DHAKA (Bengali : ঢাকা, pronounced ; /ˈdɑːkə/ _DAH-kə_
or /ˈdækə/ _DAK-ə_ ) is the capital and largest city of
Bangladesh . The name of the city was spelled as _Dacca_, which was an
anglicisation name until the current spelling was adopted in 1983 to
match with Bengali pronunciation. Located in an eponymous district
and division , it lies along the east bank of the
Buriganga River in
the heart of the
Bengal delta . The city is a microcosm of the entire
country, with diverse religious and ethnic communities.
Dhaka is the
economic, cultural and political center of Bangladesh. It is a major
financial center of South Asia. It is one of the world\'s most
populated cities and within OIC countries , with a population of 17
million people in the
Greater Dhaka Area . It is also the 4th most
densely populated city in the world.
At the height of its medieval glory,
Dhaka was regarded as one of the
wealthiest and most prosperous cities in the world. It was the Mughal
capital of Bengal. The city's name was
Jahangir Nagar (_City of
Jahangir _) in the 17th century. It was central to the economy of
Mughal Bengal , which generated 50% of Mughal GDP. It was a
cosmopolitan commercial center and the hub of the worldwide muslin and
The Mughals decorated the city with well-laid out gardens, tombs,
mosques, palaces and forts.
Dhaka became known as the _City of
Mosques_ in Bengal. It was also described as the _
Venice of the
East_. The old city was home to various Eurasian merchant groups. The
city hosted two important caravansaries of the subcontinent: the Bara
Choto Katra , located on the riverfront of the
Dhaka developed from the late 20th century. Between 1905 and
1912, it was the capital of British
Eastern Bengal and Assam .. In
1947, after ending of British rule, it became the administrative
capital of the
East Pakistan . It was declared as the legislative
Pakistan in 1962. In 1971, it became the capital of an
Dhaka is home to most of the local business conglomerate. Many
multinational companies also maintain offices in the city.
Exchange is one of the largest in South Asia in terms of trading
volume and market capitalization. The city is home to a number of
regional and international training and development organizations,
such as permanent secretariat of
BIMSTEC . The city has the largest
number of cycle rickshaws and is known as the _
Rickshaw Capital of the
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Between 15th to 18th century
* 2.3 British colonial period
* 2.5 After independence
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Topography
* 3.2 Climate
* 3.3 Parks and greenery
* 4 Government
* 4.2 Civic administration
* 4.3 Administrative agencies
* 5 Economy
* 6 Demographics
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Arts and festivals
* 7.2 Cuisines
* 7.3 Architectural landmarks and museums
* 7.4 Media
* 8 Education
* 9 Sports
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Road
* 10.2 Air
* 10.3 Rail
* 10.4 Waterways
* 11 Twin towns and sister cities
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
The origins of the name for
Dhaka are uncertain. Once _dhak _ trees
were very common in the area and the name may have originated from it.
Alternatively, this name may refer to _the hidden goddess_ Dhakeshwari
, whose temple is located in the south-western part of the city.
Another popular theory states that
Dhaka refers to a membranophone
instrument, _dhak _ which was played by order of
Subahdar Islam Khan I
during the inaugurating of the Bengal capital in 1610.
Some references also say that it was derived from a
Dhaka Bhasa; or Dhakka, used in the
Rajtarangini for a
watch-station; or it is the same as Davaka, mentioned in the Allahabad
pillar inscription of
Samudragupta as an eastern frontier kingdom.
Rajatarangini written by a Kashmiri Brahman,
the region was originally known as _Dhakka_. The word _Dhakka_ means
Sonargaon —the earlier strongholds of
Bengal rulers were situated nearby. So
Dhaka was most likely used as
the watchtower for the fortification purpose.
History of Dhaka and
Timeline of Dhaka
Lalbagh Fort A Bengali woman wearing muslin in
Dhaka in 1789 Old High Court of Dacca
The history of urban settlement in the area of modern-day
to the first millennium. The region was part of the ancient district
Bikrampur , which was ruled by the
Sena dynasty . Under Islamic
rule, it became part of the historic district of
Sonargaon , the
regional administrative hub of the
Delhi and the Bengal Sultanates .
The Grand Trunk Road passed through the region, connecting it with
North India , Central Asia and the southeastern port city of
BETWEEN 15TH TO 18TH CENTURY
Mughal Empire governed the region during the late 15th-18th
century. Under Mughal rule, the Old City of
Dhaka grew on the banks of
Dhaka was proclaimed the capital of Mughal Bengal
in 1608. Islam Khan Chishti was the first administrator of the city.
Khan named it "
Jahangir Nagar" (_City of Jahangir_) in honour of the
Jahangir . The name was dropped soon after the English
conquered. The main expansion of the city took place under Mughal
Shaista Khan . The city then measured 19 by 13 kilometres
(11.8 by 8.1 mi), with a population of nearly one million.
one of the largest and most prosperous cities in South Asia. It grew
into a regional economic center during the 15th and 18th centuries,
serving as a hub for Eurasian traders, including Bengalis, Marwaris ,
Gujaratis, Armenians , Arabs, Persians, Greeks, Dutchmen, Frenchmen,
Englishmen and the Portuguese . The city was a center of the
worldwide muslin , cotton and jute industries, with 180,000 skilled
Mughal Bengal generated 68% of the Mughal Empire's GDP,
which at the time constituted 29% of world GDP.
Dhaka was the
commercial capital of the empire. The city had well-laid out gardens,
monuments, mosques, temples, bazaars, churches and caravansaries . The
Bara Katra was the largest caravansary. The riverbanks were dotted
with tea houses and numerous stately mansions. Eurasian traders built
Farashganj (French Bazaar),
Quarter) and Postogola (Portuguese Quarter).
Bengal was an affluent region with a
Bengali Muslim majority and
Bengali Hindu minority, and was globally dominant in industries such
as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding . The capital
an estimated 80,000 skilled textile weavers. It was an exporter of
silk and cotton textiles, steel , saltpeter , and agricultural and
BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD
With the defeat of the
Nawab of Bengal at the
Battle of Buxar in
1764, British East
India company gained the right to collect taxes
from the Mughal province of Bengal-Bihar. The city formally passed to
the control of the British East
India Company in 1793 and
plugged into the imperial mercantile networks of the
British Empire .
With the dawn of the
Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, Dhaka
became a leading centre of the jute trade , as Bengal accounted for
the largest share of the world's jute production. Dhaka, or
Dacca, under British rule in 1861
Dhaka suffered stagnation and decline began during the mid
19th-century. Its muslin industry was destroyed by high colonial
taxation, restriction of trade and forced imports of British
manufactured textiles. The city's weavers starved to death during
Bengal famines . The rise of the colonial capital
Calcutta caused a
sharp decline in the city's population.
Dhaka became heavily
impoverished. In 1824, an Anglican bishop described
Dhaka as a _city
of magnificent ruins_. During the mutiny of 1857 , the city witnessed
revolts by the
Bengal Army . The British Indian rule was established
following the mutiny. It bestowed privileges on the
Family, which dominated the city's political and social elite. The
Dhaka Cantonment was established as a base for the British Indian Army
. The British developed the modern city around
Bahadur Shah Park . A modern civic water system was introduced in
1874. The electricity supply began in 1901.
Ahsan Manzil was
once the palace of the
Dhaka Nawab Family ; it is now a national
By the early-20th century,
Dhaka projected itself as the standard
Muslim minorities in
British India ; as opposed to the
heavily Hindu-dominated city of Calcutta. During the abortive
Partition of Bengal in 1905,
Dhaka became the short lived capital of
Eastern Bengal and Assam. In 1906, the
All India Muslim League was
formed at the
Ahsan Manzil , during a conference on liberal education
hosted by Nawab Sir Khawja Salimullah . Bengal was reunited in 1911.
The University of Dacca was established in 1921. DEVCO, a subsidiary
of the Occtavian
Steel Company, began widescale power distribution in
With the Partition of
British India in 1947,
Dhaka became the capital
of East Pakistan. The city's population increased dramatically because
Muslim migration from across Bengal and other parts of the
subcontinent, putting heavy strains on infrastructure. Awami League
was formed at the
Rose Garden Palace in 1949 as the Bengali
alternative to the domination of the
Muslim League in Pakistan.
Growing political, cultural and economic rifts emerged between the two
wings of the country. The
Bengali Language Movement reached its peak
Dhaka remained a center of revolutionary and political
activity, as student activism and demands for autonomy increased. The
Six point movement in 1966 was widely supported by the city's
residents. The city had an influential press, with prominent
newspapers like the _Ittefaq _ and the _
Weekly Holiday _. During the
political and constitutional crisis in 1971, the military junta led by
Yahya Khan refused to transfer power to the newly elected National
Assembly, causing mass riots, civil disobedience and a movement for
self-determination . On 7 March 1971,
Awami League leader Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman addressed a massive public gathering at the
Course Maidan in Dhaka, in which he warned of an independence
East Pakistan came under a non-co-operation
movement against the Pakistani state. On Pakistan's Republic Day (23
March 1971), Bangladeshi flags were hoisted throughout
Dhaka in a show
of resistance. Memorial to the
1971 Dhaka University massacre
On 25 March 1971, the
Pakistan Army launched military operations
Operation Searchlight against the population of East Pakistan.
Dhaka bore the brunt of the army's atrocities , witnessing a genocide
and a campaign of widescale repression, with the arrest, torture and
murder of the city's civilians, students, intelligentsia , political
activists and religious minorities. The army faced mutinies from the
East Pakistan Rifles and the Bengali police. Large parts of the city
were burnt and destroyed, including Hindu neighborhoods. Much of the
city's population was either displaced or forced to flee to the
countryside. In the ensuing
Bangladesh War of Independence, the
Bangladesh Forces launched regular guerrilla attacks and ambush
operations against Pakistani forces.
Dhaka was struck with numerous
air raids by the Indian Air Force in December .
Dhaka witnessed the
surrender of the west
Pakistan forces by Bangladesh-
Forces on 16 December 1971 with the surrender of
The post-independence period witnessed rapid growth as Dhaka
attracted migrant workers from across rural Bangladesh. In August
1975, Sheikh Mujib was assassinated in an internal coup d'état. There
were further chaos and uprisings in November 1975. An actual military
coup was undertaken on 24thMarch 1982 by the sitting Army chief of
staff. In the 1980s,
Bangladesh pioneered the formation of the South
Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and hosted its
first summit in Dhaka. A mass uprising in 1990 led to the removal of
then Indian backed government and the return of parliamentary
democracy . In the 1990s and 2000s,
Dhaka experienced improved
economic growth and the emergence of affluent business districts and
See also: Geography of
Dhaka from the
International Space Station
International Space Station
Dhaka is located in central
Bangladesh at 23°42′N 90°22′E /
23.700°N 90.367°E / 23.700; 90.367 , on the eastern banks of
Buriganga River. The city lies on the lower reaches of the Ganges
Delta and covers a total area of 306.38 square kilometres (118.29 sq
mi). Tropical vegetation and moist soils characterize the land, which
is flat and close to sea level. This leaves
Dhaka susceptible to
flooding during the monsoon seasons owing to heavy rainfall and
Dhaka District is bounded by the districts of
Munshiganj , Rajbari ,
Climate of Dhaka
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification ,
Dhaka has a tropical
savanna climate . The city has a distinct monsoonal season, with an
annual average temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and monthly means
varying between 19 °C (66 °F) in January and 29 °C (84 °F) in May.
Approximately 87% of the annual average rainfall of 2,123 millimetres
(83.6 inches) occurs between May and October. Increasing air and
water pollution emanating from traffic congestion and industrial waste
are serious problems affecting public health and the quality of life
in the city. Water bodies and wetlands around
Dhaka are facing
destruction as these are being filled up to construct multi-storied
buildings and other real estate developments. Coupled with pollution,
such erosion of natural habitats threatens to destroy much of the
CLIMATE DATA FOR DHAKA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Weatherbase (normals, 30 yr period)
Source #2: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial
(extremes), BBC Weather (humidity and sun)
PARKS AND GREENERY
There are many parks within
Dhaka city, including
Ramna Park ,
Suhrawardy Udyan ,
Shishu Park , National Botanical Garden , Baldha
Chandrima Uddan , Gulshan Park and
Dhaka Zoo . There are
lakes within city, such as Crescent lake,
Dhanmondi lake, Baridhara
Banani lake, Uttara lake and Hatirjheel-Begunbari lake.
Hatirjheel-Begunbari, which was once a slum area, has turned into a
new place of recreation for city dwellers.
Hatirjheel covering 320
acres (129 ha) is transformed into a place of festivity at night but
with serenity settling down. However, the parks and the recreation
places are often crowded and lacks security and cleanliness aspects,
which is yet one of the big issues.
Three Leaders Mausoleum , Suhrawardy Udyan,
Crescent Lake, Parliament District
Bahadur Shah Park
National Parliament House
As the capital of the People\'s Republic of
Dhaka is the
home to numerous state and diplomatic institutions. The
the official residence and workplace of the President of
who is the ceremonial head of state under the constitution . The
National Parliament House is located in the modernist capital complex
Louis Kahn in
Sher-e-Bangla Nagar . The
Gonobhaban , the
official residence of the Prime Minister , is situated on the north
side of Parliament. The Prime Minister\'s Office is located in
Tejgaon. Most ministries of the Government of
Bangladesh are housed in
Bangladesh Secretariat. The Supreme Court , the
Dhaka High Court
and the Foreign Ministry are located in the
Ramna area. The Defence
Ministry and the Ministry of Planning are located in Sher-e-Bangla
Armed Forces Division of
Bangladesh Government and
Bangladesh Armed Forces headquarters are located in
Several important installations of
Bangladesh Army are also situated
Dhaka and Mirpur Cantonments.
Bangladesh Navy 's principal
administrative and logistics base
BNS Haji Mohshin is located in
Bangladesh Air Force maintains the BAF Bangabandhu Air Base
and BAF Khademul Bashar Air Base in Dhaka.
Dhaka hosts 54 resident embassies and high commissions and numerous
international organizations . Most diplomatic missions are located in
Baridhara area of the city. The
Agargaon area near
Parliament is home to the country offices of the United Nations, the
World Bank , the
Asian Development Bank and the
_ Nagar Bhaban
City Corporation is a self-governing corporation which runs
the affairs of the city.
Dhaka municipality was founded on 1 August
1864, and upgraded to "Metropolitan " status in 1978. In 1983 City
Corporation was created to govern Dhaka. Under new act in 1993,
election was held in 1994 for the first elected Mayor of Dhaka. In
City Corporation was split into two separate corporations
City Corporation and
City Corporation for
ensuring better civic facilities. These two corporations are headed
by two two mayor, who are elected by direct vote of the citizen for a
5-year period. Area within city corporations divided into several
wards, which each have an elected commissioner. In total the city has
130 wards and 725 mohallas _.
* RAJUK is responsible for coordinating urban development in Greater
* DMP is responsible for maintaining law "> City Centre –
currently the tallest building of Bangladesh, at
Jamuna Future Park at Kuril,
Dhaka, which is the largest shopping mall in South Asia
Dhaka is the economic and business center of the country. The city's
diverse economy registered a gross municipal GDP of US$128 billion
(PPP) in 2017.
Dhaka is one of the fastest growing startup hubs in the
world. The city is the seat of the country's central bank Bangladesh
Bank and the
Dhaka Stock Exchange
Dhaka Stock Exchange . It has one of the largest
concentrations of multinational companies in South Asia.
The city has a growing middle class, driving the market for modern
consumer and luxury goods.
Restaurants , shopping malls and luxury
hotels continue to serve as vital elements in the city's economy. The
city has historically attracted numerous migrant workers. Hawkers ,
peddlers, small shops, rickshaw transport, roadside vendors and stalls
employ a large segment of the population – rickshaw-drivers alone
number as many as 400,000. Half the workforce is employed in
household and unorganised labour, while about 800,000 work in the
textile industry. The unemployment rate in
Dhaka was 23% in 2013. The
city has a per-capita income of US$4.600 (middle among the world's
megacities); and an estimated 29% of households live below the
Dhaka tremendously improved challenges of congestion and
inadequate infrastructure. To fight rising traffic congestion and
population, the national government has recently implemented a policy
for rapid urbanization of surrounding areas and beyond by the
introduction of a ten-year relief on income tax for new construction
of facilities and buildings outside Dhaka.
See also: Demographics of
Bangladesh Play media NASA animation
showing the urban growth of
Dhaka from 1972 to 2001.
The city, in combination with localities forming the wider
metropolitan area, is home to over 15 million as of 2013 . The
population is growing by an estimated 4.2% per year, one of the
highest rates amongst the Asian cities. The continuing growth
reflects ongoing migration from rural areas to the
Dhaka urban region,
which accounted for 60% of the city's growth in the 1960s and 1970s.
More recently, the city's population has also grown with the expansion
of city boundaries, a process that added more than a million people to
the city in the 1980s. According to the
Far Eastern Economic Review ,
Dhaka will be home to 25 million people by the end of 2025.
Dhakeshwari National Temple
St. Mary\'s Cathedral,
The literacy rate in
Dhaka is also increasing quickly. It was
estimated at 69.2% in 2001. The literacy rate had gone up to 74.6% by
2011 which is significantly higher than the national average of
The city population is composed of people from virtually every region
of Bangladesh. The long-standing inhabitants of the old city are known
as _Dhakaia_ and have a distinctive dialect and culture. Between
15,000 and 20,000 of the Rohingya , Santal , Khasi , Garo , Chakma and
Mandi tribal peoples reside in the city.
Dhaka also has a large
population of European, Chinese , Korean, Indian , Pakistani, Nepali ,
Burmese and Sri Lankan expatriates working in executive jobs in
Dhaka is also home to over 300,000 Bihari
refugees, who are descendants of migrant
Muslims from eastern India
during 1947 and settled down in East Pakistan. The correct population
is ambiguous; although official figures estimate at least 40,000
residents, it is estimated that there are at least 300,000
Urdu-speakers in all of Bangladesh, mostly residing in refugee camps
Bengali , the national language, is spoken by the predominant
majority population of Dhaka. English is the principal second language
and widely spoken by educated peoples. There is a minority Urdu
-speaking population from
India and Pakistan. Islam is the dominant
religion of the city, with 90% of the population being Muslim, and a
majority belonging to the
Sunni sect. There is also a small
and an Ahmadiya community. Hinduism is the second-largest religion and
comprises 8.2% of the population. Smaller segments practice
Christianity and Buddhism . The city also has
Sikh , Hrishi
"> The Central Shaheed Minar on
Language Movement Day
As the most populous city of Bangladesh,
Dhaka has a vibrant cultural
life. Annual celebrations for Independence Day (26 March), Language
Martyrs\' Day (21 February) and Victory Day (16 December) are
prominently celebrated across the city. Dhaka's people congregate at
the Shaheed Minar and the
Jatiyo Smriti Soudho to remember the
national heroes of the liberation war. These occasions are observed
with public ceremonies and rallies in public grounds. Many schools and
colleges organise fairs, festivals and concerts in which citizens from
all levels of society participate.
Pohela Baishakh _, the Bengali New Year, falls annually on 14 April
and is popularly celebrated across the city. Large crowds of people
gather on the streets of Shahbag,
Ramna Park and the campus of the
University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka for celebrations.
Pahela Falgun (Bengali :
পহেলা ফাল্গুন , first day of Spring of Bengali
Falgun , of the
Bengali calendar , also celebrated in the city
in a festive manner. This day is marked with colourful celebration and
traditionally, women wear yellow saris to celebrate this day. This
celebration is also known as _Basanta Utsab_ (Bengali :
বসন্ত উৎসব ; _Spring Festival_).
Nabanna is a
celebration for harvest, usually celebrated with food and dance and
music on the 1st day of the month of Agrahayan of Bengali year.
Rabindranath Tagore and
Kazi Nazrul Islam are observed
Rabindra Jayanti and
Nazrul Jayanti . Ekushey Book
Fair , which is arranged each year by
Bangla Academy and takes place
for the whole month of February. This event is dedicated to the
martyrs who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for
the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former
East Pakistan .
Muslim festivals of
Eid ul-Fitr ,
Eid ul-Adha , Eid-E-Miladunnabi and
Muharram ; Hindu festivals of
Durga Puja , Buddhist festival of Buddha
Purnima ; and Christian festival of
Christmas witness widespread
celebrations across the city. Bengali New Year celebrations
The most popular dressing style for women are _sarees _ or _salwar
kameez _, while men usually prefer western clothing to the traditional
_lungi _ with Panjabi .
Jamdani saree of
Dhaka is part of its cultural
heritage, originate from the
Mughal era .
Jamdani sarees are 100% hand
weaved and a single saree may take as long as 3 months to complete.
Despite the growing popularity of music groups and rock bands,
traditional folk music remains widely popular. The works of the
Kazi Nazrul Islam and national anthem writer
Rabindranath Tagore have a widespread following across Dhaka. The
Baily Road area is known as _Natak Para_ (Theatre Neighbourhood) which
is the center of Dhaka's thriving theatre movement. Indian and
Western music and films are popular with large segments of Dhaka's
For much of recent history,
Dhaka was characterized by roadside
markets and small shops that sold a wide variety of goods. Recent
years have seen the widespread construction of shopping malls. Two of
the largest shopping malls in
Dhaka and perhaps in the Indian
Jamuna Future Park and
Bashundhara City shopping
Bangladeshi cuisine FUCHKA/ফুচকা- a popular
street food of
Dhaka is reputed for its unique traditional festivities and food
delicacies from way back. It hosts a wide-ranging menu of distinctive
dishes many of which were introduced during the regime of Sultani and
Mughal Period. Due to different ruling periods, the cuisine of Dhaka
is versatile and with a rich culinary tradition.
Like other parts of the country, everyday meals generally include
plain steamed rice as staple food with fish, meat, vegetable curries
and lentil soup is common accompaniment. Plain rice is often replaced
by roti or parata.
Curry is the most popular style of preparing
Old Dhaka area has its own unique food tradition, known as
Old Dhaka is famous for its _Morog (Chicken) Pulao _,
its different from traditional biriyani by using both tumeric and
_malai _ or cream of milk together. Famous dishes of
Old Dhaka are
kebabs, naans, bakharkhani, kachchi and pakki biriyani, haleem, mutton
bhuni kichuri, mutton tehari etc. Dhakai
Bakarkhani is the traditional
food or snack of the people of old Dhaka. It is famous for its quality
and taste and it was highly praised by the royal court of the Mughal
Delhi . Along with
Bangladeshi cuisine and South Asian
variants , a large variety of Western and
Chinese cuisine is served at
numerous restaurants and eateries. Often many restaurants customize
fusion dishes which blends foreign and local cuisines to meet local
taste. Local and international fast food shops and chains serve
burgers, fries and other readily available foods. Street foods like
Lassi _ and _
Phuchka _ are highly popular among locals and
tourists. fast-food chains like A"> View of
Dhaka is home to over 2000 buildings built between the 16th and 19th
centuries, which form an integral part of Dhaka's cultural heritage.
Binat Bibi Mosque ,
Lalbagh Fort ,
Ahsan Manzil , Tara Mosque
Chawk Mosque ,
Hussaini Dalan , Armenian Church ,
Curzon Hall ,
Dhaka Gate ,
Dhanmondi Shahi Eidgah ,
Rose Garden Palace , Choto Katra
Bara Katra ,
Dhakeshwari Temple ,
Swami Bagh Temple ,
Mandir , Holy Rosary Church ,
Pogose School . There are still many
colonial buildings at
Dhaka Sadarghat ,
Old Dhaka .
Binat Bibi Mosque was built in 1454 at Narinda area of
Dhaka during the reign of the Sultan of Bengal, Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
(r. 1435 – 1459), which is the oldest brick structure that still
exists in the city. Important landmark buildings constructed during
British rule include Old Highcourt building,
Bangabhaban , Curzon Hall
and Mitford Hospital . Independence Monument
Architect Louis I Kahn 's acclaimed modernist National Capital
Complex , based on the geography and heritage of Bengal, was
Dhaka in 1982 as one of the largest legislative
complexes in the world, comprising 200 acres (800,000 m²). Designed
by American architect
Robert Boughey ,
Kamalapur railway station is
another architectural marvel, which was constructed in the early
1960's and started its operation from 1969. Independence Monument
(Bengali : স্বাধীনতা স্তম্ভ) is a new
landmark, which was built to commemorate the historical events that
took place in the
Suhrawardy Udyan during the Liberation War of
There are many museums in the city. Such as
Ahsan Manzil , Bangladesh
National Museum , Museum of Independence ,
Liberation War Museum
Liberation War Museum ,
National Museum of Science and Technology (Bangladesh) , Bangabandhu
Memorial Museum etc.
Dhaka is also the press, media and entertainment center of
Bangladesh Betar is the state-run primary provider of
radio services, and broadcasts a variety of programming in Bengali and
English. Radio transmission started in
Dhaka on 16 December 1939. In
recent years many private radio networks , especially FM radio
services, have been established in the city such as
Radio Foorti FM
Radio Aamar FM 88.4, ABC Radio FM 89.2,
Radio Today FM 89.6,
DhakaFM 90.4 ,
Peoples Radio 91.6 FM ,
Radio Bhumi FM 92.8, City FM
Bangladesh Television is the state-run broadcasting network
that provides a wide variety of programmes in Bengali and English. It
started broadcasting on 25 December 1964. It also operates a sister
channel _BTV World_ since 2004. Sangsad
Bangladesh is another
government-owned TV channel that broadcasts parliamentary activity of
Bangladesh since 25 January 2011. Cable and satellite networks such as
ATN Bangla ,
ATN News ,
Channel i , Channel 9 , Ekushey
Gaan Bangla ,
Gazi Television , Independent TV , NTV ,
Somoy TV are amongst the most popular channels. The main
offices of most publishing houses in
Bangladesh are based in Dhaka.
Dhaka is home to the largest Bangladeshi newspapers , including the
leading Bengali dailies _
Prothom Alo _, _Ittefaq _, _
Janakantha _, _
Amar Desh _ and _
Jugantor _. The leading
English-language newspapers include _The Daily Star _, _
_, _The Financial Express _, _The Independent _ and _New Age _.
See also: Education in
Curzon Hall in the University
Dhaka has the largest number of schools, colleges and universities of
any Bangladeshi city. The education system is divided into 5 levels:
Primary (from grades 1 to 6), Junior (from grades 6 to 8), Secondary
(from grades 9 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and
tertiary. The five years of Primary education concludes with a
Primary School Completion (PSC) Examination, the three years of Junior
education concludes with
Junior School Certificate (JSC) Examination,
and next two years of Secondary education concludes with a Secondary
School Certificate (SSC) Examination. Students who pass this
examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate
training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary School Certificate
(HSC) Examination. Education is mainly offered in Bengali , but
English is also widely taught and used. Many
Muslim families send
their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time
religious education alongside other subjects, which is imparted in
Bengali and Arabic in schools , colleges and madrasas . Civil
Engineering Building of BUET
There are 52 universities in Dhaka.
Dhaka College is the oldest
institution for higher education in the city and among the earliest
British India , founded in 1841. Since independence,
Dhaka has seen the establishment of numerous public and private
colleges and universities that offer undergraduate and graduate
degrees as well as a variety of doctoral programmes. University of
Dhaka is the oldest public university in the country which has more
than 30,000 students and 1,800 faculty staff. It was established in
1921 being the first university in the region . The university has 23
research centers and 70 departments, faculties and institutes.
Eminent seats of higher education include
Bangladesh University of
Engineering and Technology (BUET), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical
Jagannath University and Sher-e-Bangla
Agricultural University .
Dhaka Medical College and Sir Salimullah
Medical College are two of the best medical colleges in the nation.
Founded in 1875, DHAKA MEDICAL SCHOOL was the first medical school in
Bangladesh (then British East Bengal), which became Sir Salimullah
Medical College in 1962. Other government medical colleges are
Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Armed Forces Medical College,
Dhaka . A block of BSMMU in
Alongside public institutes of higher education there are some
forty-five private universities in Dhaka. Notable private universities
North South University ,
East West University , University of Asia
Pacific , American International University –
Bangladesh , BRAC
Primeasia University , United International University
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology _(see:List of
Bangladesh )_, most of which are located in Mohakhali,
Gulshan, Banani, Baridhara, Bashundhara, Uttara and
Dhanmondi areas of
British Council plays an important role helping students to
achieve GCSE and
A Level qualifications from examination boards in the
United Kingdom . This is in addition to holding several examinations
for professional bodies in the United Kingdom, including the UK
medical Royal Colleges and Accountancy.
Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , Mirpur
Cricket and football are the two most popular sports in
across the nation. Teams are fielded in intra-city and national
competitions by many schools, colleges and private entities. The
Mohammedan Sporting Club and Abahani are two of the most famous
football and cricket teams, maintaining a fierce rivalry, especially
Bangladesh Football Premier League .
Dhaka Metropolis cricket
Dhaka city in the National
Cricket League , a
region-based domestic first-class cricket competition in Bangladesh.
Dhaka Premier League is the only domestic
List A cricket tournament
now in Bangladesh. It gained List A status in 2013–14 season . In
Dhaka has a BPL franchise known as Dhaka
Dhaka has the distinction of having hosted the first official Test
cricket match of the
Pakistan cricket team in 1954 against India. The
Bangabandhu National Stadium was formerly the main venue for domestic
and international cricket matches, but now exclusively hosts football
matches. It was used during
Pakistan colonial era for Test matches
when no Bengalis were selected in team and a matting pitch was used.
It hosted the opening ceremony of the 2011
Cricket World Cup while
Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , exclusively used for
cricket, hosted 6 matches of the tournament including two
Dhaka has also hosted the South Asian Games
three times, in 1985 , 1993 and 2010 .
Dhaka is the first city to host
the games three times. The
Bangabandhu National Stadium was the main
venue for all three editions.
Dhaka also hosted the ICC World
Twenty20 , along with
Sylhet , in 2014 .
National Sports Council , responsible for promoting sports
activities across the nation, is based in Dhaka.
Dhaka also has
stadiums largely used for domestic events such as the
Stadium , the
Bir Sherestha Shaheed Shipahi Mostafa Kamal Stadium ,
Cricket Stadium and the
Outer Stadium Ground . The
Dhaka University Ground and the BUET Sports Ground host many
intercollegiate tournaments. They are also used as practice ground by
different football clubs and visiting foreign national football teams.
There are two golf courses in Dhaka. One is situated at Army Golf
Club and another is situated at
Kurmitola Golf Club .
Dhaka Metro Rail
Cycle rickshaws are the most popular mode of transport in
Double-decker bus of BRTC
Dhaka is connected to the other parts of the country through highway
and railway links. Five of the eight major national highways of
Bangladesh start from the city. They are- N1 , N2 , N3 , N5 and N8 .
Dhaka is also directly connected to two longest routes of Asian
Highway Network -
AH2 , as well as to
AH41 route. Highway
links to the Indian cities of
Shillong have been established by the
Bangladesh Road Transport
Corporation (BRTC) and private bus companies which also run regular
international bus services to those cities from Dhaka. An elevated
expressway system is under construction. The
Expressway would run from Shahjalal International
Crossing-Khilgaon-Kamalapur-Golapbagh to Dhaka-
Chittagong Highway at
Kutubkhali Point. A longer second elevated expressway from
Airport-Ashulia is currently undergoing feasibility study. There are
3 inter-district bus terminals in Dhaka, which are located at
Mohakhali, Saidabad and Gabtoli area of the city.
Dhaka suffers one of the worst traffic congestion in the world. Till
date, the city lacks an organized public transport system.
Construction of MRT and a BRT is currently going on to solve the
problem. Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws are the main mode of
transport within metro area, with close to 400,000 rickshaws running
each day – the largest number for any city in the world.
However, only about 85,000 rickshaws are licensed by the city
government. Relatively low-cost and non-polluting cycle rickshaws,
nevertheless, cause traffic congestion and have been banned from many
parts of the city. The government has overseen the replacement of
two-stroke engine auto rickshaws with "Green auto-rickshaws" locally
called _CNG auto-rickshaw_ or _Baby-taxi_, which run on compressed
natural gas .
Public buses are operated by the state-run
Bangladesh Road Transport
Corporation (BRTC) and by numerous private companies and operators.
Scooters , taxis and privately owned cars are rapidly becoming popular
with the city's growing middle class.Limited numbers of Taxis are
available. It is planned to raise the total number of taxis to 18,000
gradually. Uber has started mobile app based taxi service in the
Runway and apron area of the
Shahjalal International Airport
Shahjalal International Airport (IATA : DAC, ICAO : VGHS), located 15
kilometres (9.3 mi) north of
Dhaka city center, is the largest and
busiest international airport in the nation. The airport has an area
of 1,981 acres (802 ha). The airport has a capacity of handling 15
million passengers annually, and is predicted by the Civil Aviation
Bangladesh to be enough until 2026. In 2014, it handled
6.1 million passengers, and 248,000 tonnes of cargo. Average aircraft
movement per day is around 190 flights. It is the hub of all
Bangladeshi airlines . Domestic service flies to Chittagong, Sylhet,
Rajshahi , Cox\'s Bazar ,
Barisal , Saidpur and
international services fly to major cities in Asia, Europe and the
Night view of
Kamalapur railway station
Kamalapur railway station is the largest and busiest among the
railway stations in the city. Designed by American architect Robert
Boughey , the railway station situated in the north-east side of
Motijheel , was established in the early 1960s and started its
operation from 1969. The station is the largest in the country and
also one of the most modern and striking buildings in Dhaka. The
Bangladesh Railway provides suburban and national
services, and the
Maitree Express international service to
Regular express train services connect
Dhaka with major cities of
Sylhet and Rangpur .
In 2013, suburban services to
Gazipur were upgraded
using diesel electric multiple unit trains.
Dhaka Metro Rail feasibility study has been completed. A 21.5
kilometres (13.4 mi), $1.7 Billion Phase 1, metro route is being
negotiated by the Government with
Japan International Cooperation
Agency . The first route will start from Uttara, northern suburb of
Dhaka to Sayedabad, southern section of Dhaka. The route consists of
16 elevated stations each of 180m long. Construction began on 26 June
The Sadarghat River Port on the banks of the
Buriganga River serves
for the transport of goods and passengers upriver and to other ports
in Bangladesh. Inter-city and inter-district motor vessels and
passenger-ferry services are used by many people to travel riverine
regions of the country from the city. Water bus services are available
Buriganga River and
Hatirjheel and Gulshan lakes. Water buses of
Buriganga River ferry passengers on Sadarghat to Gabtali route. Water
Hatirjheel and Gulshan lakes provide connectivity via two
routes, one route between Tejgaon and Gulshan, another route between
Tejgaon and Rampura areas.
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Italy since 2004
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* Rabbani, Golam (1997). _Dhaka, from Mughal outpost to metropolis_.
University Press, Dhaka. ISBN 984-05-1374-5 .
* Sarkar, Sir Jadunath (1948). _
History of Bengal (II)_. Dhaka.
* Taifoor, S.M. (1956). _Glimpses of Old Dacca_. Dhaka.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to DHAKA _.
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* Capital Development Authority
Dhaka North City Corporation
Dhaka South City