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The Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
(Urdu: دھرمراجیکہ اسٹوپ‬‎), also referred to as the Great Stupa
Stupa
of Taxila, is a Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa near Taxila, Pakistan. It dates from the 2nd century CE,[1] and was built to house small bone fragments of the Buddha.[2][3] The stupa, along with the large monastic complex that later developed around it, forms part of the Ruins of Taxila
Taxila
- which were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1980.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Destruction 1.2 Excavation

2 Layout

2.1 Core stupa 2.2 Peripheral stupas 2.3 Monasteries

3 Relics

3.1 Bone fragments of the Buddha 3.2 Reliquary vessels

4 Etymology 5 Access 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

History[edit] It has been claimed that that Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
was built over the remains of an ever older stupa that had been built by the Mauryan emperor King Ashoka
Ashoka
in the 3rd century BCE,[1] though other archeologists alternatively suggest that this is unlikely.[5] Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coins found at the site date from the 2nd century BCE, suggesting earliest possible establishment of a religious monument at the site.[5] Small stupas that predate the main stupa are found throughout the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
site, and surrounded an earlier core stupa in an irregular layout.[5] It is known that the earlier core stupa contained a pathway for circumabulation that was made of plaster, and decorated with shell bangles in geometric patterns.[5] The earlier stupa likely had four gates in axial directions.[5] The current stupa was believed to have been established in the 2nd century CE during the Kushan
Kushan
era in order to house relics of the Buddha,[1] which may have been sourced from earlier monuments,[2] and originally buried at the site around 78 CE.[2] Buddhist
Buddhist
texts mention that frankincense was used during religious services at Dharmarajika, while the complex was paved with colourful glass tiles.[6] The site came under control of Persian Sassanid
Sassanid
rule, and suffered a period of stagnation.[5] Large-scale developments took place during the late Kushan
Kushan
and Kidarite
Kidarite
era which added numerous monasteries and stupas to the site. Destruction[edit]

Plan of the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa.

The site was devastated by the White Huns in the 5th century CE, and then abandoned.[3] Subsequent rulers, such as the Hun king Mihirakula, persecuted the region's Buddhists.[5] Under his reign, over a thousand Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries throughout Gandhara are said to have been destroyed.[5] The White Huns destroyed not only Taxilan sites, but also devastated nearby Peshawar. Excavation[edit] The stupa was excavated by Sir John Marshall in 1913. The stupa had been looted several times prior to Marshall's discovery, and was badly damaged.[7] Marshall noted that a large trench, requiring tremendous effort, was built at some point in the past in order to loot the stupa's precious relics.[2] By 1934, enough of the site had been uncovered that the site's scale could be appreciated.[3] Human skeletons were discovered in the open area immediately south of the stupa, and may be the remains of monks who were killed during the invasion of the White Huns. Layout[edit] The location of the stupa and its monastic community about 1 kilometre outside of Sirkap
Sirkap
aligns with ancient Gandharan beliefs that the Buddha
Buddha
recommended monasteries should be neither "too far" nor "too close" to adjacent towns.[7] Three distinctive types of masonry in the buildings around the main stupa suggest the contributions of different periods to the building activity. Core stupa[edit]

The passageway between the main stupa and several smaller stupas was used for the practice of pradakshina.

Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
is the largest of all stupas in the Taxila region,[3] Surrounding the main mound is a passageway for pradakshina — the ancient practice of walking around a holy site. The stupa's large anda, or hemispherical mound, is damaged − though the plinth of the mound, known as the medhi, is still largely intact.[7] The anda mound was made of ashlar stone.[7] The stupa's harmika, or fence like structure built atop the anda mound, has been lost.[7] The stupa's southern gateway was initially considered the most important, though the construction of four smaller stupas (termed G7, G8, S7, Q1) to the west of the stupa indicate that this then likely became the preferred entrance for those performing circambulation.[5] Later constructions around the "Eastern Avenue" then shifted the preferred route for circambulation to the eastern side of the stupa.[5] Before entering the main sacred areas, visitors to the shrine from Sirkap
Sirkap
would pass through a large building, now termed building H, that would openly display relics.[5] Visitors likely venerated the relics at building H before entering the main stupa area.[5] Peripheral stupas[edit]

Chambers containing religious imagery were built along the "Northern Avenue".

The stupa was surrounded by a circle of smaller stupas which were built approximately 200 years after the stupa's construction,[3] and were likely constructed together as part of a project funded by a single patron.[5] Additional stupas were built further along the northern portion of the site by various patrons, and date from the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
period.[3] These stupas form a "Northern Avenue," that had several small shrines with devotional images, rendering the Northern Avenue as a processional corridor.[5] Devotional images were likely relegated to the periphery of the complex due to religious conservatives, who were hesitant to fully embrace the new practice of using imagery in religious practice.[5] Unlike constructions at Sanchi, stupas around the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa were built by individual donors, rather than as part of a communal effort.[8] Monasteries[edit]

Ruins of several monasteries are located around the main stupa.

Early monastic cells near the stupa were built as a row of rooms, with a verandah,[8] The verandah style was later dropped in favour of monastic living quarters surrounding quadrangles that were built immediately north, northeast, and east of the stupa approximately 300 years after the stupa's construction.[3] The northern monastery consisted of two courtyards that were each built around a large stupa.[5] The smaller eastern courtyard is believed to have housed 13 monks.[3] Monastery G, located immediately west of the stupa has at least 50 monastic cells, a stupa, and was likely multistoried.[5] Monastery M in the extreme northwest section of the site, and contained its own stupa in a small courtyard.[5] Monastery M is connected to a long residential monastery,[5] oriented in a roughly north-south direction. At the southern edge of this monastery are the remains of two stupas, now termed E1 and E2.[5] E1 was built in a pre-existing cell, while E2 was a more elaborated stupa that contained a small passageway for circambulation.[5] Neither stupa was likely open to the public.[5] Relics[edit] Bone fragments of the Buddha[edit]

Statuette from the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
site, now displayed at the Guimet Museum in Paris.

The site is famous for its bone relics – thought to be those of the Buddha,[9] Much of the stupa's precious relics had been looted by the time it was discovered by Sir John Marshall.[2] A silver casket containing a silver inscription was recovered from the stupa's chapel after discovery,[2] The inscription is written in the ancient Kharosthi
Kharosthi
script that was once common throughout Gandhara,[3] The inscription states that Urusaka of Noacha placed bone relics of the Buddha
Buddha
in his chapel at Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
in 78 CE.[3] In 2016, 2 bone relics from the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
were sent to Sri Lanka for one month. The relics were displayed at important shrines in Polonnaruwa, Colombo, Kandy, and Anuradhapura, and attracted 9.3 million visitors.[10] Reliquary vessels[edit] 18 reliquary vessels were also recovered from smaller stupas surrounding the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
that yielded a wide array of relics, including one that encased a cylindrical piece of gold.[3] Other reliquaries yielded gold jewelry and precious jewels,[3] while others contained items from distant locations such as lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, pearls, and shells − reflecting the large trade networks operating from Taxila.[3] Several coins of the Indo-Greek king Zoilos II
Zoilos II
were found under the foundation of such a 1st-century BCE stupa.[11] Etymology[edit] The name Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
comes from Dharmaraja, a name given to Buddha who was the true Dharma Raja (Lord of Law), according to Marshall. It is also believed that ‘Dharmarajika’ is derived from the word ‘Dharmaraja’, a title used by Mauryan emperor Ashoka. The stupa is also popularly known as Chir Tope, or "Scarred hill". Access[edit] The Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa
Stupa
lies about 3 kilometers east of the Taxila Museum, along the PMO Colony Road, northeast of Taxila
Taxila
Cantonment. The stupa was located near the ancient city of Sirkap, which also forms part of the Ruins of Taxila. Gallery[edit]

Coins of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
ruler Zoilos II
Zoilos II
were found under a peripheral stupa.

Sculptures from the Dharmarajika
Dharmarajika
Stupa

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dharmarajika, Taxila.

Bhir Mound Jaulian Sirkap Sirsukh Mohra Muradu Taxila Mankiala stupa
Mankiala stupa
-commemorates the spot, where according to the Jataka tales, an incarnation of the Buddha
Buddha
sacrificed himself to feed seven hungry tiger cubs

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Dharmarajika: The Great Stupa
Stupa
of Taxila". GoUNESCO. UNESCO. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e f Scarre, Geoffrey; Coningham, Robin (2013). Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521196062. Retrieved 22 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Higham, Charles (2014). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438109961.  ^ "Taxila". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Behrendt, Kurt A. (2004). Handbuch der Orientalistik. BRILL. ISBN 9789004135956.  ^ The Silk Road in World History. Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780195338102. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e Le, Huu Phuoc (2010). Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture. Grafikol.  ^ a b Insoll, Timothy (2002). Archaeology and World Religion. Routledge. ISBN 9781134597987. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ M. S. Moray (1985). History of Buddhism in Gujarāt. Saraswati Pustak Bhandar. p. 46.  ^ "Sacred Buddha
Buddha
relics returns to Pakistan
Pakistan
after month long exposition in Sri Lanka". Colombo
Colombo
Page. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ Marshall, "Excavations at Taxila", "The only minor antiquities of interest found in this building were twenty-five debased silver coins of the Greek king Zoilus II, which were brought to light beneath the foundations of the earliest chapel", p248

References[edit]

"Taxila" Sir John Marshall

v t e

Archaeological sites of Taxila

Cities

Hathial Bhir Mound Sirkap Sirsukh

Monasteries

Dharmarajika Jaulian Kalawan Mohra Muradu

Temples

Jandial

v t e

List of cultural heritage sites in Punjab, Pakistan

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Lahore Fort Rohtas Fort Shalimar Gardens Taxila

Monuments

Chauburji Dharmarajika Hakimon ka Maqbara House of Abdus Salam, Jhang Mankiala stupa Nicholson's Obelisk Minar-e-Pakistan Islamic Summit Minar

Forts

Derawar Fort Lahore Fort Rawat Fort Rohtas Fort

Gardens

Bagh-e-Jinnah Hazuri Bagh Kamran's Baradari Shalimar Gardens

Tombs

Buddhu's Tomb Cypress Tomb Data Darbar Shrine of Baha'al-Halim Shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari Shrine of Mian Mir Shrine of Nuriya Shrine of Shah Jamal Tomb of Ali Mardan Khan Tomb of Anarkali Tomb of Bibi Jawindi Tomb of Dai Anga Tomb of Jahangir Tomb of Jani Khan Shrine of Khalid Walid Tomb of Lala Rukh Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal Tomb of Nadira Begum Tomb of Nur Jahan Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam

Government buildings

Governor's House Lahore High Court
Lahore High Court
building National College of Arts Quaid-e-Azam Library

Religious buildings

Amb Temples Badshahi Mosque Dai Anga Mosque Data Durbar Complex Gurdwara Janam Asthan Katasraj temple Mariyam Zamani Mosque Neevin Mosque Sacred Heart Cathedral Saleh Kamboh Mosque St. John's Church Multan Eid Gah Mosque Sialkot Cathedral Sunehri Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque

Museums

Javed Manzil Lahore Museum

Other buildings

Shahi Hammam Omar Hayat Mahal

.