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THE DHAMMAKAYA MOVEMENT or DHAMMAKAYA TRADITION is a Thai Buddhist tradition which was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
in the early 20th century. It is connected to several temples which refer back to Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen in Bangkok
Bangkok
for their ancestry. The movement practices Dhammakaya meditation (Vijja Dhammakaya), a form of meditation which scholars have linked to the Yogavacara tradition . Central to the movement is the idea that Dhammakaya meditation was the method through which the Buddha became enlightened, a method which was forgotten but has been revived by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro.

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CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Notable Temples

* 2.1 Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen * 2.2 Wat Phra Dhammakaya * 2.3 Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram * 2.4 Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram

* 3 Features

* 3.1 Revivalist school * 3.2 Tantric Theravada
Tantric Theravada
* 3.3 Dhammakaya meditation and True Self * 3.4 Methods of propagation

* 4 The first generation of students

* 4.1 Maechi Thongsuk Samdaengpan * 4.2 Maechi Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong

* 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

Scholars have theorized that The Dhammakaya movement has its roots in the Yogavacara tradition (also known as tantric Theravada). The movement was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
in the early twentieth century. The movement is connected to several temples which refer back to Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen in Bangkok
Bangkok
for their ancestry. Luang Por Dhammajayo and Luang Por Dattajivo , the current abbot and vice-abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya , were students of maechi (nun) Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong
. She in turn was a student of Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro, the meditation master who developed Dhammakaya meditation and the abbot of Wat
Wat
Paknam. Other temples, such as Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram, also have their roots in Wat
Wat
Paknam. After discovering the Dhammakaya meditation approach, Luang Pu Sodh first taught it to others at Wat
Wat
Bangpla, Bang Len District, Nakhon Pathom. When Luang Pu Sodh was given his first position as abbot at Wat Paknam, Dhammakaya meditation has been associated with this temple ever since. Since 1959, Dhammakaya meditation has been taught by Luang Pu Sodh's students at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen, Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, Wat
Wat
Luang Por Sodh Dhammakayaram, and at Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram, as well as the respective branches of these temples. Apart from these temples, there are also several other centers that practice in the tradition of Luang Pu Sodh.

NOTABLE TEMPLES

Newell has pointed out that the term Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
is problematic, because it has been used "without distinguishing between the various temples practising dhammakaya meditation and Wat Dhammakaya itself. (...) There are considerable differences in style, practice and structure of all the temples". She prefers to use the term Dhammakaya temples. She is quoted on this by McDaniel, but he nevertheless uses Dhammakaya Movement. Crosby, on the other hand, uses Dhammakaya network. Thus, scholars have often pointed out the differences and even some dissension among the temples, but it has also been noted that the relation with Somdet Chuang Varapuñño and Wat Phra Dhammakaya has been good. Somdet Chuang has also taken part in establishing Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram. Furthermore, in an interview with a monk from Wat
Wat
Rajorosarama in 2001, it was stated abbot Luang Por Thongdi and abbot of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, Luang Por Dhammajayo, were close friends.

WAT PAKNAM BHASICHAROEN

Main article: Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen

Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen (Thai : วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ) is a royal wat located in Phasi Charoen district, Bangkok, at the Chao Phraya River . Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen is the temple where Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro used to be the abbot, and still is known for its meditation lessons. The temple underwent a major change during the period that Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro became the temple's abbot, from a temple with only thirteen monks that was abandoned, to a prosperous center of education and meditation practice. In 2008, it housed two hundred to four hundred monks, eighty to ninety samanera (young novices) and two hundred to three hundred maechis (nuns). Currently, the temple's abbot is Somdet Chuang Varapuñño, who was Thailand\'s acting Supreme Patriarch (Sangharaja) from 2013 to 2017. In 2015, he was proposed by the Supreme Sangha Council as the new Supreme Patriarch, but the appointment was stalled by the junta , which cited objections by several influential former leaders of the 2014 coup d\'état . The appointment was eventually withdrawn and a monk from the Dhammayuttika Nikaya appointed instead after the junta changed the law to allow the King to appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly, with the Prime Minister countersigning.

WAT PHRA DHAMMAKAYA

Main article: Wat Phra Dhammakaya

Wat Phra Dhammakaya is located in Pathum Thani , north of Bangkok. It was founded by Maechi Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong
and Luang Por Dhammajayo. It is the temple that is most well-known in the Dhammakaya Movement because of its huge size and following, its numerous activities and also its controversies. The temple is popular among the Bangkok
Bangkok
middle class, and organizes many training programs. The temple emphasizes merit-making through meditation, giving and volunteering. As of 2007 , the temple's worldwide following was estimated at one million practitioners. The community living at Wat Phra Dhammakaya numbered more than a thousand monks and novices, and hundreds of full-time lay employees. The temple emphasizes the revival of traditional Buddhist values , but does so through modern methods and technology. The temple emphasizes personal transformation, expressed through its slogan "World Peace through Inner Peace". The temple offers English language retreats and ordinations.

Initially, the temple was founded as a meditation center, after Maechi Chandra and the just ordained monk Luang Por Dhammajayo could no longer accommodate the rising number of participants in their activities at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen . The center became an official temple in 1977. The temple grew exponentially during the 1980s, when the temple's training programs became widely known among the urban middle class. Wat Phra Dhammakaya expanded its area and the building of a huge stupa (pagoda) was started. During the period of the Asian economical crisis, however, the temple became subject to criticism as Luang Por Dhammajayo was charged with embezzlement and removed from his office as abbot. In 2006, he was cleared of these charges and he was restored as abbot. The temple grew further and became known for its activities in education, promotion of ethics, and scholarship projects. Under the 2014 military junta , however, the abbot and the temple were put under scrutiny again and Luang Por Dhammajayo was accused of receiving stolen money through the donations of a supporter.

Wat Phra Dhammakaya emphasizes a culture of making merit through doing good deeds and meditation, as well as an ethical outlook on life. The temple promotes a community of kalyanamittas ('good friends') to accomplish such a culture. Although the temple emphasizes traditional Buddhist values, modern methods of propagation are used, such as a satellite television station and a distance-learning university, as well as modern management methods. In its large temple complex, the temple houses several monuments and memorials, and in its construction designs traditional Buddhist concepts are given modern forms, as the temple envisions itself as a global spiritual center.

WAT RAJORASARAM

See also: Chom Thong District, Bangkok
Bangkok
§ Places Luang Por Thongdi Suratejo from Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama.

Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram (or for short, Wat
Wat
Rajaoros; literally 'the temple of the King's son'), Bang Khun Thian District , Bangkok, originates from the Ayutthaya period . Originally called Wat
Wat
Chomthong, it was a small temple mostly visited by local orchard workers. It later became a royal temple figured in the history of the Chakri dynasty
Chakri dynasty
when Prince Rama III
Rama III
resided and held a ceremony there to prepare for an attack during the Burmese–Siamese Wars . After having spent a while at the temple preparing, the attack did not happen. Nevertheless, Rama III repaid his gratitude to the temple by renovating it from 1817 to 1831, work which he supervised himself. During the renovations, texts about Thai medicine and massage were carved in the temple's walls. This was done in Wat
Wat
Pho as well, making for a total of thousand inscriptions, meant as a storehouse of ancient knowledge which Rama III feared might be lost during the wars. When the renovations were finished, he dedicated the temple to his father Rama II , who renamed the temple " Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram". After Rama III's death, part of his ashes were kept at the temple. The temple is often described as "the temple of King Rama III", citing his stay there during the Burmese–Siamese Wars, and the subsequent construction he started there. However, in reality, Rama III
Rama III
grew up in the area of Wat Chomthong, not in the palace, and was therefore familiar with the temple from his childhood onward.

Following the preferences of Rama III, the temple has an architecture that shows much Chinese influence, which was becoming a fashion at the time. Rama III
Rama III
had an interest in Chinese culture due to his successful trade contacts with the Chinese. The traditional texts about Thai medicine that have been carved in the temple's walls were protected by copyright by the Ministry of Public Health in 2009. There is a monastic school at the temple, as well as a secular state school which is supported by the temple. The latter is one of the last state schools in Thailand still located in a Buddhist temple. In the 1950s, the temple was nearly abandoned and derelict. After the appointment of Luang Por Thongdi Suratejo as abbot in 1982, and with financial help from the government, the temple was greatly renovated.

Although Luang Por Thongdi had been ordained in a temple in Kamphaeng Phet Province , he spent many years at Wat
Wat
Paknam, completing his Pali studies there to the highest level. He held several positions in the Thai Sangha
Sangha
before being appointed as a member of the Supreme Sangha Council in 1992. He is well-known in Thailand for his encyclopedias and books, of which he has published over twenty, under his honorary names. Less well-known is that he contributed to several Tipitaka scripture sets in the original Pali
Pali
and in Thai translation. In an interview with newspaper The Nation
The Nation
in 1997, he expressed concern regarding the problem of lack of education among monks in Thailand, complaining that "people who are considered bright and smart do not want to become monks ".

In 2001, Luang Por Thongdi made headlines when he was suddenly removed from the Sangha
Sangha
Council, because the Supreme Patriarch felt he "acted against the decisions of the council". During that period, Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra
Thaksin Shinawatra
had announced several reforms of the Monastic Act, aiming for a Sangha
Sangha
that is more independent of the government. Luang Por Thongdi expressed his disagreement with the proposed reforms by publishing a book about them, of which 45,000 copies were distributed. He stated the Sangha
Sangha
Council was rash in its decisions, and doubted whether the monastic establishment was ready to be self-reliant. A network ran by scholars and devotees stated the book was inappropriate and they pleaded with the Sangha
Sangha
Council to act. As soon as Luang Por Thongdi was removed from the office, practitioners of Wat Phra Dhammakaya and students of Wat
Wat
Rajaoros' school protested against the decision, but Luang Por Thongdi asked them to stop as to not express contempt of the Supreme Patriarch. Meanwhile, PM Thaksin admitted he was "shocked" by the Supreme Patriarch's decision. Whereas the network of critics stated Luang por Thongdi "always had opposing views" and caused division, the head of the Religious Affairs Department responded "monks should have the right to air their views". An officer of the Ministry of University Affairs stated Luang Por Thongdi was actually open-minded to modern reform, and he wondered whether there were other, undisclosed reasons for the removal. When Luang Por Thongdi himself was asked how he felt about the decision, he replied "We are born in this world without anything . Having been a member of the Sangha
Sangha
Council, I have served Buddhism, which is the highest good in life. (...) The right thing to do is to accept the decision made ". Luang Por Thongdi also clarified that he was not opposed to reform and more independence from the government, but the Sangha
Sangha
should still have an important role in moral education, which he felt was overlooked in the reforms. Despite the removal from the Sangha
Sangha
Council, Luang Por Thongdi received a new honorary name in 2014, as "Phra Maha Pothiwongsacharn".

Apart from traditional yearly ceremonies, there is weekly Dhammakaya meditation at Wat
Wat
Rajaoros, there are training programs for schools, merit release ceremonies, regional training programs for teaching monks, and a regular merit transfer ceremony for Rama III.

WAT LUANG PHOR SODH DHAMMAKAYARAM

Somdet Chuang Varapuñño from Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen presiding over a ceremony.

In 1982, Luang Por Sermchai Jayamangalo and Phra Khru Bart Yanathiro established the Buddhabhavana Vijja Dhammakaya Institute, partly in response to Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya. In 1991, the institute was changed into a temple. It is located in Ratchaburi Province
Ratchaburi Province
, west of Bangkok, and is currently led by Luang Por Sermchai. Luang Por Sermchai was formerly a lay meditation teacher at Wat
Wat
Paknam, as well as a researcher and lecturer. Many of the temple's activities are done in cooperation with Wat
Wat
Saket . Luang Por Sermchai teaches regularly to government departments, companies, and other temples. In 2004, Luang Por Sermchai made headlines when he criticized the government's policy on legalizing gambling during a preaching on a radio program. After some members of the government responded displeased, a screening process for preaching on the radio was established. Luang Por Sermchai defended the radio broadcast, stating that his criticism referred to society in general, not just the government.

In 2006, there were seventy monks and thirty-three novices at the temple. Phra Khru Bart was a western monk who organized exchange student programs and gave meditation instruction and retreats in English language. English instruction is still available, though Phra Khru Bart has now passed away. In Thai language, the temple offers retreats, monastic ordination programs, and study retreats for families. The temple also runs its own school with Pali
Pali
and Dhamma studies.

Apart from an Uposatha
Uposatha
hall, the temple also has a memorial hall in honor of Luang Pu Sodh. In 2006, the temple started building a stupa (mound-like shaped monument). The stupa will be four storeys high, and will contain meditation rooms, Buddha images, and relics . As of 2014 , the stupa was expected to be finished in two years.

FEATURES

REVIVALIST SCHOOL

The stupa at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen .

Despite having been included in the controversial, global Fundamentalism Project studies, many scholars do not regard the movement as a fundamentalistic movement, but rather as a movement with revivalist characteristics. Whether the movement is a new movement is a matter of debate; Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, for one, has specifically stated not to want to start a new fraternity (nikaya) . Central to the movement is the idea that Dhammakaya meditation was the method through which the Buddha became enlightened, a method which was forgotten but has been revived by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro. This method is called Vijja Dhammakaya.

There are multiple temples in the tradition which have expressed opposition to traditional magical rituals, fortune telling and giving lottery numbers. According to the biography by Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, Luang Pu Sodh held similar attitudes. He did, however, often heal people through meditation, and Luang Pu Sodh's amulets were—and are still—widely venerated for their powers. The movement does not oppose miracles that are connected with the practice of meditation.

TANTRIC THERAVADA

Main article: Tantric Theravada
Tantric Theravada

Since the 2000s, new evidence has been brought forward though that Luang Pu Sodh's approach might originate from Yogavacara tradition (also known as tantric Theravada). The Dhammakaya meditation method managed to survive modernization pressures to reform during the twentieth century C.E. and scholars have theorized that there is an ancestry to be found in common with Yogavacara. However, Luang Pu Sodh did prohibit magical practices at Wat
Wat
Paknam, practices which are associated with the Yogavacara tradition. In one biography, he is quoted as saying that magic was not part of the core of the Buddha's teaching. As of 2007 , there was not yet enough evidence to draw any conclusions about the relation between Yogavacara and Dhammakaya.

DHAMMAKAYA MEDITATION AND TRUE SELF

See also: Dhammakaya Meditation and Ātman (Buddhism)
Ātman (Buddhism)

Meditation is at the most important practice of all major temples in the Dhammakaya Movement. It is the concept of Dhammakaya what makes the movement stand out from other forms of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
, as the movement believes that all meditation methods lead to the attainment of the Dhammakaya, and this is the only way to Nirvana
Nirvana
. According to the Dhammakaya Movement, the Buddha made the discovery that nirvana is nothing less than the true Self . The movement calls this true self the Dhammakaya, the spiritual essence. The Movement believes that this essence of the Buddha and Nirvana
Nirvana
exist as a literal reality within each individual. The not-self teaching is considered the method to let go what is not the self, to attain the true self.

According to Paul Williams , in some respects the teachings of the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
resemble the Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
and Trikaya
Trikaya
doctrines of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. He sees the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
as having developed independently of the Mahayana
Mahayana
tathagatagarbha tradition, but as achieving very similar results in their understanding of Buddhism. According to Williams,

meditations involve the realization, when the mind reaches its purest state, of an unconditioned "Dhamma Body" (dhammakaya) in the form of a luminous, radiant and clear Buddha figure free of all defilements and situated within the body of the practitioner. Nirvana is the true Self, and this is also the dhammakaya."

The bulk of Thai Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
rejects this teaching and insists upon non-self as a universal fact. In particular, the Thai scholar-monk Luang Por Payutto has written much to oppose the views of the Dhammakaya Movement. As against this, Luang Por Sermchai argues that it tends to be scholars who hold the view of absolute non-self, rather than Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
practitioners. Also, only the compounded and conditioned is not-self—not nirvana. Williams summarises Luang Por Sermchai's views (here referred to by his former honorific name Phra Rajyanvisith), and adds his own comment at the end:

incline towards a not-Self perspective. But only scholars hold that view. By way of contrast, Phra Rajyanvisith mentions in particular the realizations of several distinguished forest hermit monks. Moreover, he argues, impermanence, suffering and not-Self go together. Anything which is not-Self is also impermanent and suffering. But, it is argued, nirvana is not suffering, nor is it impermanent. It is not possible to have something which is permanent, not suffering (i.e. is happiness) and yet for it still to be not-Self. Hence it is not not-Self either. It is thus (true, or transcendental) Self. These ways of reading Buddhism
Buddhism
in terms of a true Self certainly seem to have been congenial in the East Asian environment, and hence flourished in that context where for complex reasons Mahayana
Mahayana
too found a ready home."

The Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
has responded in different ways to the debate of self and not-self. Apart from Luang Por Sermchai, Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya's assistant-abbot Luang phi Thanavuddho wrote a book about the topic in response to critics. Nevertheless, the movement generally seems not much interested in the discussion. Followers are more concerned how Dhammakaya meditation improves their mind. Apart from the true self, the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
often uses other positive terms to describe Nirvana
Nirvana
as well. Scott notes that the Dhammakaya Movement often explains Nirvana
Nirvana
as being the supreme happiness, and argues that this may explain why the practice of Dhammakaya meditation is so popular.

METHODS OF PROPAGATION

Luang Pu Sodh introduced Dhammakaya meditation, which is the core of the Dhammakaya movement. But besides the technique of meditation itself, the methods through which Luang Pu Sodh taught have also been passed on to the main temples in the movement. The movement has an active style of propagation. Teaching meditation in a group, teaching meditation during ceremonies, teaching meditation simultaneously to monastics and lay people, and teaching one main meditation method to all are features which can be found throughout the movement.

Newell speculates that Luang Pu Sodh was the person who set up the mae chi community at Wat
Wat
Paknam, which is currently one of the largest mae chi communities in Thailand. Although Luang Pu Sodh encouraged women to become mae chis, mae chis did have to spend quite some time doing domestic activities, more so than monks. This orientation echoes in Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya's approach to female spirituality, praising Mae Chi Chandra as an example of a meditation master, but at the same time not supporting the Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
ordination movement.

Besides Wat
Wat
Paknam's attitudes with regard to female spirituality, Wat
Wat
Paknam's international orientation also became part of its heritage. The temple ordained several monks coming from the United Kingdom, and maintained relations with Japanese Buddhists. Currently, Wat
Wat
Paknam has branch centers in the United States, Japan and New Zealand. This international orientation was also continued through the work of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, which, as of 2010 , had thirty to fifty international centers, and through the work of Wat Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram, which has two branch centers in Malaysia. Of all Thai Buddhist temples and movements, the Dhammakaya movement has an international presence that is one of the strongest.

A characteristic that is also found both in Wat
Wat
Paknam and other temples in Luang Pu Sodh's tradition, is its emphasis on lifelong ordination.

THE FIRST GENERATION OF STUDENTS

MAECHI THONGSUK SAMDAENGPAN

Maechi Chandra Konnokyoong.

Maechi Thongsuk (1900–1963) was a nun well-known for her meditation teaching. She was born on 1 August 1900 at Baan Saphan Lueang, Bangrak District, Bangkok
Bangkok
. She was the third born to her father Rom and mother Wan. She was separated from her parents at an early age, being adopted by her uncle and aunt instead. She had no formal education and was illiterate. She married a surgeon at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They had two children together before the untimely death of her husband – from which time onwards, Thongsuk Samdaengpan had to support herself and her children working as a salesperson.

In 1930, Thongsuk Samdaengpan started to study meditation at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen under the instruction of Luang Pu Sodh. As a laywoman, and later as a maechi, she taught high-profile supporters of Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen, such as that of Liap Sikanchananand. It was at Liap's house that Maechi Thongsuk met Chandra Khonnokyoong, who she taught Dhammakaya meditation. After the two stayed for one month at Wat
Wat
Paknam, they both ordained as maechis. Maechi Thongsuk travelled around Thailand to spread the Dhamma and teach Dhammakaya Meditation according to the policy of Luang Pu Sodh. Maechi Thongsuk was diagnosed with cervical cancer in 1960, and died because of this on 3 February 1963 at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen. She was aged sixty-three, having been a maechi for twenty-five years.

MAECHI CHANDRA KHONNOKYOONG

Main article: Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong

Maechi Chandra (1909–2000) became strongly interested in meditation when she was still a child, after she was cursed by her drunken father. After he died, she wished to reconcile with him through contacting him in the afterlife. In 1935, she went to Bangkok
Bangkok
to work and find a way to meet Luang Pu Sodh. After she met Maechi Thongsuk and learnt meditation from her, she ordained at Wat
Wat
Paknam. She later became a prominent meditation student of Luang Pu Sodh. After Luang Pu Sodh\'s death , she became instrumental in introducing Dhammakaya meditation to Luang Por Dhammajayo and Luang Por Dattajivo, with who she later found Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya.

NOTES

* ^ Expressing criticism of the Supreme Patriarch is punishable by Thai law.

REFERENCES

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. ISBN 978-1-317-44938-6 . * ^ A B Heikkilä-Horn 2015 , p. 62. * ^ Swearer 1991 , p. 656. * ^ McDaniel 2010 , pp. 41, 662. * ^ Snodgrass 2003 . * ^ Scott 2009 , pp. 129, 137, 143. * ^ Zehner 1990 , p. 424. * ^ ชมรมพุทธศาสตร์สากลฯ จัดงานวันรวมพลังเด็กดีวีสคตาร์ครั้งที่ 9 . MATICHON (IN THAI). 20 DECEMBER 2014. P. 5. RETRIEVED 3 DECEMBER 2016 – VIA MATICHON E-LIBRARY. * ^ Wynne, Alexander. "The ur-text of the Pali
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(in Thai). p. 10A. Retrieved 23 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library. * ^ วัดหลวงพ่อสด จ.ราชบุรีปฏิบัติธรรมปราบคอรัปชั่น MEDITATION TO GET RID OF CORRUPTION]. KOM CHAD LUEK (IN THAI). 2 OCTOBER 2004. RETRIEVED 23 DECEMBER 2016 – VIA MATICHON E-LIBRARY. * ^ พระมหาเจดีย์สมเด็จของพระราชญาณวิสิฐ (หลวงป๋า) . KOM CHAD LUEK (IN THAI). 21 NOVEMBER 2007. RETRIEVED 23 DECEMBER 2016 – VIA MATICHON E-LIBRARY. * ^ ร่วมบุญทอดผ้าป่าพระนวกะวัดหลวงพ่อสด . KOM CHAD LUEK (IN THAI). THE NATION GROUP . 3 OCTOBER 2014. P. 30. RETRIEVED 23 DECEMBER 2016 – VIA MATICHON E-LIBRARY. * ^ Lechner, Frank (1994). "Fundamentalisms Observed (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume I), Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume 2), and Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume 3), edited by Martin E. Marty
Martin E. Marty
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3712059 . doi :10.2307/3712059 . * ^ Swearer 1991 . * ^ Scott, Rachelle M. (December 2006). A new Buddhist sect?: The Dhammakāya temple and the politics of religious difference. Religion. 36. passim. doi :10.1016/j.religion.2006.10.001 . * ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996). Skorupski, T., ed. The Origins of Insight Meditation. The Buddhist Forum: Seminar Papers, 1994–1996. London: University of London
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, School of Oriental and African Studies
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Buddhism
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2644715 . doi :10.2307/2644715 . * ^ Scott 2009 , p. 52. * ^ Mackenzie 2007 . * ^ Fuengfusakul 1993 , p. 173. * ^ Zehner 1990 . * ^ Mackenzie 2007 , p. 31. * ^ Harvey 2013 , p. 390. * ^ Williams 2008 , pp. 126–128. * ^ Williams 2008 , p. 126. * ^ Fuengfusakul 1998 , p. 88. * ^ Williams 2008 , pp. 127–8. * ^ Thanavuddho, Phra Somchai (1999). นิพพานเป็นอัตตาหรืออนัตตา. Bangkok: ประดิพัทธ์. ISBN 974-7308-18-5 . Archived from the original on 2005-01-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Chalermsripinyorat, Rungrawee (2002). "Doing the Business of Faith: The Capitalistic Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
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Chandra Khonnokyoong
(PDF), Bangkok
Bangkok
* Fuengfusakul, Apinya (1 January 1993), "Empire of Crystal and Utopian Commune: Two Types of Contemporary Theravada
Theravada
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ABC-CLIO
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(PhD thesis), Department of the Study of Religions, School of Oriental and African Studies
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University of London
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* Snodgrass, Judith (2003), "Building Thai Modernity: The Maha Dhammakaya Cetiya", Architectural Theory Review, 8 (2): 173–185, doi :10.1080/13264820309478494 * Swearer, Donald K. (1991), "Fundamentalistic Movements in Theravada
Theravada
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Mahayana
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e-Library, ISBN 0-203-42847-1 * Zehner, Edwin (1990), "Reform Symbolism of a Thai Middle–Class Sect: The Growth and Appeal of the Thammakai Movement", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies , Cambridge University Press
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on behalf of Department of History, National University of Singapore , 21 (2): 402, JSTOR
JSTOR
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FURTHER READING

* Dhammakaya Foundation (1998) The Life ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement

MAJOR TEMPLES

* Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen * Wat Phra Dhammakaya * Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram * Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram * Movement as a whole

HISTORY

* History of Wat Phra Dhammakaya

MAJOR TEACHERS

* Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
* Luang Por Dhammajayo * Luang Por Dattajivo * Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong

MEDITATION PRACTICE

* Dhammakaya Meditation

INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE

* Global Buddhist Network
Global Buddhist Network
(media channel) * United Kingdom

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels
Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
* Nirvana
Nirvana
* Middle Way
Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata
Tathāgata
* Birthday * Four sights
Four sights
* Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances
Five hindrances
* Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream
Mind Stream
* Parinirvana
Parinirvana
* Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
* Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) * Tathātā
Tathātā
* Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Impermanence
Impermanence
* Dukkha
Dukkha
* Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms
Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana
Bhavana
* Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā
Mettā
* Karuṇā
Karuṇā
* Mudita
Mudita
* Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths
Five Strengths
* Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna
Kammaṭṭhāna
* Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* Samatha
Samatha
* Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana movement ) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan
Kōan
* Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön
Tertön
* Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana
Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā
Pāramitā
* Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya
Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya
Dhamma vicaya
* Pīti
Pīti
* Passaddhi
Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya
Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions
Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha
Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment
Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
* Sakadagami
Sakadagami
* Anāgāmi
Anāgāmi
* Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
* Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika
Anagarika
* Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master
Zen master
* Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe
Geshe
* Tulku
Tulku
* Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji
Assaji
* Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha
Anuruddha
* Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti
Subhuti
* Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema
Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa
Yasa
* Buddhaghoṣa
Buddhaghoṣa
* Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala
Angulimala
* Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
* Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga
Asanga
* Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
* Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa
Shamarpa
* Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
* Madhyamakālaṃkāra
Madhyamakālaṃkāra
* Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras * Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
* Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
* Yogachara
Yogachara

* Navayana
Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools
Early Buddhist schools
* Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Pre-sectarian Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India

* Decline of Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal * Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
* Vipassana movement * 969 Movement
969 Movement
* Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology
Buddhology
* Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions
The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
* Korean Buddhist temples
Korean Buddhist temples
* Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja
Magha Puja
* Asalha Puja
Asalha Puja
* Vassa
Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar
Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
* Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā
Abhijñā
* Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada
Dhammapada
* Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana
Hinayana
* Kalpa * Koliya
Koliya
* Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi
Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi
Siddhi
* Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya
Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Religion in Thailand

BUDDHISM

SCHOOLS AND MOVEMENTS

* Theravada
Theravada
* Maha Nikaya
Maha Nikaya
* Dhammayuttika Nikaya
Dhammayuttika Nikaya
* Forest Tradition * Dhammakaya Movement * Santi Asoke

OTHER TOPICS

* Thai temple art and architecture * Wat
Wat
* List of temples

* Buddha images

* Art history

* Supreme Patriarch * Mae ji

OTHER RELIGIONS

* Christianity

* Catholicism * Protestantism * Orthodoxy * Thailand Bible Society

* Hinduism * Islam * Judaism * Sikhism

OTHER TOPICS

* Freedom of religion * Spirit house
Spirit house
* more

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