DHARWAD DISTRICT is an administrative district of the state of
Karnataka in southern
Dharwad is the cultural headquarters of
The administrative headquarters of the district is the town of
Dharwad , also known as Dharwar.
Dharwad is famous for its Dharwad
Peda – a milk based sweetmeat.
Dharwad is the administrative seat of
the district of the same name. The municipality (resulting from a
merger with neighbouring
Hubli in 1961) covers 191 km2.
located 425 km northwest of
Bangalore and 421 km south of Pune, on the
main highway between
Pune in Maharashtra. KREIS North
Unit of National Projects Construction Corporation has its
Karnataka High Court circuit Bench is also based
Before 1997 the district had an area of 13738 km2. In 1997, the new
Haveri were created out of Dharwad's former
territory, and a portion of
Dharwad district was combined with lands
formerly part of three other districts to create the new district of
Davanagere. District map
* 1 History
* 2 Geographical features
* 3 Notable people
* 4 Education
* 5 Important industrial centre
* 6 Transportation
* 7 Demographics
* 8 Culture
* 9 Tourism
* 10 Rich Folk Heritage
* 11 People, Language,Customs
* 12 Agriculture and commerce
* 13 Commercial centre
* 14 Administrative divisions
* 14.1 Hubli-
Dharwad Municipal Corporation
* 15 See also
* 16 References
* 17 External links
The word "Dharwad" means a place of rest in a long travel or a small
habitation. For centuries,
Dharwad acted as a gateway between the
Malenadu region and the plains, and it became a resting place for
travellers. The name is derived from the Sanskrit word 'dwarawata',
'dwara' meaning "door" and 'wata' or 'wada'meaning "town".
Another theory is that during the
Vijayanagara rule of
was a ruler by name "of Dharav" (1403), and
Dharwad got its name from
him. There are some inscriptions that refer to
Dharwad as Kampana
Inscriptions found near Durga Devi temple in Narendra (a nearby
village) and RLS High School date back to the 12th century and have
references to Dharwad. This makes
Dharwad at least 900 years old.
Also, there is an inscription at Hanuman Temple at Bokyapur lake near
Garag (a village about 18 km from Dharwad).
The Chalukyas ruled
Dharwad during the 12th century. A stone
inscription indicates that there was a ruler by the name of
BhaskaraDeva in 1117. In the 14th century, the district was first
overrun by the
Bahmani Sultanate , after which it was annexed to the
Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar , an official of which
named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at
Dharwad town in 1403. After the defeat of the king of Vijayanagar at
Dharwad was for a few years practically independent
Hindu governor; but in 1573 the fort was captured by the
sultan of Bijapur ,
Adil Shah , and
Dharwad was annexed to his
Adil Shah built a fort in an area later called MannaKille,
and later Nazratabad. With this fort, the strategic importance of
Dharwad increased and it thus attracted the attention of subsequent
Shivaji , Aurangzeb's son Mu Azam,
Balaji Baji Rao ,
Hyder Ali ,
Tipu Sultan and finally the
In 1685, the fort was taken by the Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb , and
Dharwad, on the break-up of the Mughal empire, fell under the sway of
Pune . In 1764, the province was overrun by
Hyder Ali of the
Mysore , who in 1778 captured the fort of Dharwad.
The fort was retaken in 1791 by the Marathas. After the final defeat
Peshwa by the British in 1818, Dharwar was incorporated into
the territory of the British East
India Company 's
Bombay Presidency .
During the early 19th century, when the British were expanding their
domains, they faced a lot of opposition from local rulers, including
Baba Saheb of Naragund and
Kittur Rani Chennamma .
A JAHAGIRDAR (BAAD) on the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat(The
aristocracy are, generally, people that a particular social order
considers in the highest social class of that society.), typically
hereditary, who held enormous tracts of land and held control over his
peasants, from whom the Jahagirdars reserved the right to collect tax
(often for military purposes). Over time, they took princely and royal
titles such as "Raja (King), Nawab (Lord), Mirza (Prince)," and many
others. Although JAHAGIRDAR were considered to be equivalent to lords
and barons in some cases they were seen as independent, sovereign
princes. Often JAHAGIRDAR were Indian princes who lost their
sovereignty due to British Rule. The predominant form of feudal
landownership in Mogul
India from the 16th to the 18th century. The
owner (JAHAGIRDAR) received a share of the state land tax from the
jagir. In return he was obligated to maintain a hired cavalry
detachment. The average jagir was immense—approximately 500,000
hectares ( 50 to 150 villages). The Great Moguls, fearing the
separatist tendencies of the Jahagirdars, often transferred them from
one jagir to another. In the 17th century the jagir system began
evolving into a system of hereditary ownership, which ultimately came
into existence in the 18th century.
Dharwad was the home to the famous freedom fighter and the "Karnataka
Kulapurohit", Sri Alur Venkatrao. It was Sri Alur Venkatrao's work,
Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava', that mooted the idea of unification of
Dharwad was peaceful for most of the late 19th century. During those
times, the British started an English medium school in
1848. Later, in 1863, the Basel Mission organization started another
school. In 1867 the British opened another school, Varmal school,
which later on became known as a training college. In 1883, the
municipality area included Sidapur, Lakamanhalli,
Bagtalan, Madihal, Galaganjikop, Malapur, Kamalapur, Narayanpur,
Saptapur, Atti kolla and Hosayellapur. The British government also
established a railway station in 1888.
The town had a station on the Southern
Maratha Railway . By 1901, the
town had a population of 31,279 and was home to several cotton gina ,
a cotton mill, and two high schools, one maintained by the government
and the other by the Basel German Mission.
After India's independence in 1947, the
Bombay Presidency was
reconstituted as India's Bombay State. In 1956 the southern, Kannada
-speaking districts of Bombay State, including Dharwad, were added to
Mysore and renamed
Karnataka in 1972.
Dharwad is home to the Karnatak
University and the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS) as well
as numerous other colleges.
Dharwad had a population of 47,992. In 1961, the town
merged with the adjacent town of
Hubli to become a single
Dharwad . The population of the twin cities is the
second-largest in Karnataka, after
Bangalore . Hubli-Dharwad's
population increased 22.99% between 1981 and 1991, from 527,108 to
648,298, and by 21.2% between 1991 and 2001. In the year 2008, a
Circuit bench of the High Court of
Karnataka was established in
Dharwad.The circuit bench at
Dharwad caters to the
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
0 29 15
0 32 16
10 35 19
40 36 21
60 35 21
150 28 21
210 26 21
200 26 20
110 28 20
60 29 19
30 29 17
0 28 15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
0 85 58
0 89 60
0.4 94 65
1.6 97 69
2.4 94 70
5.9 83 70
8.3 79 70
7.9 78 68
4.3 82 67
2.4 85 66
1.2 84 62
0 83 60
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Dharwad district is situated in the Western sector of the northern
Karnataka State. The District encompasses an area of 4263 km2
lying between the latitudinal parallels of 15°02' and 15°51' North
and longitudes of 73°43' and 75°35' East. The district is bounded on
the North by the District of Belgaum, on the East by the district of
Gadag, on the South
Haveri and on the West by Uttara
All these districts which surround
Dharwad district belong to
Karnataka State itself.
Sub Divisions of District (Taluka's)
The District lies approximately 800 m above the sea level, which is
why it enjoys a moderate and healthy climate. The District may be
divided into 3 natural regions, viz., the Malnad, Semi-Malnad and
Maidan. These regions on an average receive moderate to heavy rainfall
and have dense vegetation. Kalghatagi and Alnavar area in Dharwad
taluka in particular receive more rainfall than other talukas of the
On the agricultural front, the presence of black soil helps in
raising crops like Cotton, Wheat, Ragi, Jowar and Oil seeds and that
of red soil is more suitable for paddy.
Main article: List of people from
* D. C. Pavate
D. R. Bendre
K. S. Amur
G. S. Amur
Venkanna H. Naik
Pandit Mallikarjun Mansoor
Pandit Sawai Gandharva
Pandit Basavaraj Rajguru
Pandit Kumar Gandharva
Pandit Bhimsen Joshi
R. C. Hiremath
Sarojini Mahishi , former Minister in
Indira Gandhi cabinet
Dharwad has been a renowned centre of learning, with many famous high
schools, colleges and universities. List Of Educational Institutions
Dharwad . Marathi was a popular language in
Dharwad until the
middle of the 19th century. Marathi schools Existed. Marathi and
English were used in Govt. offices and court of law. Gradually,
Kannada gained dominance and is the official language today. This
change came about due to the efforts of eminent people like Deputy
Chennabasappa, Artal Rudragouda, Rodda Shrinivas Rao, Sir Siddappa
Kambli, Sakkari Balacharya, R.H. Deshpande, Alur VenkatRao, Kadapa
Raghavendra Rao, Sali Ramachandra Rao and others devoted their life's
time to establish
Kannada as the official and dominant language by
founding schools and colleges, teaching through the medium of Kannada.
The city of
Dharwad presents a good example of a multilingual
The city of
Dharwad is deemed to be the seat of Saraswati because of
the educational institutions, educationists, education loving people
and the atmosphere. Students from all surrounding districts came to
educational purpose. At 8 and 10 in the morning and 12 and 5 in the
afternoon the roads of Dharwad, busses and autorikshas brim with
students. It appears as though the whole of
Dharwad itself is one big
Dharwad has Kannada, English, and Urdu medium schools. We would have
a very brief outline of some of the very outstanding educational
IMPORTANT INDUSTRIAL CENTRE
Hubli is an important industrial centre, with more than 1000 allied
small and medium industries already established. There are machine
tools industries, electrical, steel furnitures, food products, rubber
and leather industries and tanning industries.
With the establishment of:
* Tata Motors Ltd.
* Tata Marcopolo Motors Ltd.
* Telco Construction Equipment Company Limited (Telcon).
* Kirloskar Electrical Co Ltd.
* Microfinish Group of Companies.
* Bhoruka textile Mill.
* NGEF Limited.
Karnataka Milk Federation.
* BDK Group of Industries.
* Murudeshwar Ceramics Ltd.
* Kamat Group of Hotels (Popular group of hotels) started off in
this very city.
* JBM Industries.
* DRT Holidays India.
Hubli – situated in the heart of the City and is promoted
by the Government of
Karnataka IT Department and KEONICS acts as the
modalagency for maintaining and marketing of IT Park Hubli. IT
Park in Hubballi
NWKRTC (North West
Karnataka Road Transport Corporation) is a state
run corporation headquartered at Hubli. There is excellent inter-city
transportation between Hubli, Dharwad, Kalghatgi,
Kundgol as NWKRTC and Bendre Nagara Sarige (a consortium of private
bus-owners) compete to cater to the large number of commuters between
these places daily. Bus services from the twin-cities exist to every
Karnataka and neighbouring states and other popular
destinations. There are many private bus operators who render travel
Mumbai , Goa
and Hyderabad .
Hubli is the Headquarter of South Western Railways Zone of Indian
Railways. Several express and passenger trains ply between
Hubli being an important railway junction has
daily trains to Bangalore,
Delhi , Hyderabad ,
Mysore and weekly services to
SpiceJet provides daily flights to
Bangalore and Mumbai. With
night-landing facilities being constructed at
Hubli Airport, the
traffic is expected to grow.
According to the 2011 census
Dharwad district has a population of
1,846,993, roughly equal to the nation of
Kosovo or the US state of
West Virginia . This gives it a ranking of 256th in
India (out of a
total of 640 ). The district has a population density of 434
inhabitants per square kilometre (1,120/sq mi) . Its population
growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 15.13%.
Dharwad has a sex
ratio of 967 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of
Dharwad region has contributed to some of the greatest exponents
of Hindustani music including
Sawai Gandharva ,
Mallikarjun Mansur ,
Bhimsen Joshi (Died in 2011),
Basavaraj Rajaguru ,
Kumar Gandharva and
Gangubai Hangal .
Dharwad is an unlikely outpost of the
Kirana Gharana . Ustad Abdul
Karim Khan was a frequent visitor to
Mysore Darbar, where he had been
conferred the title of Sangeet Ratna. On the way to Mysore, he used to
stay with his brother in Dharwad, where he taught his most famous
Sawai Gandharva .
Sawai Gandharva in turn was the guru to
Gangubai Hangal ,
Bhimsen Joshi and
Basavaraj Rajaguru .
Jnanpith Award winners
D.R. Bendre ,
V. K. Gokak and Girish Karnad
trace their origins to Dharwad.
Kannada writer and critic, Kirtinath
Kurtakoti winner of Sahitya Akademi, also lived in dharwad for a good
part of his life. One of the greatest Marathi writers, Sahitya Akademi
G. A. Kulkarni also lived most of his life here in
Leena Chandavarkar , famous Hindi actress and wife of late
Kishore Kumar , belongs to this town and still owns property in
Dharwad near the Railway Station. Dattatreya Temple
Nandan Nilekani, the Co-Chairman of Infosys moved in with his uncle's
Dharwad for his education and was a student of St Joseph's
High School. Mr. Nilekani has sponsored the construction of Srijana, a
state-of-the-art auditorium in the Karnatak College premises.
Dharwad has produced eminent legal luminaries like Sanglad J.,
Bannurmath J., A.C. Kabbin J., Mohan Shantangoudar J., B.S.Patil,
Ashok Hinchigeri J., Subhash Adi J., and lawyers like Late Shri
Hiregoudar, C.B Patil, Sharat S. Javali (Supreme Court), Mohan Katarki
Karnataka in the Cauvery Water Dispute).
Uma Shashikant, eminent Investment Advisor and Sucheta Dalal, the
Mumbai-based financial journalist, who exposed the Harshad Mehta
scandal also studied in Dharwad. P B Mahishi, T M Shivkumar, Ganapati
Bhatt, Manish Desai and K Nandini have distinguished themselves in
Civil Service. Lucy D'Abreu (oldest Briton ever) was also born in
Dharwad is also the birthplace of Palwankar Baloo, the first member
Dalit (or "Untouchable") caste to distinguish himself at
cricket , and later to become a political activist for
Sunil Joshi , the Indian cricket bowler, also hails from Dharwar and
is also incidentally related to
Pandit Bhimsen Joshi .
There are many spiritual personalities associated with this sleepy
town. Some of them are Shishunal Sharif Saheb , Siddharoodha
Swamigalu, Kumara Swamiji, Hurakadli Ajja, Mrityunjaya Appagalu,
Mahanta Appagalu, and Garag Madiwaleshwara.
Places of Interest,
Dharwad district has many tourist attractions
including historical temples and other monuments.
* Amminbhavi is about 6 km from
Dharwad , It is famous for 24
Tirthankara Basadi, Hire Matha and cave temple. Hire Matha has the
paintings on a wooden plank those are transferred from
Chandramouleshwara temple at Unkal Hubli-
Amruteshwara Temple at
* CHANDRAMOULESHWARA TEMPLE at Unkal is famous for Historical
Chalukya period Chandramouleshwara
Shiva temple and Unkal
Chandramouleshwara Temple is one of the beautiful temples in
* UNKAL LAKE A pictorial water spot with a magnificent sunset view,
this perfect picnic spot has green garden, recreational facilities for
the children, boating facilities, etc. The lake is 3 km away from
* BHAVANISHANKAR TEMPLE This Chalukyan temple with the image of Sri
Narayana is flanked by the ten incarnations of God.
* ASAR It was built by Mohammed Ali Shah in about 1646 to serve as a
hall of justice. The building was also used to house two hairs from
the Prophet's beard. Women are not allowed inside.
* NRUPATUNGA HILL is a hillock located on the North-Eastern fringe
of Hubli. The top of the hillock offers a pleasing panoramic view of
Hubli city. The span of the panoramic view extends from Amargol in the
North, to the
Airport in the West all the way to the Southern parts of
Hubli. It is a popular location for morning-walkers and especially in
the evenings for the youth of
Hubli to spend time.
Sidharudha Math Old-
* SIDDHARUDHA MATH is the eminent religious institution, a centre of
Advaita philosophy as preached by Swami Siddharudha , is located at
near outskirts of Hubli.
* GLASS HOUSE As the name suggests, this is a palace of glass,
inaugurated by the former Indian Prime Minister, Smt.
Indira Gandhi .
* BANASHANKARI TEMPLE AMARGOL is famous for the Shankarlinga and
Banashankari Temple. It is in between
Dharwad , and near to
* ANNIGERI has many historical temples including Kalyani Chalukya
period Amriteshwara temple. It is about 30 km from
Hubli , between
Shambhulinga temple at
Kundgol , North
Sri Jagadguru Ajaatha Nagalinga Swamy Mutta-Navalagunda
* KUNDGOL is about 15 km from Hubli-
Dharwad . It is famous for
Shambhulinga temple. The great place in history of
Hindustani Music in
Karnataka. It is like University of
Hindustani Music . Birthplace of
Sawai Gandharva .
Pandit Bhimsen Joshi and Gangubai
Hangal learnt Hindustani music here and
Sawai Gandharva was there
Tamboor about 8 km from
Kalghatgi . It is famous for Basavanna
* SHRI BASAVESHWAR TEMPLE is located in Bhogenagarakoppa at a
distance of approximately 14 km from Kalghatagi.
* MAHALAKSHMI TEMPLE
* SHANTINATHA BASADI JAIN TEMPLE
RICH FOLK HERITAGE
* DOLLU KUNITHA
It is a popular drum dance. The large drums are decorated with
coloured cloth, and are slung around the necks of men. The dances are
at times accompanied with songs relating to religious praise or wars.
Veeragase is popular folk dance. It is a symbolic presentation of the
heroism and valour of God Veerabahadhra. Its exponents are called
Lingadevaru and they perform the dance with religious fervour at
festival time especially during the months of Shravana and Kartika.
* NANDIKOLU KUNITHA
This art form is the domain of male devotees of Lord Siva. The Nandi
pole is about 18 cubits in length, each cubit representing a 'dharma'.
The length of the pole is fitted with brass pots and plates, and
ornate silver or brass umbrella at the top with a silk tassel, which
is the flag. The performer on a sling balances the pole; this requires
skill as well as strength. The sight of the devotee's inspired dance,
to the background beat and the resulting symphony of sounds, from the
pots and plates on the pole, is truly breathtaking.
* JODU HALIGE
Halige meaning two percussion instruments used by two artists to
produce rhythmic notes of astounding energy and power. Their movements
along the stage expressive of their physical energy harmonizes with
the notes produced by the instrument. The Haligi (wood) circular in
shape is made of buffalo hide. A short stick is used on it. The notes
combined with the bodily movement pervade the stage and overflow to
* LAMBANI NRUTHYA
Lambani women dressed colourfully and move circularly with clapping
and singing. This dance is out of the common. In dress, mode of living
and dwelling, they dance on important festivities in a free manner.
* VEERABHADRA KUNITHA
The dance form depicts the story of Veerabhadra, the legendary minor
god created by Lord Siva to teach a lesson to his father-in-law
Daksha. Veerabhadra to go to the place of the yaga and destroy the
The folk art forms of
Karnataka need to be revived at the earliest,
failing which they will disappear without a trace. Nowadays there is
no attempt to perform or encourage in North Karnataka, especially with
regard to Doddata, Sannata and Gombeyata.
Kannada is most spoken language in this district. However, Marathi is
also spoken by a sizeable population . The
Kannada spoken here is
known as DHARWAD KANNADA. This slightly varies from
Kannada spoken in
southern Karnataka. Men in rural areas wear headgear called a turban
or Pheta . Also many wear white cap on their head.
AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE
Jowar, maize, wheat, cotton, onions and rice are grown. The district
also grows mangoes, papaya, and bananas as horticultural produce.
There are many subsidiary agricultural industries such as the
production of puffed rice , beaten rice , and edible oils .
Hubli is the main trading centre for agriculture produce. Farmers not
only from Karnataka, but from elsewhere sell their produce here. Hubli
has a large
APMC market at Amargol located between
Hubli and Dharwad.
APMC is an important market for red chillies, onions, rice,
cotton and jowar. Hubli-
Dharwad city has many medium and small sized
industries producing engineering items, electrical goods and
agricultural implements. There are several cotton spinning and ginning
Dharwad District is divided into five talukas :
Navalgund . There are fifty panchayat villages
under the talukas, each of which manages several villages.
HUBLI-DHARWAD MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
Dharwad Municipal Corporation (HDMC) was constituted in the
year 1962 by combining two cities separated by a distance of 20
kilometers. This is a unique experiment in urban development history.
The area of this Corporation is 181.66 km². spread over 45 revenue
villages. The population of the city as per the 1991 Census was 7
Lacs. The present population is around 15 Lacs.
* HUBLI: Under the Government of
India Act of 1850, the
Hubli-Municipal council was established on 15 August 1855.
* DHARWAD: The
Dharwad Municipal Council first came into existence
on 1 January 1856. The first non-official President of the Council was
S.K. Rodda in 1907, and Shri S.V. Mensinkai, was nominated in the
following year. But the credit of being the first elected President
goes to Shri S.G. Karigudari, who took office in 1920.