the Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
in destinations such as India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the UK and Europe. The Afghan diaspora resulted from the 1979 invasion by the former Soviet Union; both official and unofficial records[citation needed] indicate that the war displaced over 6 million people, resulting in the creation of the largest refugee population worldwide today.[citation needed] Many Iranians fled the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
which culminated in the fall of the USA/British-ensconced Shah. In Africa, a new series of diasporas formed following the end of colonial rule. In some cases as countries became independent, numerous minority descendants of Europeans emigrated; others stayed in the lands which had been family homes for generations. Uganda
expelled 80,000 South Asians in 1972 and took over their businesses and properties. The 1990s Civil war in Rwanda
between rival ethnic groups Hutu
and Tutsi
turned deadly and produced a mass efflux of refugees. In Latin America, following the 1959 Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
and the introduction of communism, over a million people have left Cuba.[61] There was a Jamaican diaspora around the start of the 21st century. More than 1 million Dominicans live abroad a majority living in the US."Nearly 20 Percent of All Dominicans Live Abroad". Dominican Today. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012  A million Colombian refugees have left Colombia
since 1965 to escape the country's violence and civil wars. In South America, thousands of Argentinan, Chilean and Uruguayan refugees fled to Europe
during periods of military rule in the 1970s and 1980s. In Central America, Nicaraguans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Hondurans fled conflict and poor economic conditions. Hundreds of thousands of people fled from the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
in 1994 into neighboring countries. Thousands of refugees from deteriorating conditions in Zimbabwe
have gone to South Africa. The long war in Congo, in which numerous nations have been involved, has also created millions of refugees. The South Korean diaspora during the 1990s caused the fertility rate to drop when a large amount of the middle class emigrated, as the rest of the population continued to age. To counteract the change in these demographics, the South Korean government initiated a diaspora engagement policy in 1997. [62] 21st century[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

Middle East
Middle East
conflicts[edit] Following the Iraq War, nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced as of 2011, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighboring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria.[63] The Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
has forced further migration, with at least 4 million displaced as per UN estimates.[64] Venezuela's Bolivarian diaspora[edit] Main article: Bolivarian diaspora Following the presidency of Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
and the establishment of his Bolivarian Revolution, over 1.6 million Venezuelans emigrated from Venezuela in what has been called the Bolivarian diaspora.[65][66][67] The analysis of a study by the Central University of Venezuela
Central University of Venezuela
titled Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile by El Universal states that the Bolivarian diaspora
Bolivarian diaspora
in Venezuela has been caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".[65] Diaspora
populations on the Internet[edit] There are numerous web-based news portals and forum sites dedicated to specific diaspora communities, often organized on the basis of an origin characteristic and a current location characteristic.[68] The location-based networking features of mobile applications such as China's WeChat
have also created de facto online diaspora communities when used outside of their home markets.[69] Now, large companies from the emerging countries are looking at leveraging diaspora communities to enter the more mature market.[70] In popular culture[edit] Gran Torino, a 2008 drama starring Clint Eastwood, was the first mainstream American film to feature the Hmong American
Hmong American
diaspora.[71] See also[edit]

List of diasporas Armenian Genocide Displaced person Ethnic cleansing Exodus Expatriate Forced migration Jewish diaspora Human migration Long Walk of the Navajo 1948 Palestinian exodus Population transfer Rural exodus Slave trade State collapse Stateless nation Trail of Tears Ummah


^ a b c "Diaspora". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 22 February 2011.  ^ a b c Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember and Ian Skoggard, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee
Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.  ^ Rozen, Mina (2008). Homelands and Diasporas: Greeks, Jews and Their Migrations (International Library of Migration Studies). London, England: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1845116429.  ^ "English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian
Guard and Anglo-Saxon
Ethnic Consciousness » De Re Militari".  ^ διασπορά. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project ^ pp.1-2, Tetlow ^ p.81, Kantor ^ Assyrian captivity of Israel ^ pp.53, 105-106, Kantor ^ p.1, Barclay ^ pp.96-97, Galil & Weinfeld ^ "diaspora, n". Oxford English Dictionary Online. November 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011.  ^ Safran, William. 1991. “Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return.” In Diaspora, 1, no. 1: pp. 83-99. ^ Brubaker 2005, p. 5. ^ a b Weinar 2010, p. 75. ^ Cohen 2008, p. 6. ^ Cohen 2008, p. 4. ^ Brubaker 2005, p. 3. ^ a b Brubaker 2005, p. 14. ^ a b Brubaker 2005, p. 2. ^ Brubaker 2005, pp. 2–3. ^ Kennedy, Bruce (31 August 2010). "The Economic Impact of the 'Katrina Diaspora'". Daily Finance. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ Walden, Will (1 September 2005). "Katrina scatters a grim diaspora". BBC News. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ McAlister, Elizabeth. "Listening for Geographies". Routledge. Retrieved 5 November 2012.  ^ Burns, William (9 December 2013). "The Potential of Science Diasporas". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (4).  ^ Tölölyan, Khachig (December 1996). "Rethinking Diaspora(s): Stateless Power in the Transnational Moment". Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. 3 (36).  ^ ""Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History", ''Encyclopædia Britannica''". Britannica.com. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African Diaspora
in the Indian Ocean. Trenton: Africa
World Press ^ Weheliye, Alexander (2009). Black Europe
and the African Diaspora. p. 162. ISBN 9780252076572.  ^ Monks, Kieron. " African Union
African Union
launches all- Africa
passport". CNN. Retrieved 2016-12-13.  ^ Josephus
War of the Jews 9:2. ^ Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14 ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel
1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature, 2005 ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7.  ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."

"The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."

Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3.  ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X.  ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9.  ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim.  ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2010.  Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19. ^ Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. xxxvii. The Gypsies, or Romt it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India
some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crosanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe
around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India, bused the Middle East and came into Europe.  ^ Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gresham, D; Calafell, F (2001). "Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): A review". BMC Medical Genetics. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. PMC 31389 . PMID 11299048. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ Ma, Laurence J. C.; Cartier, Carolyn L. (2003). The Chinese diaspora: space, place, mobility, and identity. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1.  ^ Bhaumik, Subir (7 November 2007). " Bhutan
refugees are 'intimidated'". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2008.  ^ "Early development of Greek society". Highered.mcgraw-hill.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "Hellenistic Civilization". Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.  ^ Jesch, J. A Viking Diaspora, London, Routledge. ^ Adrams, L. " Diaspora
and Identity in the Viking Age", Early Medieval Europe, vol.20(1), pp.17-38. ^ Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18. JSTOR 4636419. Archived from the original on 19 November 2009.  ^ Eltis, Kingston David (1987). Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-536481-1.  ^ Bruner, Jon (16 November 2011). "Migration in America". Forbes. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Gilchrist, Garlin (6 August 2011). "From Detroit. To Detroit". TEDxLansing. TED. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Silke Carty, Sharon (5 December 2006). "Wyoming wins over Michigan job seekers". USA Today. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Walsh, Tom (10 April 2011). "MichAgain program aims to return talented people, investments to Michigan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Kenneth, Rapoza (19 February 2013). "Chinese Migrant Workers Enticed To Stay Home". Forbes. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ "China's migrant workers". Wildcat. Winter 2007/08 (80). Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Demick, Barbara (13 June 2011). "China tries to restore order after migrant riots". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 October 2013.  ^ "An International Conference on the Baltic Archives Abroad". Kirmus.ee. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "1959: The Cuban Revolution". Upfront: The Newsmagazine for Teens. Scholastic.  ^ Song, Changzoo (May 2014). "Engaging the diaspora in an era of transnationalism". IZA World of Labor: 1–10.  ^ Sengupta, Kim (16 December 2011). "Will Iraq's 1.3 million refugees ever be able to go home?". The Independent. London.  ^ (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee
Response". Retrieved 15 September 2015.  ^ a b Olivares, Francisco (13 September 2014). "Best and brightest for export". El Universal. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ "Hugo Chavez is Scaring Away Talent". Newsweek. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ "La emigración venezolana a diferencia de otras "se va con un diploma bajo el brazo"". El Impulso. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.  ^ Van Den Bos, Matthijs; Nell, Liza (2006). "Territorial bounds to virtual space: transnational online and offline networks of Iranian and Turkish–Kurdish immigrants in the Netherlands" (PDF). Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs. 6 (2): 201–220. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00141.x. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Chester, Ken (7 August 2013). "How WeChat
And Zalo Shine a Light On The Asian American Diaspora". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ "The Globe: Diaspora
Marketing, Nirmalya Kumar and Jan-Benedict Steenkamp". Harvard Business Review. October 2013.  ^ Peterson-de la Cueva, Lisa (24 November 2008). " Gran Torino
Gran Torino
connects Hmong Minnesotans with Hollywood". Twin Cities Daily Planet. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 


Barclay, John M. G., (ed.), Negotiating Diaspora: Jewish Strategies in the Roman Empire, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004 Baser, B and Swain, A. “Diasporas as Peacemakers: Third Party Mediation in Homeland Conflicts” with Ashok Swain. International Journal on World Peace 25, 3, September 2008. Braziel, Jana Evans. 2008. Diaspora
- an introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Brubaker, Rogers (2005). "The 'diaspora' diaspora" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 28 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1080/0141987042000289997. Retrieved 22 February 2011.  Bueltmann, Tanja, et al. eds. Locating the English Diaspora, 1500-2010 (Liverpool University Press, 2012) Cohen, Robin (2008). Global Diasporas: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-43550-1.  Galil, Gershon, & Weinfeld, Moshe, Studies in Historical Geography and Biblical Historiography: Presented to Zekharyah Ḳalai, BRILL, 2000 Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, People of Palestine (Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2012), ASIN: B0094TU8VY Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African Diaspora
in the Indian Ocean. Trenton: Africa
World Press Kenny, Kevin, Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: a year-by-year history from Creation to the Present, (New updated edition), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1992 Luciuk, Lubomyr, "Searching for Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory," University of Toronto Press, 2000. Oonk, G, 'Global Indian Diasporas: trajectories of migration and theory, Amsterdam University Press, 2007Free download: http://dare.uva.nl/aup/en/record/260518 Shain, Yossi, Kinship and Diasporas in International Politics, Michigan University Press, 2007 Sami Mahroum, Cynthia Eldridge, Abdallah S Daar (2006), Transnational diaspora options: How developing countries could benefit from their emigrant populations. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 2006. S Mahroum, P De Guchteneire (2007), Transnational Knowledge Through Diaspora
Networks-Editorial. International Journal of Multicultural Societies 8 (1), 1-3 Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier, Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005 Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X.  Weinar, Agnieszka (2010). "Instrumentalising diasporas for development: International and European policy discourses". In Bauböck, Rainer; Faist, Thomas. Diaspora
and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp. 73–89. ISBN 90-8964-238-2.  B. Xharra and M. Wählisch, Beyond Remittances: Public Diplomacy and Kosovo's Diaspora, Foreign Policy Club, Pristina (2012), http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2108317. Weheliye, Alexander G. "My Volk to Come: Peoplehood in Recent Diaspora Discourse and Afro-German Popular Music." Black Europe
and the African Diaspora. Ed. Darlene Clark. Hine, Trica Danielle. Keaton, and Stephen Small. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2009. 161-79. Print.

Further reading[edit]

Gewecke, Frauke. "Diaspora" (2012). University Bielefeld - Center for InterAmerican Studies.

External links[edit]

Look up diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to diasporas.

Livius.org: Diaspora http://dare.uva.nl/aup/en/record/260518 Open access book on Diasporas Integration: Building Inclusive Societies (IBIS) UN Alliance of Civilizations online community on Good Practices of Integration of Migrants across the World Diasporic Trajectories: Transnational Cultures in the 21st Century Podcast playlist of a seminar series held in 2015 at the University of Edinburgh, School of Literatures, Lang