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The Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
or Dhammakaya tradition is a Thai Buddhist tradition which was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
in the early 20th century. It is connected to several temples which refer back to Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
in Bangkok
Bangkok
for their ancestry. The movement practices Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
(Vijja Dhammakaya), a form of meditation which scholars have linked to the Yogavacara tradition. Central to the movement is the idea that Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
was the method through which the Buddha became enlightened, a method which was forgotten but has been revived by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro. The tradition stands out from other Thai Buddhist traditions for its teachings on the Buddhist concept of Dhammakaya, its emphasis on meditation for laypeople, its active style of propagating meditation, and its focus on reviving traditional Buddhist values. The movement opposes traditional magical rituals, superstition, fortune telling, and other folk religious practices. Features of the tradition include teaching meditation in a group, teaching meditation during ceremonies, teaching meditation simultaneously to monastics and lay people, teaching one main meditation method, and an emphasis on lifelong ordination.

Contents

1 Definition 2 History 3 Notable temples

3.1 Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen 3.2 Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya 3.3 Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama 3.4 Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram

4 Features

4.1 Revivalist school 4.2 Tantric Theravada 4.3 Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
and True Self 4.4 Methods of propagation

5 The first generation of students

5.1 Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk Samdaengpan 5.2 Maechi
Maechi
Chandra Khonnokyoong

6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links

Definition[edit] Newell has pointed out that the term Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
is problematic, because it has been used "without distinguishing between the various temples practising dhammakaya meditation and Wat Dhammakaya [sic] itself. (...) There are considerable differences in style, practice and structure of all the temples". She prefers to use the term Dhammakaya temples.[1] She is quoted on this by McDaniel, but he nevertheless uses Dhammakaya Movement.[2] Crosby, on the other hand, uses Dhammakaya network.[3] Thus, scholars have often pointed out the differences and some dissension among the temples.[4][5][6] History[edit] Scholars have theorized that the Dhammakaya movement has its roots in the Yogavacara tradition (also known as tantric Theravada).[5][7][8] The movement was started by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
in the early twentieth century.[9] The movement is connected to several temples which refer back to Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
in Bangkok
Bangkok
for their ancestry.[10] After discovering the Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
approach, Luang Pu Sodh first taught it to others at Wat
Wat
Bangpla, Bang Len District, Nakhon Pathom.[11] Since Luang Pu Sodh was given his first position as abbot at Wat
Wat
Paknam, Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
has been associated with this temple. Luang Por Dhammajayo
Luang Por Dhammajayo
and Luang Por Dattajivo, the current abbot and vice-abbot of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, were students of maechi (nun) Chandra Khonnokyoong. Other temples, such as Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram, also have their roots in Wat
Wat
Paknam.[10] Thus, Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
has been taught by Luang Pu Sodh's students at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen, Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, Wat
Wat
Luang Por Sodh Dhammakayaram, and at Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama, as well as at the respective branches of these temples. Apart from these major temples, there are also several other centers that practice in the tradition of Luang Pu Sodh.[12] Notable temples[edit] Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen[edit] Main article: Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen

Somdet Chuang Varapuñño from Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
[left] and Luang Por Dattajivo
Luang Por Dattajivo
from Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
[right]

Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
(Thai: วัดปากน้ำภาษีเจริญ) is a royal wat located in Phasi Charoen District, Bangkok, at the Chao Phraya River.[13] Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
is the temple where Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro used to be the abbot, and still is known for its meditation lessons.[9][14] The temple underwent a major change during the period that Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro
became the temple's abbot, from a temple with only thirteen monks that was in disrepair, to a prosperous center of education and meditation practice. In 2008, it housed two hundred to four hundred monks, eighty to ninety samanera (young novices) and two hundred to three hundred maechis (nuns). As of 2008,[update] the temple's abbot was Somdet Chuang Varapuñño, who was the acting Supreme Patriarch of Thailand
Thailand
(Sangharaja) from 2013 to 2017.[5] In 2015, he was proposed by the Sangha Supreme Council
Sangha Supreme Council
as the new Supreme Patriarch, but the appointment was stalled by the junta, which cited objections by several influential former leaders of the 2014 coup d'état.[15] The appointment was eventually withdrawn and a monk from the Dhammayuttika Nikaya
Dhammayuttika Nikaya
appointed instead after the junta changed the law to allow the King to appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly, with the Prime Minister countersigning.[16] Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya[edit] Main article: Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
is located in Pathum Thani, north of Bangkok. It was founded by Maechi
Maechi
Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong
and Luang Por Dhammajayo. It is the temple that is most well-known in the Dhammakaya Movement because of its huge size and following, its numerous activities and also its controversies. The temple is popular among the Bangkok
Bangkok
middle class, and organizes many training programs. The temple emphasizes merit-making through meditation, giving and volunteering.[17] As of 2017[update], the temple's worldwide following was estimated at three million practitioners.[18] The community living at Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya numbered more than a thousand monks and novices, and hundreds of full-time lay employees.[19] The temple emphasizes the revival of traditional Buddhist values, but does so through modern methods and technology.[20][21] The temple emphasizes personal transformation, expressed through its slogan "World Peace through Inner Peace".[22] The temple offers English language retreats and ordinations.[23][24][25] Initially, the temple was founded as a meditation center, after Maechi Chandra and the just ordained monk Luang Por Dhammajayo
Luang Por Dhammajayo
could no longer accommodate the rising number of participants in their activities at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen. The center became an official temple in 1977.[26][27] The temple grew exponentially during the 1980s, when the temple's training programs became widely known among the urban middle class.[26][28] Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
expanded its area and the building of a huge stupa (pagoda) was started.[29] During the period of the Asian economical crisis, however, the temple became subject to criticism as Luang Por Dhammajayo
Luang Por Dhammajayo
was charged with embezzlement and removed from his office as abbot. In 2006, he was cleared of these charges and he was restored as abbot.[30] The temple grew further and became known for its activities in education, promotion of ethics, and scholarship projects.[31][32][33] Under the 2014 military junta, the abbot and the temple were put under scrutiny again and Luang Por Dhammajayo
Luang Por Dhammajayo
was accused of receiving stolen money through the donations of a supporter.[34] The temple has been referred to as the only influential organization in Thailand
Thailand
that has yet to be subdued by the ruling junta, which has shut down most opposition since it took power.[35][18] The judicial processes against the abbot and the temple since the 1990s have led to much debate regarding the procedures and role of the state towards religion, a debate that has intensified during the 2017 lockdown of the temple by the junta.[36][37] As of 2017, authorities have not found Luang Por Dhammajayo, and in 2018, Phrakhru Sangharak Rangsarit was assigned as the official abbot instead.[38][39] Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
emphasizes a culture of making merit through doing good deeds and meditation, as well as an ethical outlook on life.[40][41][42] The temple promotes a community of kalyanamittas ('good friends') to accomplish such a culture.[43][44] Although the temple emphasizes traditional Buddhist values, modern methods of propagation are used, such as a satellite television station and a distance-learning university, as well as modern management methods.[45][46][47] In its large temple complex, the temple houses several monuments and memorials, and in its construction designs traditional Buddhist concepts are given modern forms, as the temple envisions itself as a global spiritual center.[48][49][22] Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama[edit] See also: Chom Thong District, Bangkok
Bangkok
§ Places

Luang Por Thongdi Suratejo from Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama

Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama (or for short, Wat
Wat
Rajaoros; literally 'the temple of the King's son'), Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok, originates from the Ayutthaya Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
era. It became a royal temple, figuring in the history of the Chakri dynasty
Chakri dynasty
when Prince Rama III
Rama III
resided and held a ceremony there to prepare for an attack during the Burmese–Siamese wars. After having spent a while at the temple preparing, the attack did not happen. Nevertheless, Rama III
Rama III
repaid his gratitude to the temple by renovating it from 1817 to 1831.[50][51][52] During the renovations, texts about traditional Thai medicine and massage were carved in the temple's walls. This was done in Wat
Wat
Pho as well, making for a total of thousand inscriptions, meant as a storehouse of ancient knowledge which Rama III
Rama III
feared might be lost during the wars.[53][54] When the renovations had started, he dedicated the temple to his father Rama II, who renamed the temple " Wat
Wat
Rajorasarama".[55] The temple is often described as "the temple of King Rama III", citing his stay there during the Burmese–Siamese Wars, and the subsequent construction he started there.[55] However, in reality, Rama III
Rama III
grew up in the area of Wat
Wat
Chomthong, not in the palace, and was therefore familiar with the temple from his childhood onward.[56] In the 1950s, the temple was nearly abandoned and derelict. After the appointment of Luang Por Thongdi Suratejo as abbot in 1982, and with financial help from the government, the temple was greatly renovated.[57] Luang Por Thongdi spent many years at Wat
Wat
Paknam, completing his Pali
Pali
studies there to the highest level. He held several positions in the Thai Sangha
Sangha
before being appointed as a member of the Supreme Sangha
Sangha
Council in 1992. He is well-known in Thailand
Thailand
for his encyclopedias and books, of which he has published over twenty, under his honorary names.[58][57] In 2001, Luang Por Thongdi made headlines when he was suddenly removed from the Sangha
Sangha
Council, because the Supreme Patriarch felt he "acted against the decisions of the council". During that period, Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra
Thaksin Shinawatra
had announced several reforms of the Monastic Act, aiming for a Sangha
Sangha
that is more independent of the government. Luang Por Thongdi expressed his disagreement with the proposed reforms by publishing a book about them. He stated the Sangha Council was rash in its decisions, and doubted whether the monastic establishment was ready to be self-reliant. A network run by scholars and devotees stated the book was inappropriate and they pleaded with the Sangha
Sangha
Council to act.[59][60] As soon as Luang Por Thongdi was removed from the office, practitioners of Wat Phra Dhammakaya
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
and students of Wat
Wat
Rajaoros' school protested against the decision, but Luang Por Thongdi asked them to stop in order not to express contempt of the Supreme Patriarch.[note 1] Meanwhile, PM Thaksin admitted he was "shocked" by the Supreme Patriarch's decision. Whereas the network of critics stated Luang por Thongdi "always had opposing views" and caused division, the head of the Religious Affairs Department responded "monks should have the right to air their views".[60][61][62] When Luang Por Thongdi himself was asked how he felt about the decision, he replied "We are born in this world without anything [without position or possessions]. Having been a member of the Sangha
Sangha
Council, I have served Buddhism, which is the highest good in life. (...) The right thing to do [now] is to accept the decision made [by the Supreme Patriarch]".[60] Luang Por Thongdi also clarified that he was not opposed to reform and more independence from the government, but the Sangha
Sangha
should still have an important role in moral education, which he felt was overlooked in the reforms.[63][64] Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram[edit]

Somdet Chuang Varapuñño from Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
presiding over a ceremony

In 1982, Luang Por Sermchai Jayamangalo and Phra Khru Bart Yanathiro established the Buddhabhavana Vijja Dhammakaya Institute, distancing itself from Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya.[65][66][67] In 1991, the institute was changed into a temple.[68] It is located in Ratchaburi Province, west of Bangkok, and is currently led by Luang Por Sermchai, who was formerly a lay meditation teacher at Wat
Wat
Paknam, and a researcher and lecturer.[69][70] Many of the temple's activities are done in cooperation with Wat
Wat
Saket.[71] Luang Por Sermchai teaches regularly to government departments, companies, and other temples.[72] In 2004, Luang Por Sermchai made headlines when he criticized the government's policy on legalizing gambling during a preaching on a radio program. After some members of the government responded with displeasure, a screening process for preaching on the radio was established.[73][74] Luang Por Sermchai defended the radio broadcast, stating that his criticism referred to society in general, not just the government.[72] In 2006, there were seventy monks and thirty-three novices at the temple.[69] Phra Khru Bart was a western monk who organized exchange student programs and gave meditation instruction and retreats in English language. English instruction is still available, though Phra Khru Bart has since died.[25][70] In Thai language, the temple offers retreats, monastic ordination programs, and study retreats for families.[75] The temple also runs its own school with Pali
Pali
and Dhamma studies.[68] Apart from an ubosot hall (central hall for ordinations), the temple also has a memorial hall in honor of Luang Pu Sodh. In 2006, the temple started building a stupa (mound-like shaped monument). The stupa will be four storeys high, and will contain meditation rooms, Buddha images, and relics.[68][76] As of 2014[update], the stupa was expected to be finished in two years.[77] Features[edit] Revivalist school[edit]

The stupa at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen

Despite having been included in the controversial[78] global Fundamentalism Project studies,[79] many scholars do not regard the movement as a fundamentalist movement, but rather as a movement with revivalist characteristics. Whether the movement is a new movement is a matter of debate; Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, for one, has specifically said that they do not want to start a new fraternity (nikaya).[80][81] Central to the movement is the idea that Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
was the method through which the Buddha became enlightened, a method which was forgotten but has been revived by Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro. This method is called Vijja Dhammakaya.[82][83][84] There are multiple temples in the tradition which have expressed opposition to traditional magical rituals, fortune telling and giving lottery numbers.[85][86][87] According to a biography published by Wat Phra Dhammakaya's publishing division, Luang Pu Sodh held similar attitudes. He is, however, described as healing people through meditation, and Luang Pu Sodh's amulets were—and are still—widely venerated for their powers.[88] The movement does not oppose miracles that are connected with the practice of meditation.[89] Tantric Theravada[edit] Main article: Tantric Theravada Since the 2000s, scholars have brought forward new evidence that Luang Pu Sodh's approach may have roots in the Yogavacara tradition (also known as tantric Theravada; not to be confused with the Yogacara School in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism).[5][7][90] During the revival and modernization of Thai Buddhism
Buddhism
in the nineteenth and early twentieth century CE, Thai temples in the Mahanikaya fraternity were forced to adjust to new reforms, including the meditation method used and taught.[91] In particular, leading monks in the Mahanikaya fraternity promoted the New Burmese method of U Narada and Mahasi Sayadaw. The Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
method managed to survive despite these pressures to reform.[92] Therefore, Dhammakaya and Yogavacara meditation are both meditation forms that date back before these modernization efforts, and scholars have theorized that the two disciplines may share a common ancestry.[7][93] This ancestry would be related to Wat
Wat
Rajasittharam, the temple where Luang Pu Sodh used to practice before he went on to develop Dhammakaya meditation.[94][95] An alternative theory suggests an origin in Tibetan or other forms of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism,[96][97] but scholars C.S. Newell and Phibul Choompolpaisal believe a Yogavacara origin to be more likely. Newell notes that some aspects of Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
cannot be found in Yogavacara practices, and theorizes that Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
could have been "grafted onto an existing, preparatory system of concentration" and further developed.[98][99] Theologist Rory Mackenzie does not draw any conclusions about the matter yet, however: he states a Tibetan origin is unlikely, a Yogavacara origin cannot yet be proven, but a new discovery by Luang Pu Sodh is also "quite possible".[100] Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
and True Self[edit] See also: Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
and Ātman (Buddhism) Meditation is at the most important practice of all major temples in the Dhammakaya Movement. It is the concept of Dhammakaya that makes the movement stand out from other forms of Theravada,[101][102] as the movement believes that all meditation methods lead to the attainment of the Dhammakaya, and this is the only way to Nirvana.[103] According to the Dhammakaya Movement, the Buddha made the discovery that nirvana is nothing less than the true Self. The movement calls this true self the Dhammakaya, the spiritual essence.[104][105] The Movement believes that this essence of the Buddha and Nirvana
Nirvana
exist as a literal reality within each individual.[106][107][108] The not-self teaching is considered the method to let go of what is not the self, to attain the true self.[109] According to Paul Williams, in some respects the teachings of the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
resemble the Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
and Trikaya
Trikaya
doctrines of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. He sees the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
as having developed independently of the Mahayana
Mahayana
tathagatagarbha tradition, but as achieving very similar results in their understanding of Buddhism.[110] According to Williams,

[Dhammakaya] meditations involve the realization, when the mind reaches its purest state, of an unconditioned "Dhamma Body" (dhammakaya) in the form of a luminous, radiant and clear Buddha figure free of all defilements and situated within the body of the practitioner. Nirvana
Nirvana
is the true Self, and this is also the dhammakaya." [111]

The bulk of Thai Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
rejects this teaching and insists upon non-self as a universal fact. In particular, the Thai scholar-monk Prayudh Payutto has written much to oppose the views of the Dhammakaya Movement.[112] Against this, Luang Por Sermchai argues that it tends to be scholars who hold the view of absolute non-self, rather than Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
practitioners. He further states that Nirvana
Nirvana
cannot be not-self because it not a compounded and conditioned phenomenon. Williams summarises the views of Luang Por Sermchai (here referred to by his former honorific name Phra Rajyanvisith), and adds his own comment at the end:

[Scholars] incline towards a not-Self perspective. But only scholars hold that view. By way of contrast, Phra Rajyanvisith mentions in particular the realizations of several distinguished forest hermit monks. Moreover, he argues, impermanence, suffering and not-Self go together. Anything which is not-Self is also impermanent and suffering. But, it is argued, nirvana is not suffering, nor is it impermanent. It is not possible to have something which is permanent, not suffering (i.e. is happiness) and yet for it still to be not-Self. Hence it is not not-Self either. It is thus (true, or transcendental) Self. [...] These ways of reading Buddhism
Buddhism
in terms of a true Self certainly seem to have been congenial in the East Asian environment, and hence flourished in that context where for complex reasons Mahayana
Mahayana
too found a ready home."[113]

The Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
has responded in different ways to the debate of self and not-self. Apart from Luang Por Sermchai, Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya's assistant-abbot Luang phi Thanavuddho wrote a book about the topic in response to critics.[17][114] Nevertheless, the movement generally seems not much interested in the discussion. Followers are more concerned how Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
improves their mind.[115] Apart from the true self, the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
often uses other positive terms to describe Nirvana
Nirvana
as well. Scott notes that the Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
often explains Nirvana
Nirvana
as being the supreme happiness, and argues that this may explain why the practice of Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
is so popular.[116] Methods of propagation[edit] Luang Pu Sodh introduced Dhammakaya meditation, which is the core of the Dhammakaya movement. Besides the technique of meditation itself, the methods through which Luang Pu Sodh taught have also been passed on to the main temples in the movement. The movement has an active style of propagation.[117] Teaching meditation in a group, teaching meditation during ceremonies, teaching meditation simultaneously to monastics and lay people, and teaching one main meditation method to all are features which can be found throughout the movement.[118][119][120] Newell speculates that Luang Pu Sodh was the person who set up the maechi community at Wat
Wat
Paknam,[121] which is currently one of the largest maechi communities in Thailand.[122] Although Luang Pu Sodh encouraged women to become maechis, maechis did have to spend quite some time doing domestic activities, more so than monks. This orientation echoes in Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya's approach to female spirituality, praising Maechi
Maechi
Chandra as an example of a meditation master, but at the same time not supporting the Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
ordination movement.[123] Besides Wat
Wat
Paknam's attitudes with regard to female spirituality, Wat Paknam's international orientation also became part of its heritage.[124] The temple ordained several monks coming from the United Kingdom,[125] and maintained relations with Japanese Buddhists.[126] Currently, Wat
Wat
Paknam has branch centers in the United States, Japan and New Zealand.[127] This international orientation was also continued through the work of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya, which, as of 2010[update], had thirty to fifty international centers,[128][129] and through the work of Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram, which has two branch centers in Malaysia.[130] Of all Thai Buddhist temples and movements, the Dhammakaya movement has an international presence that is one of the strongest.[131] A characteristic that is also found both in Wat
Wat
Paknam and other temples in Luang Pu Sodh's tradition, is its emphasis on lifelong ordination.[132] The first generation of students[edit] Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk Samdaengpan[edit] Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk (1900–1963) was a nun well-known for her meditation teaching. She was born on 1 August 1900 at Baan Saphan Lueang, Bangrak District, Bangkok. She was the third born to her father Rom and mother Wan. She was separated from her parents at an early age, being adopted by her uncle and aunt instead. She had no formal education and was illiterate. She married a surgeon at Chulalongkorn Hospital. They had two children together before the untimely death of her husband, after which she had to support herself and her children by working as a salesperson.[133] In 1930, Thongsuk Samdaengpan started to study meditation at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen under the instruction of Luang Pu Sodh. As a laywoman, and later as a maechi, she taught high-profile supporters of Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen, such as Liap Sikanchananand. It was at Liap's house that Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk met Chandra Khonnokyoong, who she taught Dhammakaya meditation. After the two stayed for a month at Wat
Wat
Paknam, they both ordained as maechis. Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk travelled around Thailand
Thailand
to spread the Dhamma and teach Dhammakaya Meditation according to the policy of Luang Pu Sodh. Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk was diagnosed with cervical cancer in 1960, and died of it on 3 February 1963 at Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen. She was aged sixty-three, having been a maechi for twenty-five years.[134] Maechi
Maechi
Chandra Khonnokyoong[edit] Main article: Chandra Khonnokyoong Maechi
Maechi
Chandra (1909–2000) became strongly interested in meditation when she was still a child, after she was cursed by her drunken father. After he died, she wished to reconcile with him through contacting him in the afterlife. In 1935, she went to Bangkok
Bangkok
to work and find a way to meet Luang Pu Sodh. After she met Maechi
Maechi
Thongsuk and learnt meditation from her, she ordained at Wat
Wat
Paknam.[135][136] She later became a prominent meditation student of Luang Pu Sodh. After Luang Pu Sodh's death, she became instrumental in introducing Dhammakaya meditation
Dhammakaya meditation
to Luang Por Dhammajayo
Luang Por Dhammajayo
and Luang Por Dattajivo, with whom she later founded Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya.[137][67] Notes[edit]

^ Expressing criticism of the Supreme Patriarch is punishable by Thai law.[60]

References[edit]

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Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram]. Siam Rath (in Thai). p. 28. Retrieved 22 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ a b Newell 2008, pp. 110, 118–9. ^ a b Litalien, Manuel (January 2010). Développement social et régime providentiel en thaïlande: La philanthropie religieuse en tant que nouveau capital démocratique [Social development and a providential regime in Thailand: Religious philanthropy as a new form of democratic capital] (PDF) (Ph.D. Thesis, published as a monograph in 2016) (in French). Université du Québec à Montréal. p. 132.  ^ Mackenzie 2007, p. 40. ^ a b แบนหลวงป๋าขึ้นเทศน์วันนี้ [Today Luang Pa is not allowed to teach]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). The Nation Group. 18 July 2004. Retrieved 23 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ ติดเบรกพระเทศน์รัฐบาล [Monks forbidden to preach about government]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). The Nation
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Group. 17 July 2004. p. 16 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ Yong, Thepchai (20 July 2004). "Words of wisdom, as approved by the government". The Nation
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(in Thai). p. 10A. Retrieved 23 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ วัดหลวงพ่อสด จ.ราชบุรีปฏิบัติธรรมปราบคอรัปชั่น [ Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh in Ratburi [teaches] meditation to get rid of corruption]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). 2 October 2004. Retrieved 23 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ พระมหาเจดีย์สมเด็จของพระราชญาณวิสิฐ (หลวงป๋า) [The great stupa "Somdet", by Phra Rajyanvisith (Luang Pa)]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). 21 November 2007. Retrieved 23 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ ร่วมบุญทอดผ้าป่าพระนวกะวัดหลวงพ่อสด [Contribute to the offering of robes to newly ordained monks at Wat Luang Phor Sodh]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). The Nation
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Group. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ Lechner, Frank (1994). "Fundamentalisms Observed (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume I), Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume 2), and Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance (The Fundamentalism Project, Volume 3), edited by Martin E. Marty
Martin E. Marty
and R. Scott Appleby". Sociology of Religion. 55 (3): 359–363. doi:10.2307/3712059. JSTOR 3712059.  ^ Swearer 1991. ^ Scott, Rachelle M. (December 2006). A new Buddhist sect?: The Dhammakāya temple and the politics of religious difference. Religion. 36. passim. doi:10.1016/j.religion.2006.10.001.  ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996). Skorupski, T., ed. The Origins of Insight Meditation. The Buddhist Forum: Seminar Papers, 1994–1996. London: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. p. 39.  ^ Newell 2008, p. 82. ^ Mackenzie 2007, p. 76. ^ Scott 2009, pp. 66, 79. ^ McDaniel, Justin (2006). " Buddhism
Buddhism
in Thailand: Negotiating the Modern Age". In Berkwitz, Stephen C. Buddhism
Buddhism
in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-787-2.  ^ ที่นี่ปลอดวัตถุมงคลและไสยศาสตร์ วัดหลวงพ่อสดธรรมกายาราม [This area is free from superstitious objects and magic: Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram]. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). The Nation
The Nation
Group. 18 September 2005. p. 16 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ Cook, Nerida M. (1981). The position of nuns in Thai Buddhism: The parameters of religious recognition (Ph.D. Thesis). Research School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University. p. 126.  ^ Newell 2008, p. 96. ^ Mackenzie 2007, pp. 61, 92. ^ Crosby 2000, p. 160. ^ Newell 2008, p. 268. ^ Newell 2008, pp. 268-70. ^ Mackenzie 2007, p. 95. ^ Newell 2008, p. 263. ^ Crosby, Skilton & Gunasena 2012. ^ Bowers 1996. ^ Fuengfusakul 1998, pp. 90–1. ^ Newell 2008, p. 256–7. ^ Skilton & Choompolpaisal 2017, p. 87 n.10. ^ Mackenzie 2007, pp. 113, 224n15. ^ Newell 2008, p. 235. ^ Taylor 1989. ^ Satha-Anand, Suwanna (1 January 1990). "Religious Movements in Contemporary Thailand: Buddhist Struggles for Modern Relevance". Asian Survey. 30 (4): 400. doi:10.2307/2644715. JSTOR 2644715.  ^ Scott 2009, p. 52. ^ Mackenzie 2007. ^ Fuengfusakul 1993, p. 173. ^ Zehner 1990. ^ Mackenzie 2007, p. 31. ^ Harvey 2013, p. 390. ^ Williams 2009, pp. 126–128. ^ Williams 2009, p. 126. ^ Fuengfusakul 1998, p. 88. ^ Williams 2009, pp. 127–8. ^ Thanavuddho, Phra Somchai (1999). นิพพานเป็นอัตตาหรืออนัตตา. Bangkok: ประดิพัทธ์. ISBN 974-7308-18-5. Archived from the original on 18 January 2005. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Chalermsripinyorat, Rungrawee (2002). "Doing the Business of Faith: The Capitalistic Dhammakaya Movement
Dhammakaya Movement
and the Spiritually-thirsty Thai Middle Class" (PDF). Manusya: Journal of Humanities. 5 (1): 14–20.  ^ Scott 2009, p. 80. ^ ธรรมกาย..."เรา คือ ผู้บริสุทธิ์" ผู้ใดเห็นธรรม ผู้นั้นเห็นเราตถาคต [Dhammakaya: "We are innocent.", "He who sees the Dhamma, sees me, the Tathagata"]. Dokbia Thurakit (in Thai). 15 March 1999. p. 5. Retrieved 12 December 2016 – via Matichon E-library.  ^ Newell 2008, p. 248. ^ Fuengfusakul 1998, p. 99. ^ Harvey 2013, p. 389. ^ Newell 2008, p. 85. ^ Falk, Monica Lindberg (2007). Making fields of merit : Buddhist female ascetics and gendered orders in Thailand. Copenhagen: NIAS Press. ISBN 978-87-7694-019-5.  ^ Newell 2008, p. 86. ^ Mackenzie 2007, p. 36. ^ Newell 2008, pp. 86–90. ^ Sivaraksa, Sulak (1987). Thai Spirituality (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. 75. Siam Society. p. 86.  ^ ถวายปริญญาศิลปศาสตรดุษฎีบัณฑิตกิตติมศักดิ์ แด่สมเด็จพระมหารัชมังคลาจารย์ [Offering an Honorary Arts Degree to Somdet Phramaharachamangalacharn]. Thai Rath (in Thai). Wacharapol. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2016.  ^ Newell 2008, pp. 90, 106. ^ Sirikanchana 2010. ^ Newell 2008, p. 119. ^ Newell 2008, p. 117. ^ Newell 2008, pp. 106, 131. ^ Dhammakaya Foundation
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2005. ^ Dhammakaya Foundation
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Dhammakaya meditation
in Thai society (Published M.A. Thesis), Thai Studies Section, 5, Chulalongkorn University Press (original thesis University of Michigan), ISBN 9789746332071  Crosby, Kate (2000), "Tantric Theravada: A Bibliographic Essay on the Writings of Francois Bizot and others on the Yogavacara Tradition" (PDF), Contemporary Buddhism, 1 (2), p. 160, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2011  Crosby, Kate; Skilton, Andrew; Gunasena, Amal (12 February 2012), "The Sutta on Understanding Death in the Transmission of Borān Meditation From Siam to the Kandyan Court", Journal of Indian Philosophy, 40 (2): 177–198, doi:10.1007/s10781-011-9151-y  Dhammakaya Foundation
Dhammakaya Foundation
(2005), Second to None: The Biography of Khun Yay Maharatana Upasika Chandra Khonnokyoong
Chandra Khonnokyoong
(PDF), Bangkok, archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2016  Fuengfusakul, Apinya (1 January 1993), "Empire of Crystal and Utopian Commune: Two Types of Contemporary Theravada
Theravada
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Wat Phra Dhammakaya
and Santi Asoke (PDF), Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 0-203-96646-5  McDaniel, Justin (2010), "Buddhists in Modern Southeast Asia", Religion Compass, Blackwell Publishing, 4 (11): 657–668, doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2010.00247.x  Newell, Catherine Sarah (4 January 2008), Monks, meditation and missing links: continuity, "orthodoxy" and the vijja dhammakaya in Thai Buddhism
Buddhism
(PhD thesis), Department of the Study of Religions, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London  Scott, Rachelle M. (2009), Nirvana
Nirvana
for Sale? Buddhism, Wealth, and the Dhammakāya Temple in Contemporary Thailand
Thailand
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Phra Thammakai-Bewegung" [The Thai Wat Phra Dhammakaya
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Further reading[edit]

Dhammakaya Foundation
Dhammakaya Foundation
(1998) The Life & Times of Luang Phaw Wat Paknam (Bangkok, Dhammakaya Foundation) ISBN 978-974-89409-4-6 Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
(Terry Magness), Suratano (1960). The Life and Teaching of Chao Khun Mongkol-Thepmuni and The Dhammakāya (triple-gem.net). Phramonkolthepmuni (2006) "Visudhivaca: Translation of Morradok Dhamma of Luang Phaw Wat
Wat
Paknam" (Bangkok, 60th Dhammachai Education Foundation) ISBN 978-974-94230-3-5 Phramonkolthepmuni (2008) "Visudhivaca: Translation of Morradok Dhamma of Luang Phaw Wat
Wat
Paknam", Vol.II (Bangkok, 60th Dhammachai Education Foundation) ISBN 978-974-349-815-2

External links[edit]

Archived, official page of Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen
as of 2016, now no longer online Official website of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya Official website of Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram General information about Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram

v t e

Dhammakaya Movement

Major Temples

Wat
Wat
Paknam Bhasicharoen Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya Wat
Wat
Rajorasaram Wat
Wat
Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram Movement as a whole

History

History of Wat
Wat
Phra Dhammakaya

Major Teachers

Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro Luang Por Dhammajayo Luang Por Dattajivo Chandra Khonnokyoong

Meditation Practice

Dhammakaya Meditation

International presence

Global Buddhist Network
Global Buddhist Network
(media channel) United Kingdom

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

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