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DHAKA (Bengali : ঢাকা, pronounced ; /ˈdɑːkə/ _DAH-kə_ or /ˈdækə/ _DAK-ə_ ) is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. The name of the city was spelled as _Dacca_, which was an anglicisation name until the current spelling was adopted in 1983 to match with Bengali pronunciation. Located in an eponymous district and division , it lies along the east bank of the Buriganga River in the heart of the Bengal delta . The city is a microcosm of the entire country, with diverse religious and ethnic communities. Dhaka
Dhaka
is the economic, cultural and political center of Bangladesh. It is a major financial center of South Asia. It is one of the world\'s most populated cities and within OIC countries , with a population of 17 million people in the Greater Dhaka Area . It is also the 4th most densely populated city in the world.

At the height of its medieval glory, Dhaka
Dhaka
was regarded as one of the wealthiest and most prosperous cities in the world. It was the Mughal capital of Bengal. The city's name was Jahangir Nagar (_City of Jahangir
Jahangir
_) in the 17th century. It was central to the economy of Mughal Bengal , which generated 50% of Mughal GDP. It was a cosmopolitan commercial center and the hub of the worldwide muslin and silk trade.

The Mughals decorated the city with well-laid out gardens, tombs, mosques, palaces and forts. Dhaka
Dhaka
became known as the _City of Mosques_ in Bengal. It was also described as the _ Venice
Venice
of the East_. The old city was home to various Eurasian merchant groups. The city hosted two important caravansaries of the subcontinent: the Bara Katra and Choto Katra , located on the riverfront of the Buriganga . Modern Dhaka
Dhaka
developed from the late 20th century. Between 1905 and 1912, it was the capital of British Eastern Bengal and Assam .. In 1947, after ending of British rule, it became the administrative capital of the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
. It was declared as the legislative capital of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1962. In 1971, it became the capital of an independent Bangladesh.

Dhaka
Dhaka
is home to most of the local business conglomerate. Many multinational companies also maintain offices in the city. Dhaka
Dhaka
Stock Exchange is one of the largest in South Asia in terms of trading volume and market capitalization. The city is home to a number of regional and international training and development organizations, such as permanent secretariat of BIMSTEC
BIMSTEC
. The city has the largest number of cycle rickshaws and is known as the _ Rickshaw
Rickshaw
Capital of the World_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Between 15th to 18th century * 2.3 British colonial period * 2.4 Pakistan
Pakistan
period * 2.5 After independence

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Parks and greenery

* 4 Government

* 4.1 Capital city * 4.2 Civic administration * 4.3 Administrative agencies

* 5 Economy * 6 Demographics

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Arts and festivals * 7.2 Cuisines * 7.3 Architectural landmarks and museums * 7.4 Media

* 8 Education * 9 Sports

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Road * 10.2 Air * 10.3 Rail * 10.4 Waterways

* 11 Twin towns and sister cities * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origins of the name for Dhaka
Dhaka
are uncertain. Once _dhak _ trees were very common in the area and the name may have originated from it. Alternatively, this name may refer to _the hidden goddess_ Dhakeshwari , whose temple is located in the south-western part of the city. Another popular theory states that Dhaka
Dhaka
refers to a membranophone instrument, _dhak _ which was played by order of Subahdar Islam Khan I during the inaugurating of the Bengal capital in 1610.

Some references also say that it was derived from a Prakrit dialect called Dhaka
Dhaka
Bhasa; or Dhakka, used in the Rajtarangini for a watch-station; or it is the same as Davaka, mentioned in the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta
Samudragupta
as an eastern frontier kingdom. According to Rajatarangini written by a Kashmiri Brahman, Kalhana . the region was originally known as _Dhakka_. The word _Dhakka_ means _watchtower_. Bikrampur and Sonargaon —the earlier strongholds of Bengal rulers were situated nearby. So Dhaka
Dhaka
was most likely used as the watchtower for the fortification purpose.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Dhaka and Timeline of Dhaka

EARLY HISTORY

Ruins of Lalbagh Fort A Bengali woman wearing muslin in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1789 Old High Court of Dacca

The history of urban settlement in the area of modern-day Dhaka
Dhaka
dates to the first millennium. The region was part of the ancient district of Bikrampur , which was ruled by the Sena dynasty . Under Islamic rule, it became part of the historic district of Sonargaon , the regional administrative hub of the Delhi
Delhi
and the Bengal Sultanates . The Grand Trunk Road passed through the region, connecting it with North India
North India
, Central Asia and the southeastern port city of Chittagong.

BETWEEN 15TH TO 18TH CENTURY

The Mughal Empire governed the region during the late 15th-18th century. Under Mughal rule, the Old City of Dhaka
Dhaka
grew on the banks of the Buriganga River. Dhaka
Dhaka
was proclaimed the capital of Mughal Bengal in 1608. Islam Khan Chishti was the first administrator of the city. Khan named it " Jahangir
Jahangir
Nagar" (_City of Jahangir_) in honour of the Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
. The name was dropped soon after the English conquered. The main expansion of the city took place under Mughal governor Shaista Khan . The city then measured 19 by 13 kilometres (11.8 by 8.1 mi), with a population of nearly one million. Dhaka
Dhaka
was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in South Asia. It grew into a regional economic center during the 15th and 18th centuries, serving as a hub for Eurasian traders, including Bengalis, Marwaris , Gujaratis, Armenians , Arabs, Persians, Greeks, Dutchmen, Frenchmen, Englishmen and the Portuguese . The city was a center of the worldwide muslin , cotton and jute industries, with 180,000 skilled weavers. Mughal Bengal generated 68% of the Mughal Empire's GDP, which at the time constituted 29% of world GDP. Dhaka
Dhaka
was the commercial capital of the empire. The city had well-laid out gardens, monuments, mosques, temples, bazaars, churches and caravansaries . The Bara Katra was the largest caravansary. The riverbanks were dotted with tea houses and numerous stately mansions. Eurasian traders built neighborhoods in Farashganj (French Bazaar), Armanitola (Armenian Quarter) and Postogola (Portuguese Quarter).

Bengal was an affluent region with a Bengali Muslim majority and Bengali Hindu minority, and was globally dominant in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding . The capital Dhaka
Dhaka
had an estimated 80,000 skilled textile weavers. It was an exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel , saltpeter , and agricultural and industrial produce.

BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD

With the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Buxar in 1764, British East India
India
company gained the right to collect taxes from the Mughal province of Bengal-Bihar. The city formally passed to the control of the British East India
India
Company in 1793 and Dhaka
Dhaka
got plugged into the imperial mercantile networks of the British Empire
British Empire
. With the dawn of the Industrial
Industrial
Revolution in Great Britain, Dhaka became a leading centre of the jute trade , as Bengal accounted for the largest share of the world's jute production. Dhaka, or Dacca, under British rule in 1861

Dhaka
Dhaka
suffered stagnation and decline began during the mid 19th-century. Its muslin industry was destroyed by high colonial taxation, restriction of trade and forced imports of British manufactured textiles. The city's weavers starved to death during Bengal famines . The rise of the colonial capital Calcutta
Calcutta
caused a sharp decline in the city's population. Dhaka
Dhaka
became heavily impoverished. In 1824, an Anglican bishop described Dhaka
Dhaka
as a _city of magnificent ruins_. During the mutiny of 1857 , the city witnessed revolts by the Bengal Army . The British Indian rule was established following the mutiny. It bestowed privileges on the Dhaka
Dhaka
Nawab Family, which dominated the city's political and social elite. The Dhaka Cantonment was established as a base for the British Indian Army . The British developed the modern city around Ramna , Shahbag Garden and Bahadur Shah Park . A modern civic water system was introduced in 1874. The electricity supply began in 1901. Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil
was once the palace of the Dhaka Nawab Family ; it is now a national museum

By the early-20th century, Dhaka
Dhaka
projected itself as the standard bearer of Muslim
Muslim
minorities in British India
British India
; as opposed to the heavily Hindu-dominated city of Calcutta. During the abortive Partition of Bengal in 1905, Dhaka
Dhaka
became the short lived capital of Eastern Bengal and Assam. In 1906, the All India Muslim League was formed at the Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil
, during a conference on liberal education hosted by Nawab Sir Khawja Salimullah . Bengal was reunited in 1911. The University of Dacca was established in 1921. DEVCO, a subsidiary of the Occtavian Steel
Steel
Company, began widescale power distribution in 1930.

PAKISTAN PERIOD

With the Partition of British India
British India
in 1947, Dhaka
Dhaka
became the capital of East Pakistan. The city's population increased dramatically because of Muslim
Muslim
migration from across Bengal and other parts of the subcontinent, putting heavy strains on infrastructure. Awami League was formed at the Rose Garden Palace in 1949 as the Bengali alternative to the domination of the Muslim
Muslim
League in Pakistan. Growing political, cultural and economic rifts emerged between the two wings of the country. The Bengali Language Movement reached its peak in 1952. Dhaka
Dhaka
remained a center of revolutionary and political activity, as student activism and demands for autonomy increased. The Six point movement in 1966 was widely supported by the city's residents. The city had an influential press, with prominent newspapers like the _Ittefaq _ and the _ Weekly Holiday _. During the political and constitutional crisis in 1971, the military junta led by Yahya Khan
Yahya Khan
refused to transfer power to the newly elected National Assembly, causing mass riots, civil disobedience and a movement for self-determination . On 7 March 1971, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman addressed a massive public gathering at the Ramna Race Course Maidan in Dhaka, in which he warned of an independence struggle. Subsequently, East Pakistan
East Pakistan
came under a non-co-operation movement against the Pakistani state. On Pakistan's Republic Day (23 March 1971), Bangladeshi flags were hoisted throughout Dhaka
Dhaka
in a show of resistance. Memorial to the 1971 Dhaka University massacre

On 25 March 1971, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army launched military operations under Operation Searchlight against the population of East Pakistan. Dhaka
Dhaka
bore the brunt of the army's atrocities , witnessing a genocide and a campaign of widescale repression, with the arrest, torture and murder of the city's civilians, students, intelligentsia , political activists and religious minorities. The army faced mutinies from the East Pakistan
East Pakistan
Rifles and the Bengali police. Large parts of the city were burnt and destroyed, including Hindu neighborhoods. Much of the city's population was either displaced or forced to flee to the countryside. In the ensuing Bangladesh
Bangladesh
War of Independence, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces launched regular guerrilla attacks and ambush operations against Pakistani forces. Dhaka
Dhaka
was struck with numerous air raids by the Indian Air Force in December . Dhaka
Dhaka
witnessed the surrender of the west Pakistan
Pakistan
forces by Bangladesh- India
India
Allied Forces on 16 December 1971 with the surrender of Pakistan
Pakistan
.

AFTER INDEPENDENCE

The post-independence period witnessed rapid growth as Dhaka attracted migrant workers from across rural Bangladesh. In August 1975, Sheikh Mujib was assassinated in an internal coup d'état. There were further chaos and uprisings in November 1975. An actual military coup was undertaken on 24thMarch 1982 by the sitting Army chief of staff. In the 1980s, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
pioneered the formation of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and hosted its first summit in Dhaka. A mass uprising in 1990 led to the removal of then Indian backed government and the return of parliamentary democracy . In the 1990s and 2000s, Dhaka
Dhaka
experienced improved economic growth and the emergence of affluent business districts and satellite towns.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Geography of Bangladesh
Bangladesh

TOPOGRAPHY

View of Dhaka
Dhaka
from the International Space Station
International Space Station

Dhaka
Dhaka
is located in central Bangladesh
Bangladesh
at 23°42′N 90°22′E / 23.700°N 90.367°E / 23.700; 90.367 , on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River. The city lies on the lower reaches of the Ganges Delta and covers a total area of 306.38 square kilometres (118.29 sq mi). Tropical vegetation and moist soils characterize the land, which is flat and close to sea level. This leaves Dhaka
Dhaka
susceptible to flooding during the monsoon seasons owing to heavy rainfall and cyclones . Dhaka District is bounded by the districts of Gazipur
Gazipur
, Tangail
Tangail
, Munshiganj , Rajbari , Narayanganj , Manikganj
Manikganj
.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Dhaka

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Dhaka
Dhaka
has a tropical savanna climate . The city has a distinct monsoonal season, with an annual average temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and monthly means varying between 19 °C (66 °F) in January and 29 °C (84 °F) in May. Approximately 87% of the annual average rainfall of 2,123 millimetres (83.6 inches) occurs between May and October. Increasing air and water pollution emanating from traffic congestion and industrial waste are serious problems affecting public health and the quality of life in the city. Water bodies and wetlands around Dhaka
Dhaka
are facing destruction as these are being filled up to construct multi-storied buildings and other real estate developments. Coupled with pollution, such erosion of natural habitats threatens to destroy much of the regional biodiversity.

CLIMATE DATA FOR DHAKA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 31.1 (88) 34.4 (93.9) 40.6 (105.1) 42.2 (108) 41.1 (106) 36.7 (98.1) 35.0 (95) 36.1 (97) 36.7 (98.1) 37.2 (99) 34.4 (93.9) 30.6 (87.1) 42.2 (108)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 25.4 (77.7) 28.1 (82.6) 32.5 (90.5) 33.7 (92.7) 32.9 (91.2) 32.1 (89.8) 31.4 (88.5) 31.6 (88.9) 31.6 (88.9) 31.6 (88.9) 29.6 (85.3) 26.4 (79.5) 30.6 (87.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 19.1 (66.4) 21.8 (71.2) 26.5 (79.7) 28.7 (83.7) 28.7 (83.7) 29.1 (84.4) 28.8 (83.8) 29.0 (84.2) 28.8 (83.8) 27.7 (81.9) 24.4 (75.9) 20.3 (68.5) 26.1 (79)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 12.7 (54.9) 15.5 (59.9) 20.4 (68.7) 23.6 (74.5) 24.5 (76.1) 26.1 (79) 26.2 (79.2) 26.3 (79.3) 25.9 (78.6) 23.8 (74.8) 19.2 (66.6) 14.1 (57.4) 21.5 (70.7)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 6.7 (44.1) 10.6 (51.1) 16.7 (62.1) 14.4 (57.9) 19.4 (66.9) 21.1 (70) 21.7 (71.1) 21.1 (70) 17.2 (63) 11.1 (52) 7.2 (45) 6.1 (43)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 7.7 (0.303) 28.9 (1.138) 65.8 (2.591) 156.3 (6.154) 339.4 (13.362) 340.4 (13.402) 373.1 (14.689) 316.5 (12.461) 300.4 (11.827) 172.3 (6.783) 34.4 (1.354) 12.8 (0.504) 2,148 (84.567)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 1 1 3 6 11 16 12 16 12 7 1 0 86

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 46 37 38 42 59 72 72 74 71 65 53 50 57

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 279 226 217 180 155 90 62 62 90 186 240 279 2,066

Source #1: Weatherbase (normals, 30 yr period)

Source #2: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (extremes), BBC Weather (humidity and sun)

PARKS AND GREENERY

There are many parks within Dhaka
Dhaka
city, including Ramna Park , Suhrawardy Udyan , Shishu Park , National Botanical Garden , Baldha Garden , Chandrima Uddan , Gulshan Park and Dhaka Zoo . There are lakes within city, such as Crescent lake, Dhanmondi lake, Baridhara -Gulshan lake, Banani lake, Uttara lake and Hatirjheel-Begunbari lake.

Hatirjheel-Begunbari, which was once a slum area, has turned into a new place of recreation for city dwellers. Hatirjheel covering 320 acres (129 ha) is transformed into a place of festivity at night but with serenity settling down. However, the parks and the recreation places are often crowded and lacks security and cleanliness aspects, which is yet one of the big issues.

*

Three Leaders Mausoleum , Suhrawardy Udyan, Shahbag *

Baldha Garden, Old Dhaka *

Crescent Lake, Parliament District *

Khawja Hafizullah Obelisk
Obelisk
in Bahadur Shah Park

GOVERNMENT

CAPITAL CITY

National Parliament House

As the capital of the People\'s Republic of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Dhaka
Dhaka
is the home to numerous state and diplomatic institutions. The Bangabhaban
Bangabhaban
is the official residence and workplace of the President of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, who is the ceremonial head of state under the constitution . The National Parliament House is located in the modernist capital complex designed by Louis Kahn in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar . The Gonobhaban , the official residence of the Prime Minister , is situated on the north side of Parliament. The Prime Minister\'s Office is located in Tejgaon. Most ministries of the Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are housed in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Secretariat. The Supreme Court , the Dhaka
Dhaka
High Court and the Foreign Ministry are located in the Ramna area. The Defence Ministry and the Ministry of Planning are located in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. The Armed Forces Division of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Government and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Armed Forces headquarters are located in Dhaka
Dhaka
Cantonment. Several important installations of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Army are also situated in Dhaka
Dhaka
and Mirpur Cantonments. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Navy 's principal administrative and logistics base BNS Haji Mohshin is located in Dhaka. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Air Force maintains the BAF Bangabandhu Air Base and BAF Khademul Bashar Air Base in Dhaka.

Dhaka
Dhaka
hosts 54 resident embassies and high commissions and numerous international organizations . Most diplomatic missions are located in Gulshan and Baridhara area of the city. The Agargaon area near Parliament is home to the country offices of the United Nations, the World Bank
World Bank
, the Asian Development Bank and the Islamic
Islamic
Development Bank .

CIVIC ADMINISTRATION

_ Nagar Bhaban

* Dhaka
Dhaka
City Corporation is a self-governing corporation which runs the affairs of the city. Dhaka
Dhaka
municipality was founded on 1 August 1864, and upgraded to "Metropolitan " status in 1978. In 1983 City Corporation was created to govern Dhaka. Under new act in 1993, election was held in 1994 for the first elected Mayor of Dhaka. In 2011, Dhaka
Dhaka
City Corporation was split into two separate corporations – Dhaka
Dhaka
North City Corporation and Dhaka
Dhaka
South City Corporation for ensuring better civic facilities. These two corporations are headed by two two mayor, who are elected by direct vote of the citizen for a 5-year period. Area within city corporations divided into several wards, which each have an elected commissioner. In total the city has 130 wards and 725 mohallas _. * RAJUK is responsible for coordinating urban development in Greater Dhaka
Dhaka
area. * DMP is responsible for maintaining law "> City Centre – currently the tallest building of Bangladesh, at Motijheel business district in Dhaka
Dhaka
Jamuna Future Park at Kuril, Baridhara in Dhaka, which is the largest shopping mall in South Asia

Dhaka
Dhaka
is the economic and business center of the country. The city's diverse economy registered a gross municipal GDP of US$128 billion (PPP) in 2017. Dhaka
Dhaka
is one of the fastest growing startup hubs in the world. The city is the seat of the country's central bank Bangladesh Bank and the Dhaka Stock Exchange
Dhaka Stock Exchange
. It has one of the largest concentrations of multinational companies in South Asia. Motijheel "> The city has a growing middle class, driving the market for modern consumer and luxury goods. Restaurants
Restaurants
, shopping malls and luxury hotels continue to serve as vital elements in the city's economy. The city has historically attracted numerous migrant workers. Hawkers , peddlers, small shops, rickshaw transport, roadside vendors and stalls employ a large segment of the population – rickshaw-drivers alone number as many as 400,000. Half the workforce is employed in household and unorganised labour, while about 800,000 work in the textile industry. The unemployment rate in Dhaka
Dhaka
was 23% in 2013. The city has a per-capita income of US$4.600 (middle among the world's megacities); and an estimated 29% of households live below the poverty line. Dhaka
Dhaka
tremendously improved challenges of congestion and inadequate infrastructure. To fight rising traffic congestion and population, the national government has recently implemented a policy for rapid urbanization of surrounding areas and beyond by the introduction of a ten-year relief on income tax for new construction of facilities and buildings outside Dhaka.

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Play media NASA animation showing the urban growth of Dhaka
Dhaka
from 1972 to 2001.

The city, in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to over 15 million as of 2013 . The population is growing by an estimated 4.2% per year, one of the highest rates amongst the Asian cities. The continuing growth reflects ongoing migration from rural areas to the Dhaka
Dhaka
urban region, which accounted for 60% of the city's growth in the 1960s and 1970s. More recently, the city's population has also grown with the expansion of city boundaries, a process that added more than a million people to the city in the 1980s. According to the Far Eastern Economic Review , Dhaka
Dhaka
will be home to 25 million people by the end of 2025. Baitul Mukarram National Mosque Dhakeshwari
Dhakeshwari
National Temple St. Mary\'s Cathedral, Dhaka
Dhaka

The literacy rate in Dhaka
Dhaka
is also increasing quickly. It was estimated at 69.2% in 2001. The literacy rate had gone up to 74.6% by 2011 which is significantly higher than the national average of 51.77%.

The city population is composed of people from virtually every region of Bangladesh. The long-standing inhabitants of the old city are known as _Dhakaia_ and have a distinctive dialect and culture. Between 15,000 and 20,000 of the Rohingya , Santal , Khasi , Garo , Chakma and Mandi tribal peoples reside in the city. Dhaka
Dhaka
also has a large population of European, Chinese , Korean, Indian , Pakistani, Nepali , Burmese and Sri Lankan expatriates working in executive jobs in different industries. Dhaka
Dhaka
is also home to over 300,000 Bihari refugees, who are descendants of migrant Muslims
Muslims
from eastern India during 1947 and settled down in East Pakistan. The correct population is ambiguous; although official figures estimate at least 40,000 residents, it is estimated that there are at least 300,000 Urdu-speakers in all of Bangladesh, mostly residing in refugee camps in Dhaka.

Bengali , the national language, is spoken by the predominant majority population of Dhaka. English is the principal second language and widely spoken by educated peoples. There is a minority Urdu -speaking population from India
India
and Pakistan. Islam is the dominant religion of the city, with 90% of the population being Muslim, and a majority belonging to the Sunni
Sunni
sect. There is also a small Shia sect, and an Ahmadiya community. Hinduism is the second-largest religion and comprises 8.2% of the population. Smaller segments practice Christianity and Buddhism . The city also has Ismaili , Sikh
Sikh
, Hrishi "> The Central Shaheed Minar on Language Movement Day

As the most populous city of Bangladesh, Dhaka
Dhaka
has a vibrant cultural life. Annual celebrations for Independence Day (26 March), Language Martyrs\' Day (21 February) and Victory Day (16 December) are prominently celebrated across the city. Dhaka's people congregate at the Shaheed Minar and the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho to remember the national heroes of the liberation war. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies and rallies in public grounds. Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals and concerts in which citizens from all levels of society participate.

_ Pohela Baishakh _, the Bengali New Year, falls annually on 14 April and is popularly celebrated across the city. Large crowds of people gather on the streets of Shahbag, Ramna Park and the campus of the University of Dhaka
University of Dhaka
for celebrations. Pahela Falgun (Bengali : পহেলা ফাল্গুন , first day of Spring of Bengali month Falgun , of the Bengali calendar , also celebrated in the city in a festive manner. This day is marked with colourful celebration and traditionally, women wear yellow saris to celebrate this day. This celebration is also known as _Basanta Utsab_ (Bengali : বসন্ত উৎসব ; _Spring Festival_). Nabanna is a celebration for harvest, usually celebrated with food and dance and music on the 1st day of the month of Agrahayan of Bengali year. Birthdays of Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam are observed respectively as Rabindra Jayanti and Nazrul Jayanti . Ekushey Book Fair , which is arranged each year by Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy
and takes place for the whole month of February. This event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan
East Pakistan
.

Muslim
Muslim
festivals of Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
, Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
, Eid-E-Miladunnabi and Muharram
Muharram
; Hindu festivals of Durga Puja
Durga Puja
, Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima ; and Christian festival of Christmas
Christmas
witness widespread celebrations across the city. Bengali New Year celebrations

The most popular dressing style for women are _sarees _ or _salwar kameez _, while men usually prefer western clothing to the traditional _lungi _ with Panjabi . Jamdani saree of Dhaka
Dhaka
is part of its cultural heritage, originate from the Mughal era . Jamdani sarees are 100% hand weaved and a single saree may take as long as 3 months to complete.

Despite the growing popularity of music groups and rock bands, traditional folk music remains widely popular. The works of the national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and national anthem writer Rabindranath Tagore have a widespread following across Dhaka. The Baily Road area is known as _Natak Para_ (Theatre Neighbourhood) which is the center of Dhaka's thriving theatre movement. Indian and Western music and films are popular with large segments of Dhaka's population.

For much of recent history, Dhaka
Dhaka
was characterized by roadside markets and small shops that sold a wide variety of goods. Recent years have seen the widespread construction of shopping malls. Two of the largest shopping malls in Dhaka
Dhaka
and perhaps in the Indian subcontinent are Jamuna Future Park and Bashundhara City shopping mall.

CUISINES

See also: Bangladeshi cuisine
Bangladeshi cuisine
FUCHKA/ফুচকা- a popular street food of Dhaka
Dhaka

Dhaka
Dhaka
is reputed for its unique traditional festivities and food delicacies from way back. It hosts a wide-ranging menu of distinctive dishes many of which were introduced during the regime of Sultani and Mughal Period. Due to different ruling periods, the cuisine of Dhaka is versatile and with a rich culinary tradition.

Like other parts of the country, everyday meals generally include plain steamed rice as staple food with fish, meat, vegetable curries and lentil soup is common accompaniment. Plain rice is often replaced by roti or parata. Curry
Curry
is the most popular style of preparing dishes.

But Old Dhaka area has its own unique food tradition, known as DHAKAIYA FOOD. Old Dhaka is famous for its _Morog (Chicken) Pulao _, its different from traditional biriyani by using both tumeric and _malai _ or cream of milk together. Famous dishes of Old Dhaka are kebabs, naans, bakharkhani, kachchi and pakki biriyani, haleem, mutton bhuni kichuri, mutton tehari etc. Dhakai Bakarkhani is the traditional food or snack of the people of old Dhaka. It is famous for its quality and taste and it was highly praised by the royal court of the Mughal Empire in Delhi
Delhi
. Along with Bangladeshi cuisine
Bangladeshi cuisine
and South Asian variants , a large variety of Western and Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine
is served at numerous restaurants and eateries. Often many restaurants customize fusion dishes which blends foreign and local cuisines to meet local taste. Local and international fast food shops and chains serve burgers, fries and other readily available foods. Street foods like _Burhani_, _ Lassi _ and _ Phuchka _ are highly popular among locals and tourists. fast-food chains like A"> View of Lalbagh Fort

Dhaka
Dhaka
is home to over 2000 buildings built between the 16th and 19th centuries, which form an integral part of Dhaka's cultural heritage. Such as Binat Bibi Mosque , Lalbagh Fort , Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil
, Tara Mosque , Chawk Mosque , Hussaini Dalan , Armenian Church , Curzon Hall , Dhaka Gate , Dhanmondi Shahi Eidgah , Rose Garden Palace , Choto Katra , Bara Katra , Dhakeshwari
Dhakeshwari
Temple , Swami Bagh Temple , Ramna Kali Mandir , Holy Rosary Church , Pogose School . There are still many colonial buildings at Dhaka Sadarghat , Armanitola , Farashganj areas of Old Dhaka . Binat Bibi Mosque was built in 1454 at Narinda area of Dhaka
Dhaka
during the reign of the Sultan of Bengal, Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (r. 1435 – 1459), which is the oldest brick structure that still exists in the city. Important landmark buildings constructed during British rule include Old Highcourt building, Bangabhaban
Bangabhaban
, Curzon Hall and Mitford Hospital . Independence Monument

Architect Louis I Kahn 's acclaimed modernist National Capital Complex , based on the geography and heritage of Bengal, was inaugurated in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1982 as one of the largest legislative complexes in the world, comprising 200 acres (800,000 m²). Designed by American architect Robert Boughey , Kamalapur railway station is another architectural marvel, which was constructed in the early 1960's and started its operation from 1969. Independence Monument (Bengali : স্বাধীনতা স্তম্ভ) is a new landmark, which was built to commemorate the historical events that took place in the Suhrawardy Udyan during the Liberation War of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
.

There are many museums in the city. Such as Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil
, Bangladesh National Museum , Museum of Independence , Liberation War Museum
Liberation War Museum
, National Museum of Science and Technology (Bangladesh) , Bangabandhu Memorial Museum etc.

MEDIA

Dhaka
Dhaka
is also the press, media and entertainment center of Bangladesh. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Betar is the state-run primary provider of radio services, and broadcasts a variety of programming in Bengali and English. Radio transmission started in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 16 December 1939. In recent years many private radio networks , especially FM radio services, have been established in the city such as Radio Foorti FM 88.0, Radio Aamar FM 88.4, ABC Radio FM 89.2, Radio Today FM 89.6, DhakaFM 90.4 , Peoples Radio 91.6 FM , Radio Bhumi FM 92.8, City FM 96.0 etc. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Television is the state-run broadcasting network that provides a wide variety of programmes in Bengali and English. It started broadcasting on 25 December 1964. It also operates a sister channel _BTV World_ since 2004. Sangsad Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is another government-owned TV channel that broadcasts parliamentary activity of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
since 25 January 2011. Cable and satellite networks such as ATN Bangla , ATN News , Banglavision , Channel i , Channel 9 , Ekushey Television , Gaan Bangla , Gazi Television , Independent TV , NTV , RTV and Somoy TV
Somoy TV
are amongst the most popular channels. The main offices of most publishing houses in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are based in Dhaka. Dhaka
Dhaka
is home to the largest Bangladeshi newspapers , including the leading Bengali dailies _ Prothom Alo _, _Ittefaq _, _ Inqilab _, _ Janakantha _, _ Amar Desh _ and _ Jugantor _. The leading English-language newspapers include _The Daily Star _, _ Dhaka
Dhaka
Tribune _, _The Financial Express _, _The Independent _ and _New Age _.

EDUCATION

See also: Education in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Curzon Hall in the University of Dhaka
Dhaka

Dhaka
Dhaka
has the largest number of schools, colleges and universities of any Bangladeshi city. The education system is divided into 5 levels: Primary (from grades 1 to 6), Junior (from grades 6 to 8), Secondary (from grades 9 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary. The five years of Primary education concludes with a Primary School Completion (PSC) Examination, the three years of Junior education concludes with Junior School Certificate (JSC) Examination, and next two years of Secondary education concludes with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) Examination. Education is mainly offered in Bengali , but English is also widely taught and used. Many Muslim
Muslim
families send their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time religious education alongside other subjects, which is imparted in Bengali and Arabic in schools , colleges and madrasas . Civil Engineering Building of BUET

There are 52 universities in Dhaka. Dhaka College is the oldest institution for higher education in the city and among the earliest established in British India
British India
, founded in 1841. Since independence, Dhaka
Dhaka
has seen the establishment of numerous public and private colleges and universities that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees as well as a variety of doctoral programmes. University of Dhaka
Dhaka
is the oldest public university in the country which has more than 30,000 students and 1,800 faculty staff. It was established in 1921 being the first university in the region . The university has 23 research centers and 70 departments, faculties and institutes. Eminent seats of higher education include Bangladesh
Bangladesh
University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Jagannath University and Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural
Agricultural
University . Dhaka
Dhaka
Medical College and Sir Salimullah Medical College are two of the best medical colleges in the nation. Founded in 1875, DHAKA MEDICAL SCHOOL was the first medical school in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(then British East Bengal), which became Sir Salimullah Medical College in 1962. Other government medical colleges are Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and Armed Forces Medical College, Dhaka
Dhaka
. A block of BSMMU in Dhaka
Dhaka

Alongside public institutes of higher education there are some forty-five private universities in Dhaka. Notable private universities are North South University , East West University , University of Asia Pacific , American International University – Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, BRAC University , Primeasia University
Primeasia University
, United International University and Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology _(see:List of universities in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
)_, most of which are located in Mohakhali, Gulshan, Banani, Baridhara, Bashundhara, Uttara and Dhanmondi areas of the city.

The British Council plays an important role helping students to achieve GCSE and A Level qualifications from examination boards in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. This is in addition to holding several examinations for professional bodies in the United Kingdom, including the UK medical Royal Colleges and Accountancy.

SPORTS

Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , Mirpur

Cricket
Cricket
and football are the two most popular sports in Dhaka
Dhaka
and across the nation. Teams are fielded in intra-city and national competitions by many schools, colleges and private entities. The Mohammedan Sporting Club and Abahani are two of the most famous football and cricket teams, maintaining a fierce rivalry, especially in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Football Premier League . Dhaka
Dhaka
Metropolis cricket team represents Dhaka
Dhaka
city in the National Cricket
Cricket
League , a region-based domestic first-class cricket competition in Bangladesh. Dhaka
Dhaka
Premier League is the only domestic List A cricket tournament now in Bangladesh. It gained List A status in 2013–14 season . In domestic Twenty20
Twenty20
cricket, Dhaka
Dhaka
has a BPL franchise known as Dhaka Dynamites .

Dhaka
Dhaka
has the distinction of having hosted the first official Test cricket match of the Pakistan
Pakistan
cricket team in 1954 against India. The Bangabandhu National Stadium was formerly the main venue for domestic and international cricket matches, but now exclusively hosts football matches. It was used during Pakistan
Pakistan
colonial era for Test matches when no Bengalis were selected in team and a matting pitch was used. It hosted the opening ceremony of the 2011 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup while the Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium , exclusively used for cricket, hosted 6 matches of the tournament including two quarter-final matches. Dhaka
Dhaka
has also hosted the South Asian Games three times, in 1985 , 1993 and 2010 . Dhaka
Dhaka
is the first city to host the games three times. The Bangabandhu National Stadium was the main venue for all three editions. Dhaka
Dhaka
also hosted the ICC World Twenty20
Twenty20
, along with Chittagong
Chittagong
and Sylhet
Sylhet
, in 2014 .

The National Sports Council , responsible for promoting sports activities across the nation, is based in Dhaka. Dhaka
Dhaka
also has stadiums largely used for domestic events such as the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Army Stadium , the Bir Sherestha Shaheed Shipahi Mostafa Kamal Stadium , the Dhanmondi Cricket
Cricket
Stadium and the Outer Stadium Ground . The Dhaka University Ground and the BUET Sports Ground host many intercollegiate tournaments. They are also used as practice ground by different football clubs and visiting foreign national football teams.

There are two golf courses in Dhaka. One is situated at Army Golf Club and another is situated at Kurmitola Golf Club .

TRANSPORT

See also: Dhaka Metro Rail

ROAD

Cycle rickshaws are the most popular mode of transport in Dhaka
Dhaka
Double-decker bus of BRTC

Dhaka
Dhaka
is connected to the other parts of the country through highway and railway links. Five of the eight major national highways of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
start from the city. They are- N1 , N2 , N3 , N5 and N8 . Dhaka
Dhaka
is also directly connected to two longest routes of Asian Highway Network - AH1
AH1
and AH2 , as well as to AH41 route. Highway links to the Indian cities of Kolkata
Kolkata
, Agartala , Guwahati
Guwahati
and Shillong
Shillong
have been established by the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) and private bus companies which also run regular international bus services to those cities from Dhaka. An elevated expressway system is under construction. The Dhaka
Dhaka
Elevated Expressway would run from Shahjalal International Airport-Kuril-Banani-Mohakhali-Tejgaon-Saatrasta-Moghbazar Rail Crossing-Khilgaon-Kamalapur-Golapbagh to Dhaka- Chittagong
Chittagong
Highway at Kutubkhali Point. A longer second elevated expressway from Airport-Ashulia is currently undergoing feasibility study. There are 3 inter-district bus terminals in Dhaka, which are located at Mohakhali, Saidabad and Gabtoli area of the city.

Dhaka
Dhaka
suffers one of the worst traffic congestion in the world. Till date, the city lacks an organized public transport system. Construction of MRT and a BRT is currently going on to solve the problem. Cycle rickshaws and auto rickshaws are the main mode of transport within metro area, with close to 400,000 rickshaws running each day – the largest number for any city in the world. However, only about 85,000 rickshaws are licensed by the city government. Relatively low-cost and non-polluting cycle rickshaws, nevertheless, cause traffic congestion and have been banned from many parts of the city. The government has overseen the replacement of two-stroke engine auto rickshaws with "Green auto-rickshaws" locally called _CNG auto-rickshaw_ or _Baby-taxi_, which run on compressed natural gas .

Public buses are operated by the state-run Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) and by numerous private companies and operators. Scooters , taxis and privately owned cars are rapidly becoming popular with the city's growing middle class.Limited numbers of Taxis are available. It is planned to raise the total number of taxis to 18,000 gradually. Uber has started mobile app based taxi service in the city.

AIR

Runway
Runway
and apron area of the Shahjalal International Airport

Shahjalal International Airport (IATA : DAC, ICAO : VGHS), located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Dhaka
Dhaka
city center, is the largest and busiest international airport in the nation. The airport has an area of 1,981 acres (802 ha). The airport has a capacity of handling 15 million passengers annually, and is predicted by the Civil Aviation Authority, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to be enough until 2026. In 2014, it handled 6.1 million passengers, and 248,000 tonnes of cargo. Average aircraft movement per day is around 190 flights. It is the hub of all Bangladeshi airlines . Domestic service flies to Chittagong, Sylhet, Rajshahi
Rajshahi
, Cox\'s Bazar , Jessore , Barisal , Saidpur and international services fly to major cities in Asia, Europe and the Middle East.

RAIL

Night view of Kamalapur railway station

Kamalapur railway station is the largest and busiest among the railway stations in the city. Designed by American architect Robert Boughey , the railway station situated in the north-east side of Motijheel , was established in the early 1960s and started its operation from 1969. The station is the largest in the country and also one of the most modern and striking buildings in Dhaka. The state-owned Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Railway provides suburban and national services, and the Maitree Express international service to Kolkata
Kolkata
. Regular express train services connect Dhaka
Dhaka
with major cities of Chittagong
Chittagong
, Rajshahi
Rajshahi
, Khulna
Khulna
, Sylhet
Sylhet
and Rangpur .

In 2013, suburban services to Narayanganj and Gazipur
Gazipur
were upgraded using diesel electric multiple unit trains.

The Dhaka Metro Rail feasibility study has been completed. A 21.5 kilometres (13.4 mi), $1.7 Billion Phase 1, metro route is being negotiated by the Government with Japan
Japan
International Cooperation Agency . The first route will start from Uttara, northern suburb of Dhaka
Dhaka
to Sayedabad, southern section of Dhaka. The route consists of 16 elevated stations each of 180m long. Construction began on 26 June 2016.

WATERWAYS

The Sadarghat River Port on the banks of the Buriganga River serves for the transport of goods and passengers upriver and to other ports in Bangladesh. Inter-city and inter-district motor vessels and passenger-ferry services are used by many people to travel riverine regions of the country from the city. Water bus services are available on Buriganga River and Hatirjheel and Gulshan lakes. Water buses of Buriganga River ferry passengers on Sadarghat to Gabtali route. Water taxis in Hatirjheel and Gulshan lakes provide connectivity via two routes, one route between Tejgaon and Gulshan, another route between Tejgaon and Rampura areas.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Venice
Venice
, Italy
Italy
since 2004

SEE ALSO

* Dhaka
Dhaka
portal

* List of cities and towns in Bangladesh * List of tallest buildings in Dhaka
List of tallest buildings in Dhaka
* World\'s largest cities

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FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of the history of Dhaka
Dhaka

* Sharuf Uddin Ahmed, ed. (1991). _ Dhaka
Dhaka
-past present future_. The Asiatic Society, Dhaka. ISBN 984-512-335-X . * Karim, Abdul (1992). _History of Bengal, Mughal Period (I)_. Rajshahi. * Pryer, Jane (2003). _Poverty and Vulnerability in Dhaka
Dhaka
Slums: The Urban Livelihood Study_. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-1864-1 . OCLC 123337526 OCLC
OCLC
243482310 OCLC
OCLC
50334244 OCLC
OCLC
50939515 . * Rabbani, Golam (1997). _Dhaka, from Mughal outpost to metropolis_. University Press, Dhaka. ISBN 984-05-1374-5 . * Sarkar, Sir Jadunath (1948). _ History of Bengal (II)_. Dhaka. * Taifoor, S.M. (1956). _Glimpses of Old Dacca_. Dhaka.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to DHAKA _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for DHAKA _.

* Capital Development Authority * Dhaka
Dhaka
North City Corporation * Dhaka
Dhaka
South City

.