DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM (sometimes abbreviated DIAMAT) is a
philosophy of science and nature , based on the writings of Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels , and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet
Union . Inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical
traditions, it accepts evolution of the natural world and the
emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution. As Z.
A. Jordan notes, "Engels made constant use of the metaphysical insight
that the higher level of existence emerges from and has its roots in
the lower; that the higher level constitutes a new order of being with
its irreducible laws; and that this process of evolutionary advance is
governed by laws of development which reflect basic properties of
'matter in motion as a whole'."
The formulation of the Soviet version of dialectical and historical
materialism in the 1930s by
Joseph Stalin and his associates (such as
in Stalin's book Dialectical and Historical
Materialism ) became the
"official" Soviet interpretation of
Marxism . It was codified and
popularized in text books which were required reading in the Soviet
Union as well as some Eastern European countries. It was exported to
China as the "official" interpretation of
Marxism but has since been
widely rejected in
China in the Soviet formulation.
A Soviet philosophical encyclopedia of the 1960s speaks of the
evolution of complexity in nature as follows: "This whole series of
forms (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological and social) is
distributed according to complexity from lower to higher. This
seriation expresses their mutual bonds in terms of structure and in
terms of history. The general laws of the lower forms of the motion of
matter keep their validity for all the higher forms but they are
subject to the higher laws and do not have a prominent role. They
change their activity because of changed circumstances. Laws can be
general or specific, depending on their range of applicability. The
specific laws fall under the special sciences and the general laws are
the province of diamat." Each level of matter exists as a type of
organization, in which the elements that make up a whole, or system,
are marked by a specific type of interconnection.
* 1 The term
* 2 Historical background
* 3 Marx\'s dialectics
* 4 Engels\'s dialectics
* 5 Lenin\'s contributions
* 6 Lukács\'s contributions
* 7 Stalin\'s contributions
* 8 Mao\'s contributions
* 9 As a heuristic in biology and elsewhere
* 10 Philosophical evaluations
* 11 See also
* 12 Further reading
* 13 References
The term dialectical materialism was coined in 1887 by Joseph
Dietzgen , a socialist tanner who corresponded with Marx, during and
after the failed 1848 German Revolution . As a philosopher, Dietzgen
had constructed the theory of dialectical materialism independently of
Marx and Engels. Casual mention of the term dialectical materialism
is also found in the biography Frederick Engels, by philosopher Karl
Kautsky , written in the same year. Marx himself had talked about the
"materialist conception of history", which was later referred to as
"historical materialism " by Engels. Engels further exposed the
"materialist dialectic" in his
Dialectics of Nature in 1883. The term
dialectical materialism was never used either by Marx or Engels,
Georgi Plekhanov , the father of Russian Marxism, later
introduced the term dialectical materialism to Marxist literature.
Joseph Stalin further delineated and defined dialectical and
historical materialism as the world outlook of Marxism-
Leninism , and
as a method to study society and its history.
Marx and Engels each began their adulthood as
Young Hegelians , one
of several groups of intellectuals inspired by the philosopher Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . Marx's doctoral thesis, The Difference
Between the Democritean and Epicurean
Nature , was
concerned with the atomism of
Democritus , which is
considered the foundation of materialist philosophy. Marx was also
Lucretius 's theory of clinamen . Marx and Engels both
concluded that Hegelian philosophy, at least as interpreted by their
former colleagues, was too abstract and was being misapplied in
attempts to explain the social injustice in recently industrializing
countries such as
France , and the
United Kingdom , which
was a growing concern in the early 1840s.
In contrast to the conventional Hegelian dialectic of the day, which
emphasized the idealist observation that human experience is dependent
on the mind's perceptions, Marx developed Marxist dialectics , which
emphasized the materialist view that the world of the concrete shapes
socioeconomic interactions and that those in turn determine
sociopolitical reality. Whereas some Hegelians blamed religious
alienation (estrangement from the traditional comforts of religion)
for societal ills, Marx and Engels concluded that alienation from
economic and political autonomy , coupled with exploitation and
poverty , was the real culprit. In keeping with dialectical ideas,
Marx and Engels thus created an alternative theory, not only of why
the world is the way it is, but also of which actions people should
take to make it the way it ought to be. In
Theses on Feuerbach
Theses on Feuerbach (1845),
Marx wrote, "The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in
various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Dialectical
materialism is thus closely related to Marx's and Engels's historical
materialism (and has sometimes been viewed as synonymous with it).
Marx rejected the language of "thesis, antithesis, synthesis ".
Dialectical materialism is an aspect of the broader subject of
materialism , which asserts the primacy of the material world: in
short, matter precedes thought.
Materialism is a realist philosophy of
science, which holds that the world is material; that all phenomena
in the universe consist of "matter in motion," wherein all things are
interdependent and interconnected and develop according to natural law
; that the world exists outside us and independently of our perception
of it; that thought is a reflection of the material world in the
brain, and that the world is in principle knowable. Marx criticized
classical materialism as another idealist philosophy—idealist
because of its transhistorical understanding of material contexts. The
Ludwig Feuerbach had rejected Hegel's idealistic
philosophy and advocated materialism. Despite being strongly
influenced by Feuerbach, Marx rejected Feuerbach's version of
materialism as inconsistent. The writings of Engels, especially
Anti-Dühring (1878) and
Dialectics of Nature (1875–82), were the
source of the main doctrines of dialectical materialism.
The concept of dialectical materialism emerges from statements by
Marx in the second edition postface to his magnum opus, Capital .
There Marx says he intends to use Hegelian dialectics but in revised
form. He defends Hegel against those who view him as a "dead dog" and
then says, "I openly avowed myself as the pupil of that mighty thinker
." Marx credits Hegel with "being the first to present form of
working in a comprehensive and conscious manner". But he then
criticizes Hegel for turning dialectics upside down: "With him it is
standing on its head. It must be turned right side up again, if you
would discover the rational kernel within the mystical shell."
Marx's criticism of Hegel asserts that Hegel's dialectics go astray
by dealing with ideas, with the human mind. Hegel's dialectic, Marx
says, inappropriately concerns "the process of the human brain"; it
focuses on ideas. Hegel's thought is in fact sometimes called
DIALECTICAL IDEALISM. Marx believed that dialectics should deal not
with the mental world of ideas but with "the material world", the
world of production and other economic activity.
For Marx, human history cannot be fitted into any neat a priori
schema. He explicitly rejects the idea of Hegel's followers that
history can be understood as "a person apart, a metaphysical subject
of which real human individuals are but the bearers". To interpret
history as though previous social formations have somehow been aiming
themselves toward the present state of affairs is "to misunderstand
the historical movement by which the successive generations
transformed the results acquired by the generations that preceded
them". Marx's rejection of this sort of teleology was one reason for
his enthusiastic (though not entirely uncritical) reception of
Darwin's theory of natural selection.
For Marx, dialectics is not a formula for generating predetermined
outcomes, but is a method for the empirical study of social processes
in terms of interrelations, development, and transformation. In his
introduction to the Penguin edition of Marx's Capital, Ernest Mandel
writes, "When the dialectical method is applied to the study of
economic problems, economic phenomena are not viewed separately from
each other, by bits and pieces, but in their inner connection as an
integrated totality, structured around, and by, a basic predominant
mode of production."
Marx's own writings are almost exclusively concerned with
understanding human history in terms of systemic processes, based on
modes of production (broadly speaking, the ways in which societies are
organized to employ their technological powers to interact with their
material surroundings). This is called HISTORICAL MATERIALISM. More
narrowly, within the framework of this general theory of history, most
of Marx's writing is devoted to an analysis of the specific structure
and development of the capitalist economy.
For his part, Engels applies a "dialectical" approach to the natural
world in general, arguing that contemporary science is increasingly
recognizing the necessity of viewing natural processes in terms of
interconnectedness, development, and transformation. Some scholars
have doubted that Engels's "dialectics of nature" is a legitimate
extension of Marx's approach to social processes. Other scholars
have argued that despite Marx's insistence that humans are natural
beings in an evolving, mutual relationship with the rest of nature,
Marx's own writings pay inadequate attention to the ways in which
human agency is constrained by such factors as biology, geography, and
Engels postulated three laws of dialectics from his reading of
Logic . Engels elucidated these laws as the
MATERIALIST DIALECTIC in his work Dialectics of Nature:
* The law of the unity and conflict of opposites
* The law of the passage of quantitative changes into qualitative
* The law of the negation of the negation
The first law, which originates with the ancient Ionian philosopher
Heraclitus , was seen by both Hegel and
Vladimir Lenin as the central
feature of a dialectical understanding of things:
It is in this dialectic as it is here understood, that is, in the
grasping of oppositions in their unity, or of the positive in the
negative, that speculative thought consists. It is the most important
aspect of dialectic. — Hegel,
Science of Logic, § 69, (p 56 in
the Miller edition)
The splitting of a single whole and the cognition of its
contradictory parts is the essence (one of the "essentials", one of
the principal, if not the principal, characteristics or features) of
dialectics. That is precisely how Hegel, too, puts the matter.
— Lenin's Collected Works VOLUME 38, p359: On the question of
The second law Hegel took from Ancient Greek philosophers, notably
the paradox of the heap , and explanation by Aristotle, and it is
equated with what scientists call phase transitions . It may be traced
to the ancient Ionian philosophers, particularly Anaximenes from
whom Aristotle, Hegel, and Engels inherited the concept. For all these
authors, one of the main illustrations is the phase transitions of
water. There has also been an effort to apply this mechanism to social
phenomena, whereby population increases result in changes in social
structure. The law of the passage of quantitative changes into
qualitative changes can also be applied to the process of social
change and class conflict.
The third law, "negation of the negation", originated with Hegel.
Although Hegel coined the term "negation of the negation", it gained
its fame from Marx's using it in Capital. There Marx wrote this: "The
knell of capitalist private property sounds. The expropriators are
expropriated. The capitalist mode of appropriation, the result of the
capitalist mode of production, produces capitalist private property.
This is the first negation of individual private property. ... But
capitalist production begets, with the inexorability of a law of
Nature, its own negation. It is the negation of negation."
In drawing up these laws, Engels presupposes a holistic approach
outlined above and in Lenin's three elements of dialectic below, and
emphasizes elsewhere that all things are in motion. The discovery
that heat was actually the movement of atoms or molecules was the very
latest science of the period in which Engels was writing.
Z. A. Jordan notes, "Engels made constant use of the metaphysical
insight that the higher level of existence emerges from and has its
roots in the lower; that the higher level constitutes a new order of
being with its irreducible laws; and that this process of evolutionary
advance is governed by laws of development which reflect basic
properties of 'matter in motion as a whole'."
After reading Hegel's
Logic in 1914,
Lenin made some brief
notes outlining three "elements" of logic. They are:
* The determination of the concept out of itself ;
* The contradictory nature of the thing itself (the other of
itself), the contradictory forces and tendencies in each phenomenon;
* The union of analysis and synthesis.
Lenin develops these in a further series of notes, and appears to
argue that "the transition of quantity into quality and vice versa" is
an example of the unity and opposition of opposites expressed
tentatively as "not only the unity of opposites, but the transitions
of every determination, quality, feature, side, property into every
Also, in his essay "On the Question of Dialectics",
Lenin stated that
"Development is the "struggle" of opposites." He stated that "The
unity (coincidence, identity, equal action) of opposites is
conditional, temporary, transitory, relative. The struggle of mutually
exclusive opposites is absolute, just as development and motion are
Materialism and Empiriocriticism (1908),
DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM as three axes: (i) the materialist inversion
of Hegelian dialectics, (ii) the historicity of ethical principles
ordered to class struggle , and (iii) the convergence of "laws of
evolution " in physics (
Helmholtz ), biology (Darwin ), and in
political economy (Marx). Hence,
Lenin was philosophically positioned
Marxism (Labriola ) and determinist Marxism—a
political position close to "social Darwinism " (Kautsky). Moreover,
late century discoveries in physics (x-rays , electrons ), and the
beginning of quantum mechanics , philosophically challenged previous
conceptions of matter and materialism , thus
Matter seemed to be
Matter disappears' means that the limit within which we have
hitherto known matter disappears, and that our knowledge is
penetrating deeper; properties of matter are disappearing that
formerly seemed absolute, immutable, and primary, and which are now
revealed to be relative and characteristic only of certain states of
matter. For the sole 'property' of matter, with whose recognition
philosophical materialism is bound up, is the property of being an
objective reality, of existing outside of the mind.
Lenin was developing the work of Engels, who said that "with each
epoch-making discovery, even in the sphere of natural science ,
materialism has to change its form." One of Lenin's challenges was
distancing materialism, as a viable philosophical outlook, from the
"vulgar materialism" expressed in the statement "the brain secretes
thought in the same way as the liver secretes bile" (attributed to
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis , 1757–1808);
"metaphysical materialism" (matter composed of immutable particles);
and 19th-century "mechanical materialism" (matter as random molecules
interacting per the laws of mechanics). The philosophic solution that
Lenin (and Engels) proposed was "dialectical materialism", wherein
matter is defined as OBJECTIVE REALITY, theoretically consistent with
(new) developments occurred in the sciences.
Lenin reassessed Feuerbach 's philosophy and concluded that it is in
line with dialectical materialism.
György Lukács , minister of Culture in the brief Béla Kun
government of the
Hungarian Soviet Republic
Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919), published History
Consciousness (1923), in which he defined DIALECTICAL
MATERIALISM as the knowledge of society as a whole, knowledge which,
in itself, was immediately the class consciousness of the proletariat.
In the first chapter "What is Orthodox Marxism?", Lukács defined
ORTHODOXY as fidelity to the "Marxist method", not fidelity to
Orthodox Marxism, therefore, does not imply the uncritical acceptance
of the results of Marx's investigations. It is not the "belief" in
this or that thesis, nor the exegesis of a "sacred" book. On the
contrary, orthodoxy refers exclusively to method. It is the scientific
conviction that dialectical materialism is the road to truth, and that
its methods can be developed, expanded, and deepened, only along the
lines laid down by its founders. (§1)
In his later works and actions, Lukács became a leader of Democratic
Marxism . In the 1960s his associates, which became known as the
Budapest School . He and his associates became sharply critical of the
formulation of dialectical materialism in the
Soviet Union that was
exported to those countries under its control. He modified many of his
formulations in his 1923 works and went on to develop a Marxist
ontology and played an active role in democratic movements in Hungary
in 1956 and the 1960s.
Lukács philosophical criticism of
Marxist revisionism proposed an
intellectual return to Marxist method. As did
Louis Althusser , who
Marxism and psychoanalysis as "conflictual sciences";
that political factions and revisionism are inherent to Marxist theory
and political praxis, because dialectical materialism is the
philosophic product of class struggle :
For this reason, the task of orthodox Marxism, its victory over
Revisionism and utopianism can never mean the defeat, once and for
all, of false tendencies. It is an ever-renewed struggle against the
insidious effects of bourgeois ideology on the thought of the
proletariat. Marxist orthodoxy is no guardian of traditions, it is the
eternally vigilant prophet proclaiming the relation between the tasks
of the immediate present and the totality of the historical process.
Moreover, "the premise of dialectical materialism is, we recall: 'It
is not men's consciousness that determines their existence, but, on
the contrary, their social existence that determines their
consciousness'. ... Only when the core of existence stands revealed as
a social process can existence be seen as the product, albeit the
hitherto unconscious product, of human activity". (§5)
Philosophically aligned with Marx is the criticism of the
individualist , bourgeois philosophy of the subject , which is founded
upon the voluntary and conscious subject . Against said ideology is
the primacy of social relations. Existence — and thus the world —
is the product of human activity; but this can be seen only by
accepting the primacy of social process on individual consciousness.
This type of consciousness is an effect of ideological mystification.
Yet, at the 5th Congress of the Communist International (July 1924),
Grigory Zinoviev formally denounced Lukács's heterodox definition of
ORTHODOX MARXISM as exclusively derived from fidelity to the "Marxist
method", and not to Communist party dogmas; and denounced the Marxism
developments of the German theorist
Karl Korsch .
In the 1930s
Joseph Stalin and his associates formulated a version of
dialectical and historical materialism that became the "official"
Soviet interpretation of Marxism. It was codified in Stalin's work,
Dialectical and Historical
Materialism (1938), and popularized in text
books used for compulsory education within the
Soviet Union and
Eastern Bloc . It was exported to
China as the
"official" interpretation of
Marxism but has since then been widely
China in its Soviet formulation.
On Contradiction (1937), Mao outlined a version of dialectical
materialism that subsumed two of Engels's three principal laws of
dialectics, "the transformation of quantity into quality" and "the
negation of the negation" as sub-laws (and not principal laws of their
own) of the first law, "the unity and interpenetration of opposites".
AS A HEURISTIC IN BIOLOGY AND ELSEWHERE
Historian of science
Loren Graham has detailed at length the role
played by dialectical materialism in the
Soviet Union in disciplines
as diverse as biology, psychology, chemistry, cybernetics, quantum
mechanics, and cosmology. He has concluded that, despite the Lysenko
period in genetics and constraints on free inquiry imposed by
political authorities, dialectical materialism had a positive
influence on the work of many Soviet scientists.
Some evolutionary biologists, such as
Richard Lewontin and the late
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould , have tried to employ dialectical materialism in
their approach. They view dialectics as playing a precautionary
heuristic role in their work. From Lewontin's perspective, we get this
Dialectical materialism is not, and never has been, a programmatic
method for solving particular physical problems. Rather, a dialectical
analysis provides an overview and a set of warning signs against
particular forms of dogmatism and narrowness of thought. It tells us,
"Remember that history may leave an important trace. Remember that
being and becoming are dual aspects of nature. Remember that
conditions change and that the conditions necessary to the initiation
of some process may be destroyed by the process itself. Remember to
pay attention to real objects in time and space and not lose them in
utterly idealized abstractions. Remember that qualitative effects of
context and interaction may be lost when phenomena are isolated". And
above all else, "Remember that all the other caveats are only
reminders and warning signs whose application to different
circumstances of the real world is contingent."
Gould shared similar views regarding a heuristic role for dialectical
materialism. He wrote that "dialectical thinking should be taken more
seriously by Western scholars, not discarded because some nations of
the second world have constructed a cardboard version as an official
political doctrine". Furthermore,
when presented as guidelines for a philosophy of change, not as
dogmatic precepts true by fiat, the three classical laws of dialectics
embody a holistic vision that views change as interaction among
components of complete systems, and sees the components themselves not
as a priori entities, but as both products and inputs to the system.
Thus, the law of "interpenetrating opposites" records the inextricable
interdependence of components: the "transformation of quantity to
quality" defends a systems-based view of change that translates
incremental inputs into alterations of state; and the "negation of
negation" describes the direction given to history because complex
systems cannot revert exactly to previous states.
This heuristic was also applied to the theory of punctuated
equilibrium proposed by
Niles Eldredge and Gould. They wrote that
"history, as Hegel said, moves upward in a spiral of negations", and
that "punctuated equilibria is a model for discontinuous tempos of
change (in) the process of speciation and the deployment of species in
geological time." They noted that "the law of transformation of
quantity into quality", "holds that a new quality emerges in a leap as
the slow accumulation of quantitative changes, long resisted by a
stable system, finally forces it rapidly from one state into another",
a phenomenon described in some disciplines as a paradigm shift . Apart
from the commonly cited example of water turning to steam with
increased temperature, Gould and Eldredge noted another analogy in
information theory , "with its jargon of equilibrium, steady state,
and homeostasis maintained by negative feedback ", and "extremely
rapid transitions that occur with positive feedback ".
Lewontin, Gould and Eldredge were thus more interested in dialectical
materialism as a heuristic, than a dogmatic form of 'truth' or a
statement of their politics. Nevertheless, they found a readiness for
critics to "seize upon" key statements and portray punctuated
equilibrium, and exercises associated with it, such as public
exhibitions, as a "Marxist plot".
Some critics argue against dialectical materialism on account of its
adherence to a purely materialist worldview, while others have
objections to the dialectic method it employs. There are critics, such
as the Marxist
Alain Badiou , who dispute the way the concept is
Joseph Needham , an influential historian of science and
a Christian who nonetheless was an adherent of dialectical
materialism, suggested that a more appropriate term might be
Leszek Kołakowski , writing in Main
Marxism (1976), argued that dialectical materialism
consists partly of "truisms with no specific Marxist content", partly
of "philosophical dogmas", partly of nonsense, and partly of
statements that—depending on how they are interpreted—could be any
of these things.
Max Eastman argued that dialectical materialism
lacks a psychological basis.
Philosopher Allen Wood argued that, in its form as an official Soviet
philosophy, dialectical materialism was doomed to be superficial
because "creativity or critical thinking" were impossible in an
authoritarian environment. Nevertheless, he considered the basic aims
and principles of dialectical materialism to be in harmony with
rational scientific thought.
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* ^ Paul Thomas, "Marx and Science", Political Studies 24 (1976),
* ^ Terrell Carver, Engels: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2003).
* ^ Sebastiano Timpanaro, On
Materialism (London: NLB, 1975).
* ^ Ted Benton, ed., The Greening of
Marxism (New York: Guilford
* ^ Engels, F. (7th ed., 1973). Dialectics of nature (Translator,
Clements Dutt). New York: International Publishers. (Original work
published 1940). See also Dialectics of Nature
* ^ cf, for instance. \'The Doctrine of Flux and the Unity of
Opposites\' in the \'Heraclitus\' entry in the Internet Encyclopedia
* ^ "The sudden conversion into a change of quality of a change
which was apparently merely quantitative had already attracted the
attention of the ancients who illustrated in popular examples the
contradiction arising from ignorance of this fact; they are familiar
under the names of 'the bald' and 'the heap'. These elenchi are,
according to Aristotle's explanation, ways in which one is compelled
to say the opposite of what one had previously asserted..."
Science of Logic, § 718ff, (p 335 in the Miller edition. See
also pp. 368–70.)
* ^ c.f. a fascination with transitions between rarefaction and
condensation . Guthrie, W.K.C. "The Milesians: Anaximenes". A History
of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. 116.
* ^ Carneiro, R.L. (2000). The transition from quantity to quality:
A neglected causal mechanism in accounting for social evolution.
Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 97, No. 23, pp.
* ^ Marx, Capital, ch. 32, 837.
* ^ Biel,R. and Mu-Jeong Kho (2009)"The Issue of Energy within a
Dialectical Approach to the Regulationist Problematique", Recherches &
Régulation Working Papers, RR Série ID 2009-1, Association Recherche
">(PDF). Recherche & Régulation. 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
* ^ "Lenin\'s Summary of Hegel\'s Dialectics (Lenin\'s Collected
Works Vol. 38, pp. 221–222)". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
* ^ Lenin, Vladimir. "On the Question of Dialectics".
* ^ Frederick Engels. "
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical
German Philosophy". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
Louis Althusser , "Marx and Freud", in Writings on
Psychoanalysis, Stock/IMEC, 1993 (French edition)
* ^ Loren R. Graham, Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior in the
Soviet Union (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).
* ^ Beatty, J. (2009). "Lewontin, Richard". In Michael Ruse &
Joseph Travis. Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 685.
ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link )
* ^ Gould, Stephen Jay (1990). "Nurturing Nature". In …. An
Urchin in the Storm: Essays About Books and Ideas. London: Penguin. p.
* ^ Gould, S. J. (1990), p.154
* ^ Gould, Stephen Jay, & Eldredge, Niles (1977). "Punctuated
equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered."
Paleobiology 3 (2): 115–151. (p.145)
* ^ Gould, S. J., ">"". In Brockman, J. The Third Culture. New
York: Simon and Schuster. p. 60. ISBN 0-684-80359-3 .
* ^ Gould, Stephen Jay (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary
Theory. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-674-00613-5 . In his account of one ad
hominem absurdity, Gould states on p. 984 "I swear that I do not
exaggerate" regarding the accusations of a Marxist plot.
* ^ Zizek, Slavoj (2013). Less Than Nothing. New York: Verso. ISBN
9781844678976 . p.44
* ^ Joseph Needham, Moulds of Understanding (London: George Allen &
Unwin, 1976), p. 278.
* ^ Kołakowski, Leszek (2005). Main Currents of Marxism. New York:
W. W. Norton and Company. p. 909. ISBN 9780393329438 .
* ^ Oehler, Hugo (1941). Dialectical Materialism. Chicago: Demos
* ^ Ghosh, Shibdas. "Some Aspects of
Marxism and Dialectical
* ^ Ghosh, Shibdas. "On Theory of Knowledge, Dialectical
Materialism, and the Revolutionary Life".
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