Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the
In Jainism, the word _Dharma_ is used to refer the following:
* Religion * Dharma as a dravya (substance or a reality) (the principle of motion) * The true nature of a thing * Ten virtues like forgiveness, etc. also called ten forms of Dharma
* 1 Religion
* 1.1 Ahimsa as Dharma * 1.2 Dharma bhāvanā * 1.3 Conduct
* 2 The nature of a substance * 3 Dharma substance * 4 Samyaktva - Rationality of perception, knowledge and conduct * 5 Ten Virtues as Dharma * 6 References * 7 Sources
Usage of the word _dharma_ in reference to the religion.
AHIMSA AS DHARMA
Main article: Ahimsa in
According to Jain texts, Ahimsa is the greatest Dharma (अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मः : "non-violence is the highest religion") and there is no religion equal to the religion of non-violence.
Jain texts prescribe meditation on twelve forms of reflection (_bhāvanā_) for those who wish to stop the influx of _karmas_ that extend transmigration. One such reflection is _Dharma bhāvanā_-
The faith promulgated by Jina is characterized by non- injury, based on truth, with humility as its root, forbearance as its strength, safeguarded by celibacy, dominated by quietism and characterized by restraint and non-attachment as its support. Without attaining it living beings have been wandering in the beginningless mundane existence, undergoing sufferings and misery owing to the rise of inauspicious karmas. If true faith is attained, one is bound to achieve emancipation, after enjoying several kinds of worldly prosperity and distinction. This is contemplating what is stressed in religion. This promotes constant devotion to religion. (12)
In Jainism, the _dharma_ (conduct or path) of the householder (Śrāvaka ) is distinguished from the conduct of an ascetic. Sravaka-dharma is the religious path for the virtuous householders, where charity and worship are the primary duties. The dharma of a householders consists of observance of twelve vows i.e. five minor vows and seven disciplinary vows. Sramana-dharma is the religious path of the virtuous ascetics, where mediatation and study of scriptures is their primary duty. The religion of monks consists of five _Mahavratas _ or great vows. They are endowed with right faith, right knowledge and right conduct and engaged in complete self-restraint and penances.
THE NATURE OF A SUBSTANCE
According to Jainism, Universe and its constituents are uncreated and
everlasting. These constituents behave according to the natural laws
and their nature without interference from external entities. Dharma
or true religion according to
Dharma is one of the six substances constituting the universe. These
substances are – Dharma (medium of motion), Adharma (medium of
rest), Akasa (space), kala (time),
SAMYAKTVA - RATIONALITY OF PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE AND CONDUCT
According to Jainism, _ Samyak darsana _ (Rational Perception), _Samyak jnana_ (Rational Knowledge) and _Samyak caritra_ (Rational Conduct) collectively also known as _Ratnatraya_ or the "Three Jewels of Jainism" constitute the path to liberation.
SAMYAK DARSANA or rational perception is the rational faith in the true nature of every substances of the universe. SAMYAK JNANA or rational knowledge is the right knowledge of true and relevant knowledge of the reality, the tattvas. It incorporates the two principles of Anekantvada or non-absolutism and Syadvada or relativity of truth. Right knowledge must be free from three main defects: doubt, delusion, and indefiniteness. SAMYAK CARITRA or rational conduct is the natural conduct of a (soul) living being. It consists in following austerities, engaging in right activities and observance of vows, carefulness and controls.
TEN VIRTUES AS DHARMA
According to the Jain text,
* Supreme forgiveness * Supreme humility * Supreme straightforwardness * Supreme truthfulness * Supreme purity * Supreme self-restraint * Supreme penance * Supreme renunciation * Supreme non-possessiveness * Supreme celibacy
* ^ C.R. Jain 1929 , p. 52. * ^ Jain 2012 , p. 154. * ^ Varni, Jinendra; Sagarmal Jain (1993). _Samaṇ Suttaṁ_. T.K. Tukol; K.K. Dixit (trans.). New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. verse 296 * ^ Acarya Haribhadra, Dharmabindu * ^ Varni, Jinendra; Sagarmal Jain (1993). _Samaṇ Suttaṁ_. T.K. Tukol; K.K. Dixit (trans.). New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. Verse 624 * ^ Kuhn, Hermann (2001). _Karma, The Mechanism : Create Your Own Fate_. Wunstorf, Germany: Crosswind Publishing. ISBN 3-9806211-4-6 . * ^ Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). _The Jaina Path of Purification_. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5 . * ^ *Varni, Jinendra; Sagarmal Jain (1993). _Samaṇ Suttaṁ_. T.K. Tukol; K.K. Dixit (trans.). New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. Verse 262 - 4 * ^ Jain 2012 , p. 146. * ^ Varni, Jinendra; Sagarmal Jain (1993). _Samaṇ Suttaṁ_. T.K. Tukol; K.K. Dixit (trans.). New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. verse 84
* Jain, Vijay K. (2012), _Acharya Amritchandra\'s Purushartha Siddhyupaya_, ISBN 9788190363945 * C.R. Jain (1929), _The Practical Dharma_, The Indian Press, Ltd.
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